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Support

Description

TRAINING MANUAL- PIPING PIPE SUPPORTS Uhde India Limited

CONTENTS

Cover Sheet

Introduction

Purpose of Pipe Support

Classification of pipe support

Suport Details,

Generally used

Secondary Support Design condiseration

Special Supporting Cases

Fixed saddle location for exchanger

Pipe supports,

general features for different piping systems

Applicable Revision: Prepared:

Checked:

Approved:

Date: First Edition: 0 Prepared: BRT

Checked: AKB

Approved: RUD

Date: File Name:C-28

Date: Server:

Pune: KUMUS 207

Directory- Pune: Refer\Pi\Training Manual

Date: VKO: KUMUS 209

VKO: Refer\Training Manual

TRAINING MANUAL- PIPING PIPE SUPPORTS Uhde India Limited

which have different diameters and weights

At the same time the above network is also subjected to temperature change while switching from installed to operating condition (and visa versa) resulting into its thermal growth in various directions in proportion to the length of pipes

The structural integrity of the above network must therefore take into account the overall weight effect of the profile besides its thermal growth

A satisfactory design of the Piping System should therefore give a careful consideration to achieve the above requirement

This is generally accomplished by providing external attachments (known as pipe supports) at various locations of the piping profile

This document deals with the basic purpose of the pipe supports,

classification based on construction / functions and a few typical types of pipe supports

In general it deals with metallic piping systems only

during operation as well as during testing

In case of vapour line this difference will be very large due to hydro testing

Supports should be designed for this load (unless otherwise decided in the project)

Some times line is capable of having longer span but load coming on the support may be very large (especially with large dia pipe lines)

Then to distribute the load uniformly,

more number of supports should be provided with smaller span

It may be noted that during testing condition there is no thermal load

All spring supports are locked during testing

it introduces additional load on the support

Support must be designed to take this load in addition to all other loads

This load is considerable especially on large diameter pipe

This tends to sway the line from its normal position and line must be supported guided against it

In case of large diameter overhead lines,

supported by tall support extended from floor,

wind load introduces large bending moment and should be considered critically

This is around 10% to 30% of the gravitational acceleration and introduces horizontal force of about 10 to 30% of the vertical load (or supported mass)

While designing support this should be taken care

TRAINING MANUAL- PIPING PIPE SUPPORTS Uhde India Limited

pipe may start vibrating vigorously and ultimately may fail,

To avoid this it may be required to introduce additional supports at smaller span apart from other requirements

It may not take axial load,

but must control lateral movements

noise is resulting from vibration and if such vibrations are controlled,

noise is reduced to great extent

In such lines,

asbestos cloth is put to absorb vibration and avoid noise

Noise due to pulsating flow can be reduced by using a silencer in the line

Still if it is not below acceptable level accoustic enclosure may be used

insulation over line also helps in reducing the noise

If the control valve has large pressure differential and line size is more,

then this force can be very high

The support should be provided and designed to take this load,

otherwise this will load the piping system and may cause failure

TRAINING MANUAL- PIPING PIPE SUPPORTS Uhde India Limited

Transient condition refers to the start-up or shutdown condition in which one equipment may get heated up faster and other one get heated slower

Due to this the expansion of one equipment which in normal operation will get nullified,

may not get nullified and exert thermal load on supports

Standby condition is also similar

If there are two pumps,

one being standby and both connected in parallel (as shown),

of both the connections will be same

But the expansion of two parallel legs will not be nullified because at a time only one leg will be hot and another being cold

remaining system should not be left out unsupported

Referring to the FIG-3,

support 'S1' will be sufficient but when valve 'V1' is taken out for maintenance there will not be any support for vertical leg

Therefore second support 'S2' may be required to take care of such condition

For example,

refer the pump discharge line in FIG-4,

Point A is resting,

Point B & C are spring supports

and Point D'is the pump discharge nozzle

The springs are,

designed based on weights considering the weight of fluid as well as pipeline and thermal movements

But during shutdown condition the fluid may be drained and the pipe becomes lighter

Hence the spring will give upward reaction and shall load the nozzle 'D' beyond permissible limit

TRAINING MANUAL- PIPING PIPE SUPPORTS Uhde India Limited

In this case a limit stop is used which will not allow the Point C to move up above horizontal level

(However it will allow downward movement during operating condition)

For example for normal operation a long vessel supported by three supports,

S2 & S3 is shown in FIG-5

If support S2 is higher,

than all load will act at S2 only

During erection if level of S2 is lower then entire load will be divided into two supports S1,

S2 only

Therefore foundation of S1,

S2 & S3 should be capable of taking such conditions

A pipe line supported by S1,

S2 & S3 taken from vessel is shown in above FIG

During operation there will be no weight at S2 & S3 (as it is only guide),

but wind condition will be there

Loads due to such conditions must be considered while designing the supports

TRAINING MANUAL- PIPING PIPE SUPPORTS Uhde India Limited

purpose These are described below in brief

The piping loads will be acting on these foundations / structures

Since these foundations / structures are built on ground,

they will exert an equal and opposite reaction,

In a pipe support,

there will be some parts of support arrangement which is directly attached to the pipeline and there will be some other parts which shall be directly attached to the foundation / structure supporting the pipe

As per this general detail the support is classified as : 3

PRIMARY SUPPORTS : It is the parts of support assembly which is directly connected to the pipe

SECONDARY SUPPORTS : It is the parts of support assembly which is directly connected to the foundation / structure and is supporting the primary support attached to the pipe line

pipe supports are broadly classified in three types,

RIGID SUPPORTS ELASTIC SUPPORTS ADJUSTABLE SUPPORTS

These are described below in brief

It does not have adjustibility to the erection tolerances

It will directly rest on foundation or structure which is supporting the pipe

Common type of RIGID SUPPORTS are shoe type (welded),

shoe type (with clamp) Trunnion type,

support brackets (Secondary Support)

These are described under the topic 'Supports Generally used'

It shall be able to support pipes even when the pipe is moving up or down at support point

Common type of elastic supports are variable type spring supports,

These are described under the topic 'Supports generally used '

TRAINING MANUAL- PIPING PIPE SUPPORTS Uhde India Limited

The support can be adjusted for the erection tolerances in the piping

These are required for a better supporting needs at critical locations of pipe supports

Mostly all type of rigid supports can be modified by using certain type of nuts and bolts arrangement,

to make it as an Adustable support

Only a typical type of adjustable support is described under the topic 'Supports Generally used

CLASSIFICATION AS PER FUNCTION (i

PURPOSE) Pipe supports classified as per functions are summarised in the Table at FIG

These are shown along with its basic construction,

the symbols generally used and type of restraints it offers to the piping system

TRAINING MANUAL- PIPING PIPE SUPPORTS Uhde India Limited

The supports classified as per function are further described as follows : 3

It allows pipe to move in axial as well as transverse direction but restricts only the vertical downward movement

perpendicular to length of pipe but allow movement in longitudinal direction

This is also a commonly used type of support

Generally it is used along with Loose support

This is also referred as 'AXIAL STOP'

This type is less used as compared to above two types

Generally it is used along with Loose support

ANCHOR type of support is used to restirct movement in all three directions and rotation also in these three directions

Non-Welded Type (FIX POINT) : This can be considered as a combination of longitudinal and transverse guide

This type resist only the linear movements in all directions but not the rotational movements

This avoids heavy loading of support as well as pipe

Therefore this type of support is preferred over welded type

Welded Type (ANCHOR) This type of support prevents total movements i

This type of support is used when it is absolutely essential to prevent any moment/force being transferred further

It causes heavy loading on support as well as pipe

This is useful when total stops causes excessive loading on piping and support or nozzle

This type of support should be used selectively,

because of stringent and complicated requirements of design,

then a special support detail sketch is prepared

The functions of this support can be any combination of above functions

TRAINING MANUAL- PIPING PIPE SUPPORTS Uhde India Limited 4

SUPORT DETAILS GENERALLY USED : Following are the type of supports generally used in a project

SHOE TYPE SUPPORT : Shoe type support are the supports used maximum in any project

These can be directly welded to pipe or can be welded to a clamp put around pipe

Shoe type supports are used for supporting lines with insulations

Basically the detail is as follows : Basically it is used as a Loose support

With slight addition of details it can be also used as a guide,

It can also be modified to be used as Adjustable supports

These are primary supports and will be supported on secondary supports (i

Foundation or structure)

TRUNNION SUPPORTS : In this type of support,

a dummy pipe is welded to the main line so that the dummy pipe becomes a rigid part of the main pipe line

Now this pipe is suitably supported on a secondary support (Foundation or a structure) The basic detail is as follows :

As per piping requirement,

the TRUNNIONS can be VERTICLE (as shown in FIG-9) or can also be in HORIZONTAL

These are used for loose supports,

achors as well as adjustable supports

TRAINING MANUAL- PIPING PIPE SUPPORTS Uhde India Limited

in a hanger suport the pipe is hung from an structure using a hanger rod

As is clear from the FIG

pipe can move in all direction except downwards

A hanger support generally uses a clamp on the pipe

When a turn buckle is used than the support is adjustable type

Hanger rods are used as a loose supports,

which is used in the situations where it is intended to directly support the valve body through its flanges

It is an assembly of 2 holder plates bolted to the end flanges of the valve to be supported

These holder plates are in turn connected (bolted) to a common base plate to complete the valve holder assembly

This support is relatively expensive since it involves many fabrication steps (e

machining / drilling of holder plates etc

) The above support is therefore used only in the situations where it is absolutely necessary to directly support the valve body owing the weak pipe material (e

Plastic Piping) which is incapable of

TRAINING MANUAL- PIPING PIPE SUPPORTS Uhde India Limited

transferring the valve load the support through the pipe section

The above support is therefore not called for,

in case of Carbon Steel Piping

This support is generally used on loose suport,

Other functions are less common

the pipe will therefore either lift from secondary support or will make an unsuccessful attempt to press against the rigid secondary support

Both are detrimental to the structural integrity of the Piping System

The spring support basically employs a spring element,

which can get compressed or open up depending upon the thermal movement at the support point of pipe

By doing so it takes the vertical load of the piping under both the situations

From the utility point,

spring supports are classified as Variable spring type & constant spring type

As per arrangement spring support can be classified as supporting the pipe from under (i

e resting type) or as supporting the pipe from above (i

VARIABLE SPRING SUPPORT : This basically consists of spring which can get compressed or expanded according to thermal expansion

However this movement causes increase or decrease in supporting force depending on its stiffness and this differential load is transferred to the pipe,

but this is much less than that would be with rigid support or rigid hanger

Variable spring supports are further classified as 'HANGER TYPE' and bottom support type as described at para 4

When the vertical movement of support point is large and/or a very less magnitude of differential force from cold to hot condition is permissible,

then constant type of support is used

This is also basically spring support but load is supported by it through a lever mechanism in such a way that when spring gets compressed effective leverage is reduced and vice-versa

So that net supporting force remains constant,

Like variable spring supports,

these are also available as Hanger type and bottom support types

the pipe is hung from the secondary support using hanger type spring,

TRAINING MANUAL- PIPING PIPE SUPPORTS Uhde India Limited 4

BOTTOM SUPPORT TYPE (VARIABLE)

In bottom support type variable spring,

the pipe is resting on top of the spring load plate,

The selection is based on the availability of structure

In these two types manufacturer offers various models suitable for different types of attachment

These are better described / shown in manufacturers catalogue viz

SARATHI & UMA whose catalogue for all the above are available with us

Note : From all the above description it may create the impression that constant spring supports are better than variable spring supports,

The reasons are : 4

constant support is costlier than the variable spring supports

constant spring support cannot adjust itself to actual variation in load

ADJUSTABLE SUPPORT : As the name suggest,

this type of support is capable of adjustment at site to accommodate erection tolerances of piping

Basically all type of support can be easily modified and made adjustable

A typical example for support at pump suction is shown below

These type of supports are generally used as Loose support

TRAINING MANUAL- PIPING PIPE SUPPORTS Uhde India Limited

These are generally used as GUIDES

These can be used conveniently as fix points for smaller size,

For large dia pipes,

its use as fix point is generally avoided

All supports discussed before this has been primary supports

The support brackets are structural frames used in between the primary supports and the building structure

The support brackets are fixed to the building structure or foundations

These are required at places where the pipe can not be directly supported from a building structure or any foundation

The members used for brackets are structural items like beams,

Some of the basic guide lines for design of secondary supports (Brackets) are discussed below

but since the piping loads are not purely static and many times,

a large cantilever structures are required,

it needs certain special considerations in its design as follows : 5

The support details should be made keeping in view all the lines requiring supports at any particular location

(In all the Figures to follow,

member details shown as (-x-x-x) shall indicate suggested modification )

Instead of supporting structures No

one support sketch should be provided

it shall make the arrangement compact and strong

TRAINING MANUAL- PIPING PIPE SUPPORTS Uhde India Limited

It should be used only when 'H' as well as 'L' dimensions are comparatively less and the suitability of the structure is properly seen

As an example we should avoid support details as given in this figure above

We should also avoid unnecessary extra projections when L=dimen

When L-dim

is becoming large we should try to connect the loose end 'X' to some near by structure or else increase the member size and connection detail at insert plate 'I'

TRAINING MANUAL- PIPING PIPE SUPPORTS Uhde India Limited

Some of the suggested detail for the above support requirement are given below :

The option given below should be the last option since it requires more work and the configuration looks odd due to larger member size

As far as possible we should use support details which are connected both ends,

L' is as low as 350 mm

a good connection detail should be specified

Few examples of connections details are mentioned here

we must provide structure sizes sufficiently large so as to accommodate the movement of pipes on the support structure

TRAINING MANUAL- PIPING PIPE SUPPORTS Uhde India Limited

In any case these lengths should not be less than 200mm

More than this,

pipe movements due to thermal expansion,

Whenever such type of small T-Post structure is there we must try to connect it to the near by structure

This costs hardly anything but improves the structure support design

These horizontal loads can be around 25 to 35% of the vertical loads

Therefore horizontal loads should be properly considered during the design of support structure

Whenever these horizontal forces due to friction becomes so large that the system is not able to withstand then we should provide a suitable means to reduce this friction

Some of the suitable means are as follows : 5

Provide roller support or Ball bearing supports

Provide Grafoil sheets between pipe shoe and support structure

Similarly teflon sheets can be provided

TRAINING MANUAL- PIPING PIPE SUPPORTS Uhde India Limited

tall vessels and exchangers are described as follows : 6

To avoid loading of suction nozzle due to control valve weight,

if we provide a trunnion (non insulated as per normal practice) to take weight of control valve,

then during operation such nozzle will move up and lift the trunnion off its base

This will load the nozzle and purpose of trunnion will not get served

This can be avoided by insulating trunnion,

so that it will remain hot and will expand upwards and will provide resting

Thus in most cases,

the nozzle loading can be controlled without use of spring supports,

TRAINING MANUAL- PIPING PIPE SUPPORTS Uhde India Limited

if the temperature and material of the vessel and pipe line is same,

then the line may be supported at ground level

When supporting a line coming from a tall vessel and the line temperature is different from vessel,

it should be supported from vessel at the neutral point with respect to vessel

Such point is normally near the nozzle itself (FIG-23)

The pump should be connected through flexible loop connection to avoid nozzle loading

TRAINING MANUAL- PIPING PIPE SUPPORTS Uhde India Limited

Alternatively line may be supported at bottom (near pump) and loop may be provided at top as shown in FIG-24 6

the supports being provided should be sufficient to take care the maintenance requirements of the pumps i

on the pumps are taken out for maintenance,

the lines should remain supported

Suction line

TRAINING MANUAL- PIPING PIPE SUPPORTS Uhde India Limited

TRAINING MANUAL- PIPING PIPE SUPPORTS Uhde India Limited

5 Case 5 :

In comparatively larger size pipes when a resting support is required at location "A",

then an adjustable type supports should be provided

This is necessary due to the maintenance requirements

TRAINING MANUAL- PIPING PIPE SUPPORTS Uhde India Limited

Normally one of them is made fixed and the other sliding type

Enclosed sketch showing a few typical cases will make the concept clear

selection of fixed saddle is decided by stiff connection 'A'

Now if pumps are located at 'B' then expansion of 15mm (vessel expansion) and 5mm (pump line expansion) i

total 20mm will load the pump nozzle excessively

If pumps are located at 'C' then expansion of the pump line will nullify the vessel expansion,

since both are in the same direction hence this type of arrangement should be preferred if possible

TRAINING MANUAL- PIPING PIPE SUPPORTS Uhde India Limited

total expansion of 13m will be required to be absorbed by pipe line

If saddle 'B' is fixed then vessel expansion of 4m will be nullified by pipeline expansion of 4m and only differential expansion of 9 m will be required to be absorbed

one may think that more attention be given to 20" connection

But looking correctly,

saddle selection does not make any difference as both are at equal distance from 20" pipe line

Then selection should be based in favour of 8" pump line i

saddle 'B' should be fixed to reduce load on the pump

Where ever it is possible to make a flexible piping to the pump,

it is possible to make both the saddles,

SLIDING type

In conclusion fixed saddle should be so chosen that expansion of vessel towards sliding saddle tends to nullify or substantially reduce differential expansion passed onto connected pipe line

Fixed saddle should be close to stiff piping connections to the equipment

TRAINING MANUAL- PIPING PIPE SUPPORTS Uhde India Limited

GENERAL CONSIDERATION FOR DIFFERENT PIPING SYSTEM : The construction features of various type of pipe supports described in the earlier sections vary depending on the type of piping system where the support is intended to be used

Following type of piping systems are commonly used in a chemical process plant

Un-insulated piping (C

S) HOT insulated piping (C

S) COLD insulated piping Plastic Piping

These are described in brief as follows : 8

PIPING : The un-insulated carbon steel pipe (bare pipe) generally rests directly on the secondary support

For big dia pipes generally NB ≥ 14",

a pad is needed to avoid ovality formation in pipe at support

Generally U-bolts can be used at guides

Guide lugs can also be used

For fix point at non-critical locations,

beams need to be welded at bottom of pipe

PIPING : The un-insulated,

stainless steel pipe do not rest directly on the secondary supports

Shoe type support with clamp of carbon steel is used for support

A thin stainless steel sheet or an asbestos cloth is used between pipe and clamp

TRAINING MANUAL- PIPING PIPE SUPPORTS Uhde India Limited

PIPING : The hot insulated C

Piping never rests directly on secondary support

Shoe type support of carbon steel with or without clamp is used

Trunnion type supports can be used if not objected by client / some licensors

U-bolts are not used

PIPING : The hot insulated stainless steel piping ( ≤ 350º C) will generally use shoe type support of carbon steel with clamp

A thin stainless steel sheet or an asbestos cloth is used between pipe and clamp

When welded type shoe is required,

S pad welded to pipe

When Trunnion is used,

a short length of trunnion will be of S

PIPING : The hot insulated Alloy Steel piping shall generally use shoe with clamp

When ever essential,

Trunnion type supports can be used if accepted by client / licensor

The material of clamp and shoe shall be carbon steel or alloy steel depending on the pipe temperature

The clamps are put over the cold insulation blocks

Pipe shoe with clamp,

put directly on the cold pipe will need special insulating blocks between pipe shoe base plate and the secondary support member

In this case the support material need to be compatible with the pipe temperature

Trunnion type supports are generally avoided

it is vulnerable to local stressing / notching

Therefore the pipe supports used for plastic piping,

necessarily employ a clamp-shoe assembly (of carbon steel) with a soft PVC sheet in between pipe and clamp