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Description

University of Oklahoma

Certified Flight Instructor Everything you need to know Matthew Johnson

Notebook

From the Author:

This is my hard work I have hand typed throughout the semester

This is for the course at OU and may vary for other people

I did everything in this,

I used others to aid me in format,

When working on this book the thing I really needed was a guide,

and that is what this is to be used as for those who wish to use it

Use of this book is to be used only as an aid and not as a primary source of information

Not included are about 50 or so hand drawn pictures to go with it

I formatted this to have my lesson plan first and then condensed notes afterward,

this way I can have a quick reference to help me collect my thoughts or if I stumble

This is tailored to me,

so it may contain things others don’t deem necessary while for others it may not contain everything they would like to see

This is for ASEL

CFI Binder Hayes Maddox Oklahoma State University Fall 2013

Table of Contents

Area of Operations I

Fundamentals of Instruction A

The Learning Process B

Human Behavior and Effective Communication C

The Teaching Process D

Teaching Methods E

Critique and Evaluation F

Flight Instructor Characteristics and Responsibility G

Planning an Instructional Activity FOI Study Guide (acronyms) Technical Subject Areas A

Aeromedical Factors B

Visual Scanning and Collision Avoidance C

Principles of Flight D

Airplane Flight Controls E

Airplane Weight and Balance F

Navigation and Flight Planning G

Night Operations H

High Altitude Operations I

Federal Aviation Regulations J

National Airspace System K

Navigation systems and Radar Services L

Logbook Entries and Certificate Endorsements Preflight Preparation A

Certificates and Documents B

Weather Information C

Operation Systems D

Performance and Limitations E

Airworthiness Requirements Preflight Lesson on a Maneuver to be Performed in Flight A

Maneuver Lesson Preflight Procedures A

Preflight Inspection B

Single Pilot Crew Resource Management C

Engine Starting D

Taxiing Landplane E

Before Takeoff Check Airport and Seaplane Base Operations A

Radio Communications and ATC Light Signals B

Traffic Patterns C

Airport/Seaplane Base,

Runway and Taxiway Signs,

Markings,

Landings,

Normal and Crosswind Takeoff and Climb B

Short Field Take and Maximum Performance Climb C

Soft Field Takeoff and Climb D

Glassy Water Takeoff and Climb (not covered) E

Rough Water Takeoff and Climb (not covered) F

Normal and Crosswind Approach and Landing G

Slip to a Landing H

Go Around/Rejected Landing I

Short Field Approach and Landing J

Soft Field Approach and Landing K

Power Off 180o Accuracy Approach and Landing

Glassy Water Approach and Landing (not covered) M

Rough Water Approach and Landing (not covered) VIII

Fundamentals of Flight A

Straight and Level Flight B

Level Turns C

Straight Climbs and Climbing Turns D

Straight Descents and Descending Turns IX

Performance Maneuvers A

Steep Turns B

Steep Spirals C

Chandelles D

Lazy Eights X

Ground Reference Maneuvers A

Rectangular Course B

S Turns Across a Road C

Turns Around a Point D

Eights on Pylons XI

Slow Flight,

Stalls,

Maneuvering During Slow Flight B

Power On Stalls C

Power Off Stalls D

Crossed Control Stalls E

Elevator Trim Stalls F

Secondary Stalls G

Spins H

Accelerated Maneuver Stalls XII

Basic Instrument Maneuvers A

Straight and Level Flight B

Constant Airspeed Climbs C

Constant Airspeed Descents D

Turns to Headings E

Recovery from Unusual Flight Attitudes XIII

Emergency Operations A

Emergency Approach and Landing B

Systems and Equipment Malfunctions C

Emergency Equipment and Survival Gear D

Emergency Descent XIV

Postflight Procedures A

Postflight Procedures

Area of Operations I: Fundamentals of Instructing Task A: The Learning Process Objective: To determine the applicant exhibits instructional knowledge of the elements of the learning process by describing: 1

Learning Theory 2

Characteristics of Learning 3

Principles of Learning 4

Levels of Learning 5

Learning Physical Skills 6

Memory 7

Transfer of Learning 8

How People Learn Task B: Human Behavior and Effective Communication Objective: To determine the applicant exhibits instructional knowledge of the elements of the teaching process by describing: 1

Human Behavior a

Control of Human Behavior b

Human Needs c

Defense Mechanisms d

The flight instructor as a practical Psychologist 2

Effective Communication – a

Basic elements of communication b

Barriers of Effective Communication c

Developing Communication Skills Task C: The Teaching Process Objective: To determine the applicant exhibits instructional knowledge of the elements of the teaching process by describing: 1

Preparation of a lesson for a ground or flight instructional period 2

Presentation Methods 3

Application,

of the material or procedure presented 4

Review and evaluation of student performance Task D: Teaching Methods Objective: To determine the applicant exhibits instructional knowledge of the elements of the teaching process by describing: 1

Material Organization 2

The Lecture Method 3

The Cooperative or Group Learning Method 4

The Guided Discussion Method 5

The Demonstration Performance Method 6

Computer Based training Method 7

Scenario Based Training

Task E: Critique and Evaluation Objective: To determine the applicant exhibits instructional knowledge of the elements of critique and evaluation by describing: 1

Critique – a

Purpose and characteristics of an effective critique

Methods and ground rules for a critique 2

Evaluation – a

Characteristics of effective oral questions and what types to avoid b

Responses to student questions c

Characteristics and development of effective written questions d

Characteristics and uses or performance test,

the FAA practical test Standards Task F: Flight Instructor Characteristics and Responsibilities Objective: To determine the applicant exhibits instructional knowledge of the elements of flight instructor characteristics and responsibilities by describing: 1

Aviation Instructor Responsibilities in – a

Providing adequate instruction b

Establishing standards of performance c

Emphasizing the positive 2

Flight Instructor Responsibilities in – a

Providing student pilot evaluation and supervision b

Preparing test recommendation and endorsements c

Determining requirements for conducting additional training and endorsement requirements 3

Professionalism as an instructor by – a

Explaining important personal characteristics b

Describing methods to minimize student frustration Task G: Planning an Instructional Activity Objective: To determine the applicant exhibits instructional knowledge of the elements of planning instructional activity by describing: 1

Developing objectives and standards for a course of training 2

Theory of building blocks of learning 3

Requirements for developing a training syllabus 4

Purpose and characteristics of a lesson plan

The Learning Process Lesson Plan Learning – a permanent change in behavior,

and feels as a result of experience

Learning Theory – B C [IP SI] C a

Behavioral b

Cognitive – i

Information Processing Theory ii

Social Interaction c

Combined – using the best of both 2

Characters of Learning – RAMP a

Result of Experience b

Active Process c

Multifaceted d

Purposeful 3

Principles of Learning – REEPIR (sometimes referred to as the Laws of Learning) a

Readiness b

Exercise c

Effect d

Primacy e

Intensity f

Recency 4

Levels of Learning RUAC a

Understanding c

Application d

Correlation 5

Learning Physical Skills – DTL P PTS KOR LP EVC AOS a

Desire to Learn b

Patterns c

Perform the Skill d

Knowledge of Result e

Learning Plateau f

Evaluation vs

Critique g

Application of Critique h

Application of Skill 6

Memory – SR ST LT,

F: DIR,

R:PAASR a

Memory type i

Sensory Registry ii

Short Term Memory iii

Long Term Memory b

Forgetting i

Disuse ii

Interference iii

Repression c

Remembering i

Praise ii

Association iii

Attitude iv

Sense v

Repetition

Transfer of Learning – P,

PFT SOA OL M E SBT a

Positive i

Plan for Transfer ii

Seek Other Application iii

Over Learn iv

Materials v

Experience b

Negative 8

How People Learn – PIM PO BN GV SC TO EOT a

Perceptions i

Physical Organism ii

Basic Need iii

Goals and Values iv

Self Concept v

Time and Opportunity vi

Element of Threat b

Insight c

Motivation

The Learning Process Condensed Notes

Learning Theory Learning – a permanent change in behavior,

and feels as a result of experience i

Behaviorism – response to stimuli,

Needs to be reinforced by someone 1

Rewards and punishment system ii

Cognitive – focuses on what’s going on inside the mind 1

Information Processing Model – how we relate new knowledge to existing knowledge,

many habitual things we do go unnoticed 2

Social Interaction Model – learn by interacting with each other and our environment

Combined Approach – using the best of both,

and measure behavioral response b

Domains of Learning i

Cognitive – used for memorization 1

Recall information (facts) 2

Understand (how) 3

Application (how much) 4

Analyze 5

Synthesis 6

Evaluate ii

Affective – personal beliefs,

Awareness 2

Respond 3

Valuing 4

Organizing 5

Integration iii

Psychomotor – learning a physical skill 1

Observation 2

Imitation 3

Practice 4

Habit c

Perceptions – affects how people learn,

it is a result when a person gives meaning to sensations being experienced i

Sight – 75% ii

Hearing – 13% iii

Touch – 6% iv

Smell – 3% v

Taste – 3% Characteristics of Learning a

Purposeful – relate learning to a student’s goals b

Experience – learn by doing c

Multifaceted – incidental learning,

you can learn multiple things at once d

Active – you must participate and respond Principles of Learning a

Readiness – must want to learn b

Effect – strengthened when accompanied by a pleasant feeling c

Exercise – things repeated are most often remembered d

Primacy – must be taught right the first time e

Intensity – use real example and not substitutes f

Recency – things learned most recently are better remembered Levels of Learning a

Rote – repeating information,

Understanding – comprehend the nature of something

Application – using what you have learned

stalling the plane on purpose d

Correlation – associating what has been learned and applying it to previously learned material

recovering from inadvertent stalls Learning Physical Skills a

Follows three stages:

Cognitive stage – learns and does the steps to a skill ii

Associative stage – practice iii

Automatic stage – less attention is required b

Skill Acquisition i

Desire to learn – student has to want to learn ii

Evaluation vs

Critique – should be constructive,

pointing out the good and bad iii

Duration & Organization of Lesson – a student will lose interest if the lesson goes on for too long,

and the lesson should be organized in a way that is logical and promotes learning iv

Knowledge of results – student needs to know what happens and why v

Application of skill – use the skill that has been learned vi

Patterns to follow – provide clear step by step instructions vii

Perform the skill – learn by doing,

building muscle memory and the associated perception that go along with it viii

Progress follows a pattern – learning follows a pattern

Rapid learning followed by a learning plateau c

Practice i

Deliberate practice – focus on correcting mistakes ii

Blocked practice – repetition until it becomes automatic iii

Random Practice – mixes up the order of skills learned Memory – the ability to store and retrieve information a

Sensory Registry – receives and processes initial stimuli ii

Short Term memory – where information is stored briefly (about 30 sec) iii

Long term Memory – where information or events are kept for a lifetime

Not stored in order b

Forgetting – not able to retrieve information from the long term memory i

Disuse – not using it ii

Interference – something else is blocking it iii

Repression – the memory is placed into an inaccessible part of the mind c

Retention i

Praise – stimulates learning ii

Association – relate better to positive experiences iii

Attitude – people learn only what they wish to know iv

Senses – perception comes from our senses working together v

Repetition – aids recall Transfer of learning a

Positive – an experienced is transferred,

that a student can learn from i

Plan for transfer ii

Seek Other Application – relate it to other areas iii

Over learn – practice,

Materials – have everything you need handy v

Experience – learn by doing b

Negative – an undesirable experience is transferred How people Learn a

Perception i

Physical organism – sensing the world around you (yourself) ii

Basic Need – needs need to first be met iii

Goals and Values – how much something is sought after (spectators) iv

Self Concept – self image v

Time and Opportunity – experience through lengthening and frequency of the experience vi

Element of threat subtracts from learning b

Insight – perceptions put together in a meaningful way c

Motivation – need to want to learn

Human Behavior Lesson Plan

Human Behavior a

Control of human behavior VECSII i

Theory Y 1

Voluntary Work 2

Exercise Self direction 3

Commitment relates 4

Seeks Responsibility 5

Imagination & creativity 6

Intellectual Potential ii

Theory X b

Human needs PSSES i

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs c

Defense mechanism CPRDRFFRA i

Compensation ii

Projection iii

Rationalization iv

Denial of Reality v

Reaction Formation vi

Flight (fantasy) vii

Resignation viii

Aggression d

Flight instructor as a practical psychologist ASNA i

Anxiety ii

Stress 1

Normal reactions 2

Abnormal reactions 2

Effective Communication a

Basic elements of communication SSR i

Source ii

Symbols iii

Receiver b

Barriers of effective communication – LCE COAI i

Confusion ii

Abstractions iii

Lack of Common Experience iv

Interference c

Developing communication skills DLQ i

Developing ii

Listening iii

Questioning

Human Behavior Condensed Notes

Human Behavior a

Control of human behavior – student expects the instructor to control the environment i

Theory Y – people are generally good,

Voluntary Work – is natural,

will be sought after unless as a form of punishment 2

Exercise Self direction – people are committed and not lazy 3

Commitment relates – relates to the awards associated 4

Seeks Responsibility – and accept responsibility 5

Imagination & creativity – people are capable of using these to solve problems 6

Intellectual Potential – people have it but the majority goes unused ii

Theory X – people are generally lazy,

and need to be forced to do anything Human needs i

Physical – air,

Safety – need to feel safe iii

Social – sense of belonging and love iv

Egotistic – self esteem v

Self Fulfillment – have meaningfulness,

concerned about personal growth Defense mechanism – designed to protect organisms,

These can be helpful or harmful i

Compensation – shows a strength in another area to offset a perceived weakness ii

Projection – blames others for their failures iii

Rationalization – trying to justify actions that would otherwise be acceptable iv

Denial of Reality – refuse to admit the severity of an issue v

Reaction Formation – make a fake belief because the true belief causes too much anxiety vi

Flight (fantasy) – day dream to escape reality vii

Resignation – give up viii

Aggression – repress emotions,

become hostile Flight instructor as a practical psychologist i

Anxiety – most significant psychological factor,

Normal – respond more quickly than normal 2

Abnormal – doing things without reason or thought,

may signify a deeper problem ii

Stress 1

Normal – very sensitive to surroundings,

Abnormal – aggression,

inappropriate laughing or singing iii

Instructor Actions – while stress and anxiety may not always be bad,

if a student continually acts abnormally,

the instructor needs to evaluate if the student is capable pf performing tasks such as solo flight 7 ways to encourage student to learn i

Informed students – need to be aware of the progress they’re making ii

Motivate students – keep them encouraged iii

Admit errors – holds their respect for you,

sees that anyone can make a mistake iv

Credit when – inform the student when they do something well v

Consistency – be equal with how you deal with issues,

Constructive criticism – don’t dwell on the negative vii

Students as individuals – don’t treat them like everyone else in a crowd

Effective Communication a

Basic elements of communication i

Source – sender,

select the proper message and medium to send it in ii

Symbols – words or signs,

Receiver – listener or reader,

the one who the message is intended for Barriers of effective communication i

Confusion – word being confused for meaning ii

Abstractions – being too vague iii

Lack of Common Experience – greatest barrier,

using different terminology iv

Interference – physical environment,

emotions toward each other Developing communication skills i

Proper questioning – using proper questions,

a good way to understand how much the student knows ii

Proper listening – using proper listening skills iii

Instructional communication – make sure the desired response happens to your instruction iv

Instructional Enhancement – if you do not know,

Role Playing – pretend to be the student

The Teaching Process Lesson Plan

Preparation of a lesson OFGR a

Objective – for the following areas i

Cognitive ii

Affective iii

Facilities c

Goals d

Review 2

Presentation Method – L'DP GD a

Lecture Method b

Demonstration Method c

Guided Discussion 3

Application,

by the student of the material or procedure presented – UAPC a

Uses what has been learned b

Active c

Primary d

Critique 4

Review and Evaluation of Student Performance – EFI AOP TN SE CO RPL a

Evaluate Formally/Informally b

Aware of progress c

Take notes d

Students evaluation e

Clear objectives f

Review past Lessons

Performance based objectives a

Description b

Conditions c

Criteria standard

The Teaching Process Condensed Notes

Preparation of a lesson a

Preparation i

Objective – prepare for learning in the following areas: 1

Cognitive knowledge 2

Affective – attitudes,

Psychomotor – physical skills ii

Facilities – need to have the proper equipment and space for the instructional activity iii

Goals – cover what you need to for the lesson,

Review – allow time at the end to summarize the key points b

Presentation 1

Before the lesson – decide the amount of time you’ll spend on topics,

During the lesson – grab attention from the beginning,

After the lesson – summarize points,

be available outside of class ii

Lecture method – good for introducing new ideas 1

Advantages a

Good for addressing new material b

Large groups c

Most economical use of time 2

Disadvantages a

Hard to learn large amounts in a short time b

Hard to understand if the students have learned the material c

Hard to hold student’s attention d

Can’t learn motor skills iii

Demonstration method 1

Explanation phase – be clear,

based on the knowledge of students 2

Demonstration phase – perform the activity,

should conform to the explanation 3

Student performance and instructor supervision phase – student performs while the instructor supervises and coaches 4

Evaluation phase – judge the student performance iv

Guided Discussion – Instructor asks a question and the students have the discussion while the instructor controls where the discussion goes c

Application i

Uses what has been learned ii

Active iii

Primary iv

Critique d

Review and Evaluation i

Evaluate Formally – evaluation should be constructive ii

Aware of progress – keeps student frustrations down iii

Take Notes – allows to be referred to later iv

Student evaluation – lets the student know how they did v

Clear objectives – easier to see the expected outcome vi

Review past lessons – known to unknown

Teaching Methods Lesson Plan

Material Organization – IDC a

Introduction b

Development c

Conclusion 2

The Lecture Method – BFIT a

Briefing b

Formal c

Illustrated Talk d

Teaching lecture 3

The cooperative group learning method – small groups,

positive interdependence group will sink or swim on its own 4

The Guided discussion Method – LO F D'R a

Lead off question b

Follow up question c

Direct question d

Reverse question 5

The Demonstration Performance Method – E D'SI E a

Explanation Demonstration Student Performs & Instructor Supervises Evaluates 6

Computer based Training method – students can access info,

an aid only and should be relied on,

Scenario Based Learning i

Relates ii

Multiple answers iii

Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) c

Types of Problem Based Instruction 1

Scenario Based 2

Collaborative Problem Solving 3

Case Study

Teaching Methods Condensed Notes

Material Organization a

Introduction i

Attention – tell a joke,

Motivate – why is the lesson important iii

Overview – what is to be covered Development – main part,

Past to present ii

Simple to complex iii

Known to unknown iv

Most frequently used to least used Conclusion – wrap up

Lecture Method b

Formal ii

Informal 4 types of lecture i

Illustrated talk ii

Briefing iii

Formal lecture iv

Teaching lecture – you can receive direction either verbally or body language,

feedback is harder to interpret,

allows students to participate

Preparing a lecture – have examples,

Establish objectives ii

Research project iii

Organize material iv

Place classroom activities Types of delivery i

Read from document ii

Recite from memory iii

Speak from outline iv

Speak with no prep Advantages – uses time effectively,

good for presenting new material Disadvantages – loose students attention quickly,

harder to get feedback from students

Cooperative group learning Method a

Conditions & controls i

Diverse groups ii

All students in group must buy into target objectives iii

complete directions & Instructions iv

Debrief on group efforts v

Individual accountability vi

Access to must learn info vii

Positive interdependence viii

Opportunity For Success ix

Recognition & rewards for group success x

Sufficient time for learning

Guided discussion method a

Use of questions i

Follow up – guides discussion ii

Lead off – starts discussion iii

Overhead – question for the whole group iv

Rhetorical – similar to overhead v

Reverse vi

Relay vii

Demonstration Performance Method a

Phases i

Explanation Demonstration Student performance & instructor Supervision Evaluation

Computer Based Training Method a

Computer based training – goes at the students own pace,

used only as an aid Personal computer based aviation training devices (simulators) Computer assisted instruction – multimedia to train

Problem Based Learning

Relates to real world ii

Require students to make decisions iii

Open ended and have multiple correct answers iv

Connected to previously learned knowledge as well as new knowledge v

Reflect lesson objectives vi

Challenge students to think critically Teaching Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) i

Set up the problem ii

Determine the learning outcomes iii

Solve the problem or task iv

Reflect on the problem solving process v

Consider Additional solutions vi

Reevaluate solution with additional options vii

Reflect on this solution and why it’s the best solution viii

Consider what “Best means in the situation Types of Problem Based Instruction i

Scenario Based – using real world scenarios 1

Good scenarios a

Aren’t a test b

Won’t have a right or wrong answer c

Won’t have an obvious answer d

Doesn’t Promote errors e

Promotes situational awareness and ADM 2

Collaborative Problem Solving – students working together to solve problems 3

Case Study – a real account for students to analyze

Critique and Evaluation Lesson Plan

Critique a

Purpose and characteristics of an effective critique – SOFACCOT 1

Traditional 2

Authentic 3

Other ii

Specific iii

Objective iv

Flexible v

Acceptable vi

Constructive vii

Comprehensive viii

Organized ix

Thoughtful b

Methods and ground rules for a critique – ISSISW SDENA i

Instructor critiques ii

Student led iii

Small group critiques iv

Individual critiques v

Self Critique vi

Written ii

Scheduled times iii

Don’t cover too much iv

Emphasize main points v

Never defend it vi

Avoid controversies,

Evaluation c

Characteristics of effective oral questions and what types to avoid – POTBIT i

Puzzles ii

Oversize iii

Trick questions iv

Bewilderment v

Irrelevant questions vi

Toss up d

Responses to student questions i

determine if the student perceives the answer as sufficient e

Characteristics and development of effective written questions – VORDUC i

Validity ii

Objectivity iii

Reliability iv

Discrimination v

Usability vi

Comprehensiveness f

Characteristics and uses of performance test,

Test represents a floor,

they are not the minimum standards

Instructor Responsibilities and Professionalism Lesson Plan Are of Operations1: Task F Fundamental of Instruction

Aviation Instructor Responsibilities a

Help student to learn b

Provide adequate instruction i

Tailored to student ii

Analyze student 1

Misanalysis c

Standards of Performance i

PTS = minimums d

Emphasize the Positive i

Ambassador to aviation e

Minimize student frustrations i

Motivate ii

Keep informed iii

Approach as individuals iv

Give credit when due v

Criticize constructively vi

Be consistent vii

Admit errors

Flight Instructor Responsibilities a

Providing student pilot evaluation and supervision i

Guide ii

Let errors progress (safety permitting) iii

Keep informed of progress iv

Be in control of the situation b

Preparing practical test recommendations and endorsements c

Determining requirements for conducting additional training and endorsement requirements

Professionalism as an instructor a

Explaining important personal characteristics i

Sincere ii

Accept the student iii

Professional appearance and habits iv

Demeanor v

Safety practices vi

Proper language vii

Self Improvement b

Describing methods to minimize student frustration i

Be consistent ii

Admit errors iii

Criticize constructively iv

Keep informed v

Give credit when due vi

Approach as individual vii

Motivate students

Flight Instructor Characteristics & Responsibilities Condensed Notes

Aviation Instructor Responsibilities a

Provide Adequate Instruction – help the student learn,

establish standards of performance,

and minimize student frustration

Instructors should also analyze the student’s personality,

and ability to choose appropriate methods b

Establishing Standards of Performance – meet objectives in the PTS,

and evaluate own effectiveness c

Emphasize the positive – ambassador to aviation i

Devise a plan of action ii

Create a positive student instructor relationship iii

Present info effectively iv

Transfer responsibility to student as learning occurs v

Evaluation student learning to measure teaching effectiveness

Flight Instructor Responsibilities in a

Provide student pilot evaluation & supervision i

Keep student informed of progress ii

Don’t correct errors immediately’ safety permitting iii

Retain control of the situation b

Preparing PTS recommendations & endorsements – only sign a student if they are truly ready i

Student Pilot endorsements Pre solo aeronautical knowledge Pre solo flight training Pre solo flight training at night Solo flight Solo takeoff and landings at another airport within 25nm Initial solo cross country Solo cross country Repeated solo cross country not more than 50nm from point of departure Solo flight in Class B airspace Solo flight to,

or at an airport located in Class B airspace c

Determining requirements for conducting additional training & Endorsement Requirement – decided by the instructor

Professionalism as an instructor by a

Important personal characteristics i

Sincerity ii

Appearance iii

Demeanor iv

Safety practices & accident prevention v

Acceptance of the student vi

Proper language vii

Self improvement b

Methods to minimize Student frustrations i

Be consistent ii

Admit Errors iii

Criticize Constructively iv

Keep Informed v

Give Credit when due vi

Approach as Individual vii

Motivate Students

Planning an Instructional Activity Lesson Plan

Developing objectives & Standards for a course of training 2

Theory of building blocks of learning – BTG EB ME BD a

build towards goal extraneous blocks measured and evaluated broken down

Requirements for developing a training Syllabus – GC FP SIA F i

Ground Training focus on cognitive Flight training focuses on psychomotor domain Standards Flexible

Purpose of a lesson plan a

Information about it i

Elements 1

Objectives 2

Content 3

Completion standards ii

Steps in preparing a lesson 1

Establish objectives & desired outcomes 2

Research the subject 3

Organize material 4

Plan productive classroom activities iii

Characteristics of a lesson plan UCSPFRI 1

Flexible 2

Unity 3

Related 4

Practicality 5

Instructional steps a

Preparation b

Presentation c

Application d

Review and Evaluation 6

Content 7

Scope iv

Purpose of a lesson Plan – WS AI PO RLO GC PU 1

Contains a wide selection 2

Aids instructor 3

Provides an outline 4

Relate to the lesson objective 5

Gives Confidence 6

Promote Uniformity v

How to use a lesson plan 1

Guide 2

Reverse Periodically 3

Adapt it to the class or Student

Planning an Instructional Activity Condensed Notes

Developing objectives & Standards for a course of training – determining skills,

Theory of building blocks of learning a

Blocks need to build towards the goal Avoid extraneous blocks The blocks need to be able to be measured and evaluated The blocks need to be able to be broken down into smaller blocks

Requirements for developing a training Syllabus i

Ground Training needs to focus on the cognitive Flight training focuses on the psychomotor domain Standards Flexible

Purpose of a lesson plan a

Information about it i

Elements 1

Objectives 2

Content to support the objectives 3

Completion standards ii

Steps in preparing a lesson 1

Establish objectives & desired outcomes 2

Research the subject 3

Organize material 4

Plan productive classroom activities iii

Characteristics of a lesson plan 1

Flexible 2

Unity 3

Related 4

Practicality 5

Instructional steps a

Preparation b

Presentation c

Application d

Review and Evaluation 6

Content 7

Scope iv

Purpose of a lesson Plan 1

Contains a wide selection 2

Aids instructor 3

Provides an outline 4

Relate to the lesson objective 5

Gives Confidence 6

Promote Uniformity v

How to use a lesson plan 1

Guide 2

Reverse Periodically 3

Adapt it to the class or Student

Checklist Decision making process Detect Estimate Choose Identify Do Evaluate

Fundamentals of Instruction: The Study Guide Acronyms The Learning Process,

Task A 1

Learning Theory – B C [IP SI] C a

Behaviorism b

Cognitive Theory i

Information Processing ii

Social Interaction c

Combined Approach 2

Characteristics of Learning RAMP a

Result of Experience b

Active Process c

Multifaceted d

Purposeful 3

Principles of Learning – REEPIR a

Readiness b

Exercise c

Effect d

Primacy e

Intensity f

Recency 4

Levels of Learning – RUAC a

Understanding c

Application d

Correlation 5

Learning Physical Skills – DTL P PTS KOR LP EXC AOS a

Desire to Learn b

Patterns c

Perform the skill d

Knowledge of result e

Learning plateau f

Evaluation versus critique g

Application of skill 6

Memory – SR ST LT,

R PAASR a

Sensory registory ii

Short term iii

Long term b

Forgetting i

Disuse ii

Interference iii

Repression c

Retention i

Praise ii

Association iii

Attitude iv

Senses v

Repetition 7

Transfer of Learning – P,

PFT SOA OL M E

Positive i

Plan for transfer ii

Seek other application iii

Over learn iv

Materials v

Experience b

Negative 8

How people learn – PIM a

Perception i

Physical Organism ii

Basic Need iii

Goals and Values iv

Self Concept v

Time and Opportunity i

Element of Threat b

Insight c

Motivation Human Behavior and Effective Communication,

Task B 1

Control of Human Behavior – VECSII a

Voluntary work b

Exercise self direction c

Commitment relates d

Seeks responsibility e

Imagination & creativity f

Intellectual potential 2

Human Needs – PSSES a

Physical b

Safety c

Social d

Egotistical e

Self Fulfillment 3

Defense Mechanisms – CPR DRF FRA a

Compensation b

Projection c

Rationalization d

Denial of reality e

Reaction formation f

Flight (fantasy) g

Resignation h

Aggression 4

The Flight instructor as a practical psychologist – ASNA a

Anxiety b

Stress c

Normal reactions d

Abnormal reactions 5

Basic Elements of Communication – SSR a

Source b

Symbol c

Receiver 6

Barriers to Effective Communication – LCE COAI a

Lack of Common Experience b

Confusion between the symbol and the symbolized object

Overuse of Abstractions d

Interference 7

Developing Communications Skills – DLQ a

Developing b

Listening c

Questioning The Teaching Process,

Task C 1

Preparation of a lesson for a ground or flight instructional period – OFGR a

Objective b

Facilities c

Goals d

Review 2

Presentation Method – L'DP GD a

Lecture Method b

Demonstration Method c

Guided Discussion 3

Application,

by the student of the material or procedure presented – UAPC a

Uses what has been learned b

Active c

Primary d

Critique 4

Review and Evaluation of Student Performance – EFI AOP TN SE CO RPL a

Evaluate Formally/Informally b

Aware of progress c

Take notes d

Students evaluation e

Clear objectives f

Review past Lessons Teaching Methods,

Task D'9

Material Organization – IDC a

Introduction b

Development c

Conclusion 10

The Lecture Method – BFIT a

Briefing b

Formal c

Illustrated Talk d

Teaching lecture 11

The cooperative group learning method – small groups,

positive interdependence group will sink or swim on its own 12

The Guided discussion Method – LO F D'R a

Lead off question b

Follow up question c

Direct question d

Reverse question 13

The Demonstration Performance Method EDSIE a

Explanation b

Demonstration c

Student Performs d

Instructor Supervises e

Evaluates

Computer based Training method – students can access info,

an aid only and should be relied on,

training device Critique and Evaluation,

Task E 2

Purpose and characteristics of an effective critique – SOFACCOT a

Specific b

Objective c

Flexible d

Acceptable e

Constructive f

Comprehensive g

Organized h

Thoughtful 3

Methods and ground rules for a critique – ISSISW SDENA a

Instructor critiques b

Student led c

Small group critiques d

Individual critiques e

Self Critique f

Written a

Scheduled times b

Don’t cover too much c

Emphasize main points d

Never defend it e

Avoid controversies,

Characteristics of effective oral questions and what types to avoid – POTBIT a

Puzzles b

Oversize c

Trick questions d

Bewilderment e

Irrelevant questions f

Toss up 5

Responses to student questions – understand the question,

determine if the student perceives the answer as sufficient 6

Characteristics and development of effective written questions – VORDUC a

Validity b

Objectivity c

Reliability d

Discrimination e

Usability f

Comprehensiveness 7

Characteristics and uses of performance test,

Test represents a floor,

they are not the minimum standards Flight Instructor Characteristics and Responsibilities,

Task F 1

Providing Adequate Instruction – Instructors should analyze student’s personality,

and ability to choose the appropriate methods

lack of self confidence Establishing standards of performance – instructors must evaluate their own effectiveness,

cannot let personal relationships allow a substandard level of performance,

allowing the student to get by sub par is failing as an instructor Emphasizing the positive – instructors have a large influence over how their students perceive aviation,

need to present a positive view of aviation,

fear and negative self concept inhibit the ability of the student to refrain information

An ambassador to aviation

Providing student pilot evaluation and supervision – important to keep student informed of their progress,

correction of errors should not involve taking over the controls immediately,

supervision instructors must provide guidance and restraint,

especially with respect to solo operations

Informed Progress,

retain control of the situation 5

Preparing practical test recommendations and endorsements – Instructors should only sign recommendations if they truly believe that the student is ready for the entire test

Instructors have authority to sign logbooks for initial solos and solo cross country privileges 6

Determining requirements for conducting additional training and endorsement requirements – up to instructor and the FAR 7

Explaining important characteristics – SAPDSPS a

Sincerity b

Acceptance of the Student c

Professional Appearance and Habits d

Demeanor e

Safety Practices and Accident Prevention f

Proper Language g

Self Improvement 8

Describing Methods to minimize student frustration – BACKGAM a

Be consistent b

Admit Errors c

Criticize Constructively d

Keep Informed e

Give credit when due f

Approach as Individual g

Motivate Students Planning an Instructional Activity,

Task G 1

Developing objectives and standards for a course of training – determining skills,

Theory of building blocks of learning – BTG EB ME BD a

Build towards goal b

Extraneous blocks (need to be avoided) c

Measured & Evaluated d

Broken down 3

Requirements for developing a training syllabus – GC FP SIA F a

Ground training focus on the Cognitive b

Flight training focuses on the Psychomotor domain c

Standards d

Flexible 4

Purposes and characteristics of a lesson plan a

Purpose – WS AI PO RLO GC PU i

Wide selection ii

Aid Instructor iii

Provide outline iv

Relate lesson objective v

Give confidence vi

Promote uniformity b

Characteristics – UCSPFRI i

Unity ii

Content iii

Scope iv

Practicality v

Flexibility vi

Relation to the course of training vii

Instructional steps 1

Preparation 2

Presentation 3

Application 4

Review and evaluation

Area of Operations II: Technical Subject Areas Task A: Aeromedical Factors Objective: To determine that the applicant exhibits instructional knowledge of the elements related to Aeromedical factors by describing: 1

How to obtain an appropriate medical certificate 2

How to obtain a medical in the event of a possible medical deficiency 3

The causes,

and corrective action of the following medical factors – a

Hypoxia b

Hyperventilation c

Middle ear and sinus problems d

Spatial disorientation e

Motion sickness f

Carbon dioxide poisoning g

Fatigue and stress h

Dehydration 4

The effects of alcohol and drugs,

and their relationship to flight safety 5

The effect of nitrogen excesses incurred during scuba dives and how this affects pilots and passengers during flight Task B: Visual Scanning and Collision Avoidance Objective: To determine that the applicant exhibits instructional knowledge of the elements related of visual scanning and collision avoidance by describing: 1

Relationship between a pilot’s physical condition and vision 2

Environmental conditions that degrade vision 3

Vestibular and visual Illusions 4

Proper visual scanning procedure 6

Relationship between poor visual scanning habits and increased collision risk 7

Proper clearing procedures 8

Importance of knowing aircraft blind spots 9

Relationship between aircraft speed differential and collision risk 10

Situations that involve the greatest collision risk Task C: Principles of Flight Objective: To determine that the applicant exhibits instructional knowledge of the elements related of principles of flight by describing: 1

Airfoil design characteristics 2

Airplane stability and controllability 3

Turning tendency (torque effect) 4

Load factors in airplane design 5

Wingtip Vortices and precautions to be taken Task D: Airplane Flight Controls Objective: To determine that the applicant exhibits instructional knowledge of the elements related to the airplane flight controls by describing the purpose,

and proper procedure for use of the: 1

Primary flight controls 2

Trim control(s) 3

Wing flaps

Task E: Airplane Weight and Balance Objective: To determine that the applicant exhibits instructional knowledge of the elements related of airplane weight and balance by describing: 1

Weight and balance terms 2

Effect of weight and balance on performance 3

Methods of weight and balance control 4

Determination of total weight and center of gravity and the changes that occur when adding,

or shifting weight Task F: Navigation and Flight Planning Objective: To determine that the applicant exhibits instructional knowledge of the elements related of navigation and flight planning by describing: 1

Terms used in navigation 2

Features of aeronautical charts 3

Importance of using the proper and current aeronautical charts 4

Method of plotting a course,

selection of fuel stops and alternates,

and appropriate actions in the event of unforeseen situations 5

Fundamentals of Pilotage and dead reckoning 6

Fundamentals of radio navigation 7

Diversion to an alternate 8

Lost procedures 9

Computation of fuel consumption 10

Importance of preparing and properly using a flight log 11

Importance of a weather check and the use of good judgment in making “go/no go” decision 12

Purpose of and procedure used in,

filing a flight plan Task G: Night Operations Objective: To determine that the applicant exhibits instructional knowledge of the elements related of night operations by describing: 1

Factors related to night vision 2

Disorientation and night optical illusions 3

Proper adjustment of interior lights 4

Importance of having a flash light with a red lens 5

Night preflight inspection 6

Engine starting procedures,

including use of position and anti collision lights prior to start 7

Taxiing and orientation on an airport 8

Takeoff and climb out 9

In flight orientation 10

Importance of verifying the airplane’s attitude by reference to flight instruments 11

Night emergencies procedures 12

Traffic patterns 13

Approaches and landings with and without landing lights 14

Go around Task H: High Altitude Operations Objective: To determine that the applicant exhibits instructional knowledge of the elements related of high altitude operations by describing: 1

Regulatory requirements for use of oxygen 2

Physiological hazards associated with high altitude operations 3

Characteristics of a pressurized airplane and various types of supplemental oxygen systems 4

Importance of “aviators breathing oxygen” 5

Care and storage of high pressure oxygen bottles 6

Problems associated with rapid decompression and corresponding solutions

Fundamental concept of cabin pressurization 8

Operation of a cabin pressurization system Task I: Federal Aviation Regulations and Publications Objective: To determine that the applicant exhibits instructional knowledge of the elements related to Federal Aviation Regulations and publications: 1

Availability and method of revision of 14 CFR parts 1,

and NTSB part 830 by describing – a

Purpose b

General content 2

Availability of flight information publications,

and FAA approved airplane flight manuals by describing – a

Availability b

Purpose c

General content Task J: National Airspace System Objective: To determine that the applicant exhibits instructional knowledge of the elements of the national airspace system by describing: 1

Basic VFR Weather Minimums – for all classes of airspace 2

Airspace classes – the operating rules,

and airplane equipment requirements for the following – a

Class A b

Class B c

Class C d

Class D'e

Class E f

Class G 3

Special use airspace 4

Temporary flight restrictions Task K: Navigation Systems and radar Services Objective: To determine that the applicant exhibits instructional knowledge of the elements related to navigation systems and radar service by describing: 1

One ground based system (VOR/VORTAC,

Satellite based navigation system 3

Radar service and procedures 4

Global positioning system (GPS) Task L: Logbook Entries and Certification Endorsements Objective: To determine that the applicant exhibits instructional knowledge of the elements related to logbook entries and certificate endorsements by describing: 1

Required logbook entries for instruction given 2

Required student pilot certificate endorsements,

including appropriate logbook entries 3

Preparation of a recommendation for a pilot practical test,

including appropriate logbook entry for – a

Initial pilot certification b

Additional pilot certification c

Additional aircraft qualification 4

Required endorsement of a pilot logbook for the satisfactory completion of the required FAA flight review 5

Required flight instructor records Task M: Water and Seaplane Characteristics (Not covered) Task N: Seaplane Bases,

(Not covered)

Aeromedical Factors AOII: Task A Lesson Plan

Obtaining an appropriate medical a

Classes 2

Obtaining a medical with medical deficiencies a

Effects,

Hypoxia i

Time of Useful Consciousness b

Hyperventilation c

Middle ear and sinus problems d

Spatial disorientation e

Carbon monoxide poisoning f

Fatigue and stress g

Dehydration 4

Effects of alcohol and drugs,

relationship to flight safety a

Effects of Nitrogen and scuba dives,

how this affects pilots and passengers

Aeromedical Factors AOII: Task A Condensed Notes

Obtaining a medical a

Obtaining a medical when you have medical deficiencies a

Issued by an Aviation Medical Examiner (AME)

The FAA keeps a list of all who are qualified and can be found at a FSS,

A student pilot must request a student a combined medical/student pilot certificate,

which functions as a student pilot certificate once signed by the AME 3 classes of medicals a

Third class – valid for 5 years if under 40,

Second class – valid for 12 months,

First class – valid for 12 months if under 40,

providing the impairment doesn’t worsen

Causes,

Hypoxia – means reduced oxygen

As hypoxia worsens your vision field narrows,

you can think everything is normal even when its not

Hypoxic Hypoxia – insufficient oxygen available to the body as a whole

Blocked Airway 2

Hypemic hypoxia – blood isn’t able to transport the oxygen

CO poisoning,

Stagnant Hypoxia – blood not flowing to move the oxygen

Arm going to sleep 4

Histotoxic Hypoxia – inability of cells to use the oxygen

Drugs and alcohol ii

Symptoms of Hypoxia 1

Cyanosis (blue fingernails and lips) 2

Headache Time of Useful Consciousness 3

Decreased reaction time Altitude Time of Useful consciousness 45,000 ft

MSL 9 to 15 seconds 4

Impaired judgment 40,000 ft

MSL 15 to 20 seconds 5

Euphoria 35,000 ft

MSL 30 to 60 seconds 6

Visual Impairment 30,000 ft

MSL 1 to 2 minutes 7

Drowsiness 28,000 ft

MSL 2 ½ to 3 minutes 8

Lightheaded or dizzy sensation 25,000 ft

MSL 3 to 5 minutes 9

Tingling in fingers and toes 22,000 ft

MSL 5 to 10 minutes 10

Numbness 20,000 ft

MSL 30 minutes or more iii

Corrective Actions 1

Use of supplemental oxygen 2

An emergency descent to a lower altitude

Hyperventilation – abnormal loss of carbon dioxide from the blood which keeps your body from maintaining the proper level of acidity

Can occur simultaneously with hypoxia

Symptoms – similar to those of hypoxia,

Increased breathing rate,

Anxiety,

Potentially,

Unconsciousness,

Visual Impairment,

Lightheaded or dizzy sensation,

Tingling sensations,

Hot and cold sensations,

Muscle Spasms ii

Corrective actions Breathe normally,

Breathing into a paper bag,

Middle ear and Sinus Problems – gases trapped within the body expand with altitude,

this can cause pain in the middle ear and sinuses if the gas is not release

Ear – can have loss of hearing,

Corrective actions a

Valsalva maneuver – may not work if the person has a cold,

Yawning c

Swallowing ii

Sinuses most frequently experienced during decent 1

Symptoms – pain over the sinus area,

bloody mucus discharged from the nasal passages 2

Corrective action Slow descent and Don’t fly if having sinus problems

Spatial Disorientation – lack of orientation in regards to attitude,

most common in instrument meteorological conditions

Trust your instruments if accidental flight into IMC occurs

Your body works off 3 systems

Vestibular system – organs in the inner ear that sense position by the way we are balanced

Contains 3 canals with fluid inside and tiny hairs that sense which way the fluid is moving in the ear

Subject to conflicting signals,

Somatosensory system – nerves in skin,

sense position based on gravity,

The body can’t sense between acceleration forces and those resulting from a maneuver

Visual system – eyes,

Brain uses vision primarily when conflicting signals are received

Motion Sickness – conflicting messages caused by continued stimulation of the tiny portion of the inner ear which controls the pilot’s sense of balance

The pilot should not take prevention drugs (Dramamine) as they can cause drowsiness,

and deterioration in judgment i

Symptoms Loss of appetite,

Dry mouth and sweating,

Nausea,

Corrective Action Open air vents,

Loosen clothing,

Use supplemental oxygen,

Keep eyes on an outside point,

Avoid Unnecessary head movements,

and Cancel flight and land as soon as possible

Carbon Monoxide – colorless,

Contained in exhaust fumes and tobacco smoke

Can reduce the ability of the blood to carry oxygen

Can occur inflight by exhaust fumes escaping through the manifold and into the aircraft

Because it is so hard to detect a CO detector in the plane would be helpful i

Symptoms Headache,

Drowsiness,

Corrective actions Shut off the heater,

Open air vents,

and If symptoms continue on the ground,

medical treatment should be sought

Fatigue and Stress – most hazardous to safety i

Fatigue 1

Acute fatigue – felt after long periods of physical strain a

Coordination and alertness can be reduced b

Prevented by adequate sleep/rest,

Chronic Fatigue – not recovering from acute fatigue a

Performance falls,

Prolonged periods of rest are need to recover ii

Stress – body’s response to demands placed upon it

Can be physical,

Can help in small doses,

Avoid by being fit,

Dehydration and Heatstroke – lack of body fluids for the body to carry on normal functions at an optimal level

Dehydration – occurs by either inadequate intake of fluids or loss of fluids

Can lose more fluids at higher altitudes

Looses of only a few percent of body fluids can adversely affect both mental and physical processes

Carry extra f