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kawa Glossika Japanese Fluency 1 2015

Description

Fluency

Glossika Mass Sentences

Japanese

Complete Fluency Course Michael Campbell Shirakawa

Levels Intro Fluency Expression

Fluency 1

GMS INTENSIVE METHOD Glossika Mass Sentences

GSR RELAXED METHOD Glossika Spaced Repetition

Features: Sound files have A/B/C formats

Features: Our sound files include an algorithm that introduces 10 sentences every day,

for a total of 1000 sentences in 104 days

Requires less than 20 minutes daily

A Files

English

B Files

English

- space

C Files

Target language only 1x

Useful for students with more time to dedicate

Useful for people with busy schedules and limited study time

HOW TO USE ❶ To familiarise yourself with IPA and spelling,

Glossika recommends using the book while listening to A or C sound files and going through all 1000 sentences on your first day

Then you can start your training

It's your choice,

We recommend completing the following four steps

Training Step 1: Try repeating the sentences with the same speed and intonation in the A sound files

You can listen to a single GSR file daily or even double up

One book typically takes 3-4 months to complete

❸ You can accompany with the GMS training when you have extra time to practice

Training Step 2: Dictation: use the C sound files (and pausing) to write out each sentence (in script or IPA or your choice)

Use the book to check your answers

Training Step 3: Recording: record the sentences as best you can

We recommend recording the same sentences over a 3-day period,

and staggering them with new ones

Training Step 4: Use the B sound files to train your interpretation skills

Say your translation in the space provided

Reminder Don't forget that if you run into problems,

! Keep working through the sentences all the way to the end and don't worry about the ones you don't get

You'll probably get it right the second time round

Remember,

one practice session separated by *one* sleep session yields the best results

Glossika Mass Sentence Method Japanese Fluency 1 This GMS Fluency Series accompanies the GMS recordings and is a supplementary course assisting you on your path to fluency

This course fills in the fluency training that is lacking from other courses

Instead of advancing in the language via grammar,

GMS builds up sentences and lets students advance via the full range of expression required to function in the target language

GMS recordings (sold separately) prepare the student through translation and interpretation to become proficient in speaking and listening

Glossika Spaced Repetition (GSR) recordings are strongly recommended for those who have trouble remembering the content

Through the hundred days of GSR training,

all the text in each of our GMS publications can be mastered with ease

Glossika Series The following languages are available in the GMS or GSR Series (not all are published in English): Afroasiatic ●AR Arabic-Standard,

●HA Hausa Altaic (+JK) ●TU Turkish,

●KR Korean Austronesian ●XSY Saisiyat,

●Malay Dravidian ●KAN Kannada,

●TEL Telugu IE: Baltic ●LIT Lithuanian,

●LAV Latvian IE: Celtic ●CYM Welsh IE: Germanic ●DE German,

●IS Icelandic IE: Indo-Iranian ●KUR Kurmanji Kurdish,

●BEN Bengali IE: Romance ●PT Portuguese,

●RO Romanian IE: Slavic ●RU Russian,

●BUL Bulgarian IE: Other ●EL Greek,

●EU Basque Kartuli ●KA Georgian Mon-Khmer ●KH Khmer,

●VNS Viet (South) Niger-Congo ●SW Swahili,

●YO Yoruba Sino-Tibetan ●ZH Chinese Standard,

Hailu),

●MY Burmese Tai-Kadai ●TH Thai,

●LO Lao Uralic ●FI Finnish,

Many of our languages are offered at different levels (check for availability): Intro Level ● Pronunciation Courses ● Introductory Course

Fluency Level ● Fluency Modules ● Daily Life Module ● Travel Module ● Business Intro Module

Expression Level ● Business Courses ● Intensive Reading ● Extensive Reading (Novels)

Glossika Mass Sentences

Japanese Fluency 1 Complete Fluency Course Michael Campbell Shirakawa

Glossika Mass Sentences Japanese Fluency 1 First published 2015 via license by Nolsen Bédon,

Taipei,

Taiwan Authors: Michael Campbell,

Shirakawa Chief Editor: Michael Campbell Translator: Michael Campbell,

Shirakawa Recordings: Michael Campbell,

Shirakawa Editing Team: Chia-Yi Lin,

Claudia Chen Consultant: Percy Wong Programming: Edward Greve Design: Kara Li © 2015 Michael Campbell All rights reserved

No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic,

now known or hereafter invented,

or in any information storage or retrieval system,

without permission in writing from the publisher

Trademark notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks,

and are used only as samples of language use without intent to infringe

Paperback ISBN: 978-986-5621-59-9 Ebook ISBN: 978-986-5621-56-8 GMS MP3 ISRC: TWY811331071-TWY811331130 GSR MP3 ISRC: TWY811331131-TWY811331234 www

Contents What is Glossika

? Glossika Levels Glossika Publications 4 Secrets of the Mass Sentences Method How to Use GMS and GSR Supplementary Sentence Mining Transformation Drills Substitution Drills Memory,

The Brain,

and Language Acquisition Introduction to Japanese Glossika Mass Sentences Sentence 100 Sentence 200 Sentence 300 Sentence 400 Sentence 500 Sentence 600 Sentence 700 Sentence 800 Sentence 900 Sentence 1000 Japanese Index Kanji Index

What is Glossika

? From the creation of various linguists and polyglots headed by Michael Campbell,

Glossika is a comprehensive and effective system that delivers speaking and listening training to fluency

It’s wise to use Glossika training materials together with your other study materials

Don’t bet everything on Glossika

Always use as many materials as you can get your hands on and do something from all of those materials daily

These are the methods used by some of the world’s greatest polyglots and only ensures your success

If you follow all the guidelines in our method you can also become proficiently literate as well

But remember it’s easier to become literate in a language that you can already speak than one that you can’t

Most people will feel that since we only focus on speaking and listening,

that the Glossika method is too tough

It’s possible to finish one of our modules in one month,

in fact this is the speed at which we’ve been training our students for years: 2 hours weekly for 4 weeks is all you need to complete one module

Our students are expected to do at least a half hour on their own every day through listening,

If you follow the method,

you will have completed 10,000 sentence repetitions by the end of the month

This is sufficient enough to start to feel your fluency come out,

but you still have a long way to go

This training model seems to fit well with students in East Asia learning tough languages like English,

because they are driven by the fact that they need a better job or have some pressing issue to use their English

This drive makes them want to succeed

Non-East Asian users of the Glossika Mass Sentence (GMS) methods are split in two groups: those who reap enormous benefit by completing the course,

and others who give up because it’s too tough to stick to the schedule

If you feel like our training is too overwhelming or demands too much of your time,

then I suggest you get your hands on our Glossika Spaced Repetition (GSR) audio files which are designed for people like you

So if you’re ambitious,

If you’re too busy or can’t stick to a schedule,

Glossika Levels The first goal we have in mind for you is Fluency

Our definition of fluency is simple and easy to attain: speaking full sentences in one breath

Once you achieve fluency,

then we work with you on expanding your expression and vocabulary to all areas of language competency

Our three levels correlate to the European standard: * * *

Introduction Fluency Expression

A Levels B Levels C Levels

The majority of foreign language learners are satisfied at a B Level and a few continue on

But the level at which you want to speak a foreign language is your choice

There is no requirement to continue to the highest level,

and most people never do as a B Level becomes their comfort zone

Glossika Publications Each Glossika publication comes in four formats: * Print-On-Demand paperback text * E-book text (available for various platforms) * Glossika Mass Sentence audio files * Glossika Spaced Repetition audio files Some of our books include International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) as well

Just check for the IPA mark on our covers

We strive to provide as much phonetic detail as we can in our IPA transcriptions,

but this is not always possible with every language

As there are different ways to write IPA,

our books will also let you know whether it’s an underlying pronunciation (phonemic) with these symbols: / /,

or if it’s a surface pronunciation (phonetic) with these symbols: [ ]

IPA is the most scientific and precise way to represent the sounds of foreign languages

Including IPA in language training guides is taking a step away from previous decades of language publishing

We embrace the knowledge now available to everybody via online resources like Wikipedia which allow anybody to learn the IPA: something that could not be done before without attending university classes

The editor of our Fluency Series,

Michael Campbell,

grew up using books that taught foreign languages in the traditional

For example,

to say /ü/ (IPA writes it as /y/) those books go into elaborate detail about how to purse your lips together with what sounds

He felt very awkward doing it until he found a native speaker he could mimic

Then he realized it wasn’t such an awkward thing and didn’t need to hold his mouth in awkward positions to get the sounds right

Once he found out what this sound was,

he found it completely unnecessary to re-read these descriptions in each book or language he tried

And then one day he discovered IPA,

and that there was a symbol for this sound / y/

Starting from that point,

he started jotting it and other letters into the pronunciation sections of his various language books meanwhile crossing out their lengthy descriptions

The IPA really is an international code and always has one letter to represent one and the same sound in any language

If you learn what each letter represents,

you can use it to speak any language in the world with a high degree of phonetic accuracy

In fact,

you probably already know most of the common letters in IPA

To get started,

just point your browser to Wikipedia’s IPA page to learn more about pronouncing the languages we publish

Pronunciation—In languages like English,

our words undergo a lot of pronunciation and intonation changes when words get strung together in sentences which is has been well analyzed in linguistics

This may be easy to learn for European students,

but for Asian students it can be really difficult

Likewise it is true with languages like Chinese where the pronunciations and tones from individual words change once they appear in a sentence

By following the intonation and prosody of a native speaker saying a whole sentence,

it’s much easier to learn rather than trying to say string each word together individually

Syntax—the order of words,

will be different than your own language

Human thought usually occurs in complete ideas

Every society has developed a way to express those ideas linearly by first saying what happened (the verb),

or by first saying who did it (the agent),

Paying attention to this will accustom us to the way others speak

Vocabulary—the meanings of words,

and their usage is always different

You always have to learn words in context and which words they’re paired with

These are called collocations

To “commit a crime” and to “commit to a relationship” use two different verbs in most other languages

Never assume that learning “commit” by itself will give you the answer

After a lifetime in lexicography,

Patrick Hanks “reached the alarming conclusion that words don’t have meaning,” but rather that “definitions listed in dictionaries can be regarded as presenting meaning potentials rather than meanings as such

” This is why collocations are so important

Grammar—the changes or morphology in words are always in flux

Memorizing rules will not help you achieve fluency

You have to experience them as a native speaker says them,

repeat them as a native speaker would,

and through mass amount of practice come to an innate understanding of the inner workings of a language’s morphology

Most native speakers can’t explain their own grammar

It just happens

How to Use GMS and GSR The best way to use GMS is to find a certain time of day that works best for you where you can concentrate

It doesn’t have to be a lot of time,

maybe just 30 minutes at most is fine

If you have more time,

Then schedule that time to be your study time every day

Try to tackle anywhere from 20 to 100 sentences per day in the GMS

Do what you’re comfortable with

Review the first 50 sentences in the book to get an idea of what will be said

Then listen to the A files

If you can,

try to write all the sentences down from the files as dictation without looking at the text

This will force you to differentiate all the sounds of the language

If you don’t like using the A files,

you can switch to the C files which only have the target language

After dictation,

check your work for any mistakes

These mistakes should tell you a lot that you will improve on the next day

Go through the files once again,

Then record yourself saying all the sentences

Ideally,

you should record these sentences four to five days in a row in order to become very familiar with them

All of the activities above may take more than one day or one setting,

so go at the pace that feels comfortable for you

If this schedule is too difficult to adhere to,

or you find that dictation and recording is too much,

then take a more relaxed approach with the GSR files

The GSR files in most cases are shorter than twenty minutes,

some go over due to the length of the sentences

But this is the perfect attention span that most people have anyway

By the end of the GSR files you should feel pretty tired,

especially if you’re trying to repeat everything

The GSR files are numbered from Day 1 to Day 100

Just do one every day,

as all the five days of review sentences are built in

It’s that simple

Don’t forget we also provide services at our Glossika Training Center in case you need any more help

Supplementary

Sentence Mining Sentence mining can be a fun activity where you find sentences that you like or feel useful in the language you’re learning

We suggest keeping your list of sentences in a spreadsheet that you can re-order how you wish

It’s always a good idea to keep a list of all the sentences you’re learning or mastering

They not only encompass a lot of vocabulary and their actual usage,

but they give you a framework for speaking the language

It’s also fun to keep track of your progress and see the number of sentences increasing

Based on many tests we’ve conducted,

we’ve found that students can reach a good level of fluency with only a small number of sentences

For example,

each trained 10 times over a period of 5 days,

for a total of 30,000 sentences (repetitions),

can make a difference between a completely mute person who is shy and unsure how to speak and a talkative person who wants to talk about everything

More importantly,

the reps empower you to become a stronger speaker

The sentences we have included in our Glossika courses have been carefully selected to give you a wide range of expression

The sentences in our fluency modules target the kinds of conversations that you have discussing day-to-day activities,

the bulk of what makes up our real-life conversations with friends and family

For some people these sentences may feel really boring,

but these sentences are carefully selected to represent an array of discussing

events that occur in the past,

and whether those actions are continuous or not,

even in languages where such grammar is not explicitly marked—especially in these languages as you need to know how to convey your thoughts

The sentences are transparent enough that they give you the tools to go and create dozens of more sentences based on the models we give you

As you work your way through our Fluency Series the sentences will cover all aspects of grammar without actually teaching you grammar

You’ll find most of the patterns used in all the tenses and aspects,

passive and active (or ergative as is the case in some languages we’re developing),

and finally describing events as if to a policeman

The sentences also present some transformational patterns you can look out for

Sometimes we have more than one way to say something in our own language,

but maybe only one in a foreign language

And the opposite is true where we may only have one way to say something whereas a foreign language may have many

Supplementary

Transformation Drills A transformation is restating the same sentence with the same meaning,

but using different words or phrasing to accomplish this

A transformation is essentially a translation,

A real example from Glossika’s business module is:

? You may not necessarily say “hand” in a foreign language and that’s why direct translation word-for-word can be dangerous

As you can see from these two sentences,

they’re translations of each other,

but they express the same meaning

To express yourself well in a foreign language,

practice the art of restating everything you say in your mother language

Find more ways to say the same thing

There are in fact two kinds of transformation drills we can do

One is transformation in our mother language and the other is transformation into our target language,

By transforming a sentence in your own language,

you’ll get better at transforming it into another language and eventually being able to formulate your ideas and thoughts in that language

It’s a process and it won’t happen over night

Cultivate your ability day by day

Build a bridge to your new language through translation

The better you get,

the less you rely on the bridge until one day,

Translation should never be word for word or literal

You should always aim to achieve the exact same feeling in the foreign language

The only way to achieve this is by someone who can create the sentences for you who already knows both languages to such fluency that he knows the feeling created is exactly the same

In fact,

you’ll encounter many instances in our GMS publications where sentences don’t seem to match up

The two languages are expressed completely differently,

Believe us,

we’ve not only gone over and tested each sentence in real life situations,

we’ve even refined the translations several times to the point that this is really how we speak in this given situation

Supplementary

Substitution Drills Substitution drills are more or less the opposite of transformation drills

Instead of restating the same thing in a different way,

you’re saying a different thing using the exact same way

So using the example from above we can create this substitution drill:

we have replaced the noun with a gerund phrase

The sentence has a different meaning but it’s using the same structure

This drill also allows the learner to recognize a pattern how to use a verb behind a preposition,

especially after being exposed to several instances of this type

We can also combine transformation and substitution drills:

? So it is encouraged that as you get more and more experience working through the Glossika materials,

that you not only write out and record more and more of your own conversations,

but also do more transformation and substitution drills on top of the sentences we have included in the book

Memory,

The Brain,

and Language Acquisition We encounter a lot of new information every day that may or may not need to be memorized

In fact,

we’re doing it all the time when we make new friends,

remembering faces and other information related to our friends

After some experience with language learning you’ll soon discover that languages are just like a social landscape

Except instead of interconnected friends we have interconnected words

In fact,

looking at languages in this way makes it a lot more fun as you get familiar with all the data

Since languages are natural and all humans are able to use them naturally,

it only makes sense to learn languages in a natural way

In fact studies have found,

and many students having achieved fluency will attest to,

the fact that words are much easier to recognize in their written form if we already know them in the spoken form

Remember that you already own the words you use to speak with

The written form is just a record and it’s much easier to transfer what you know into written form than trying to memorize something that is only written

Trying to learn a language from the writing alone can be a real daunting task

Learning to read a language you already speak is not hard at all

So don’t beat yourself up trying to learn how to read a complicated script like Chinese if you have no idea how to speak the language yet

It’s not as simple as one word = one character

And the same holds true with English as sometimes many words make up one idea,

What is the relationship between memory and sleep

? Our brain acquires experiences throughout the day and records them as memories

If these memories are too common,

they get lost among all the others and we find it difficult to remember one specific memory from the others

More importantly such memories leave no impact or impression on us

However,

a major event like a birth or an accident obviously leaves a bigger impact

We attach importance to those events

Since our brain is constantly recording our daily life,

it collects a lot of useless information

Since this information is both mundane and unimportant to us,

our brain has a built-in mechanism to deal with it

In other words,

our brains dump the garbage every day

Technically speaking our memories are connections between our nerve cells and these connections lose strength if they are not recalled or used again

During our sleep cycles our brain is reviewing all the events of the day

If you do not recall those events the following day,

After three sleep cycles,

consider a memory gone if you haven’t recalled it

Some memories can be retained longer because you may have anchored it better the first time you encountered it

An anchor is connecting your memory with one of your senses or another pre-existing memory

During your language learning process,

this won’t happen until later in your progress

So what can you do in the beginning

? A lot of memory experts claim that making outrageous stories about certain things they’re learning help create that anchor where otherwise none would exist

Some memory experts picture

a house in their mind that they’re very familiar with and walk around that house in a specific pre-arranged order

Then all the objects they’re memorizing are placed in that house in specific locations

In order to recall them,

they just walk around the house

I personally have had no luck making outrageous stories to memorize things

I’ve found the house method very effective but it’s different than the particular way I use it

This method is a form of “memory map”,

and for me personally I prefer using real world maps

This probably originates from my better than average ability to remember maps,

! It’s not for everybody though

It really works great for learning multiple languages

What do languages and maps have in common

? Everything can be put on a map,

and languages naturally are spoken in locations and spread around and change over time

These changes in pronunciations of words creates a word history,

And by understanding how pronunciations change over time and where populations migrated,

it’s quite easy to remember a large number of data with just a memory map

This is how I anchor new languages I’m learning

I have a much bigger challenge when I try a new language family

So I look for even deeper and longer etymologies that are shared between language families,

anything to help me establish a link to some core vocabulary

Some words like “I” (think Old English “ic”) and “me/mine” are essentially the same roots all over the world from Icelandic (Indo-European) to Finnish (Uralic) to Japanese (Altaic

I don’t confuse languages because in my mind every language sounds unique and has its own accent and mannerisms

I can also use my memory map to position myself in the location where the language is spoken and imagine myself surrounded by the people of that country

This helps me adapt to their expressions and mannerisms,

eliminates interference from other languages

And when I mentally set myself up in this way,

the chance of confusing a word from another language simply doesn’t happen

When I’ve actually used a specific way of speaking and I’ve done it several days in a row,

I know that the connections in my head are now strengthening and taking root

Not using them three days in a row creates a complete loss,

however actively using them (not passively listening) three days in a row creates a memory that stays for a lifetime

Then you no longer need the anchors and the memory is just a part of you

You’ll have noticed that the Glossika training method gives a translation for every sentence,

and in fact we use translation as one of the major anchors for you

In this way 1) the translation acts as an anchor,

Pattern recognition is the single most important skill you need for learning a foreign language

A lot of people think that translation should be avoided at all costs when learning a foreign language

However,

based on thousands of tests I’ve given my students over a ten-year period,

I’ve found that just operating in the foreign language itself creates a false sense of understanding and you have a much higher chance of

hurting yourself in the long run by creating false realities

I set up a specific test

I asked my students to translate back into their mother tongue (Chinese) what they heard me saying

These were students who could already hold conversations in English

I found the results rather shocking

Sentences with certain word combinations or phrases really caused a lot of misunderstanding,

like “might as well” or “can’t do it until”,

resulted in a lot of guesswork and rather incorrect answers

If you assume you can think and operate in a foreign language without being able to translate what’s being said,

you’re fooling yourself into false comprehension

Train yourself to translate everything into your foreign language

This again is an anchor that you can eventually abandon when you become very comfortable with the new language

Finally,

But you have to create the structure of the sponge

Memorizing vocabulary in a language that you don’t know is like adding water to a sponge that has no structure: it all flows out

In order to create a foreign language structure,

you need to create sentences that are natural and innate

You start with sentence structures with basic,

common vocabulary that’s easy enough to master and start building from there

With less than 100 words,

you can build thousands of sentences to fluency,

slowly one by one adding more and more vocabulary

you’re speaking with natural fluency and you have a working vocabulary of several thousand words

If you ever learn new in isolation,

you have to start using it immediately in meaningful sentences

Hopefully sentences you want to use

If you can’t make a sentence with it,

then the vocabulary is useless

Vocabulary shouldn’t be memorized haphazardly because vocabulary itself is variable

The words we use in our language are only a tool for conveying a larger message,

and every language uses different words to convey the same message

Look for the message,

pay attention to the specific words used,

Memorizing words from a wordlist will not help you with this task

Recently a friend showed me his wordlist for learning Chinese,

using a kind of spaced repetition flashcard program where he could download a “deck”

I thought it was a great idea until I saw the words he was trying to learn

I tried explaining that learning these characters out of context do not have the meanings on his cards and they will mislead him into a false understanding,

especially individual characters

This would only work if they were a review from a text he had read,

where all the vocabulary appeared in real sentences and a story to tell,

From a long-term point of view,

I could see that it would hurt him and require twice as much time to re-learn everything

From the short-term point of view,

there was definitely a feeling of progress and mastery and he was happy with that and I dropped the issue

Introduction to Japanese Classification: Writing: Consonants: Vowels: Tones/Pitch: Typology:

Japonic,

Katakana,

Kanji Phonetically realized as [p,

ɰ̃] 5 phonemic vowels /a,

Phonetically realized as [ɑ,

o̞] Pitch Accent Basic Sentence Pattern: Subject-Object-Verb,

Adjective+Noun,

Noun+Postposition,

Dependent Clause+Head-word

Postpositions at

のため から に 上に 下に

Adjectives the same

重要な、大切な、大事な jūyōna,

Interrogatives who

どうして、なぜ、なんで

どのぐらい どれ、どっち

dōyatte

dōshite,

Pronouns I

私、僕、あたし、俺、吾

私達、僕たち、われら

Verbs may,

-te ita

-te shimau

- れる

-te shimau

Adverbs already afterwards,

もう 後で まで まだ 十分

mō atode made mada jūbun

often immediately certainly together

よく すぐに 必ず、きっと 一緒に

unable to yesterday today tomorrow morning afternoon evening last week next week

ことができない 昨日 今日 明日 朝 午後 夕方 先週 来週

koto ga dekinai ashita kyō ashita asa gogo yūgata senshū raishū

Conjunctions also

Glossika Mass Sentences

今日 は 天気 が いい です。 きょう は てんき が いい です。 kyō wa teɴki ga ī desu

[kʲo̞ː ɰɑ te̞ŋkʲi ̥ ɡɑ iː de̞sɯ̥ ||]

I'm not rich

私 は お金持ち では ありません。 わたし は おかねもち では ありません。 watashi wa okanemochi dewa arimaseɴ

[ɰɑtɑɕi ̥ ɰɑ o̞kɑne̞mo̞ʨi ̥ de̞ɰɑ ɑɾimɑse̞ɴ ||]

This bag's heavy

この バッグ は 重い です。 この バッグ は おもい です。 kono baggu wa omoi desu

[ko̞no̞ bɑɡˀɡɯ ɰɑ o̞mo̞i de̞sɯ̥ ||]

These bags are heavy

これら の バッグ は 重い です。 これら の バッグ は おもい です。 korera no baggu wa omoi desu

[ko̞ɾe̞ɾɑ no̞ bɑɡˀɡɯ ɰɑ o̞mo̞i de̞sɯ̥ ||]

The weather's nice today

見て ください、あの人 は 私 の 友達 です。 みて ください、あのひと は わたし の ともだち です。 mite kudasai,

anohito wa watashi no tomodachi desu

[mite̞ kɯdɑsɑi | ɑno̞çi ̥to̞ ɰɑ ɰɑtɑɕi ̥ no̞ to̞mo̞dɑʨi ̥ de̞sɯ̥ ||]

私 も 兄 も テニス が 上手 です。 わたし も あに も テニス が じょうず です。 watashi mo ani mo tenisu ga jōzu desu

[ɰɑtɑɕi ̥ mo̞ ɑni mo̞ te̞nisɯ̥ ɡɑ ʥo̞ːzɯ de̞sɯ̥ ||]

His mother's at home

He's at school

彼 の お母さん は 家 に いて、彼 は 学校 に います。 かれ の おかあさん は いえ に いて、かれ は がっこう に います。 kare no okāsaɴ wa ie ni ite,

[kɑɾe̞ no̞ o̞kɑːsɑɰ̃ ɰɑ ie̞ ni ite̞ | kɑɾe̞ ɰɑ ɡɑkˀko̞ː ni imɑsɯ̥ ||]

Her children are at school

彼女 の 子供 は 学校 に います。 かのじょ の こども は がっこう に います。 kanojo no kodomo wa gakkō ni imasu

[kɑno̞ʥo̞ no̞ ko̞do̞mo̞ ɰɑ ɡɑkˀko̞ː ni imɑsɯ̥ ||]

I'm a taxi driver

私 は タクシードライバー です。 わたし は タクシードライバー です。 watashi wa takushīdoraibā desu

[ɰɑtɑɕi ̥ ɰɑ tɑkɯ̥ ɕiːdo̞ɾɑibɑː de̞sɯ̥ ||]

My sister's a nurse

My brother and I are good tennis players

私 の 妹 は 看護士 です。 わたし の いもうと は かんごし です。 watashi no imōto wa kaɴgoshi desu

[ɰɑtɑɕi ̥ no̞ imo̞ːto̞ ɰɑ kɑŋɡo̞ɕi ̥ de̞sɯ̥ ||]

I'm not hungry,

ROM IPA

EN 日 か

ROM IPA

He's sick

He's in bed

彼 は 風邪 を 引いていて、ベッド で 横 に なって います。 かれ は かぜ を ひいていて、ベッド で よこ に なって いま す。 kare wa kaze o hīteite,

[kɑɾe̞ ɰɑ kɑze̞ o̞ hiːte̞ːte̞ | be̞dˀdo̞ de̞ jo̞ko̞ ni nɑtˀte̞ imɑsɯ̥ ||]

ROM IPA

お腹 は 空いて いません が、喉 が すごく 乾いて います。 おなか は すいて いません が、のど が すごく かわいて い ます。 onaka wa suite imaseɴ ga,

[o̞nɑkɑ ɰɑ sɯite̞ imɑse̞ŋ ɡɑ | no̞do̞ ɡɑ sɯɡo̞kɯ̥ kɑɰɑite̞ imɑsɯ̥ ||] He's a very old man

He's ninety-eight (98) years old

彼 は 年 を 取っています。彼 は もう 九十八歳 です。 かれ は とし を とっています。かれ は もう きゅうじゅう はっさい です。 kare wa toshi o totteimasu

kare wa mō kyūjūhassai desu

[kɑɾe̞ ɰɑ to̞ɕi ̥ o̞ to̞tˀte̞ːmɑsɯ̥ || kɑɾe̞ ɰɑ mo̞ː kʲɯːʥɯːhɑsˀsɑi de̞sɯ̥ ||] These chairs aren't beautiful,

これら の 椅子 は 綺麗 では ありません が、座り 心地 が いい です。 これら の いす は きれい では ありません が、すわり ここ ち が いい です。 korera no isu wa kirei dewa arimaseɴ ga,

[ko̞ɾe̞ɾɑ no̞ isɯ̥ ɰɑ kʲiɾe̞ː de̞ɰɑ ɑɾimɑse̞ŋ ɡɑ | sɯɰɑɾi ko̞ko̞ʨi ̥ ɡɑ iː de̞sɯ̥ ||]

ENJA 15

今日 の 天気 は 温かくて 晴れて います。 きょう の てんき は あたたかくて はれて います。 kyō no teɴki wa atatakakute harete imasu

[kʲo̞ː no̞ te̞ŋkʲi ̥ ɰɑ ɑtɑtɑkɑkɯ̥ te̞ hɑɾe̞te̞ imɑsɯ̥ ||]

You're late

I'm not

ROM IPA

あなた は 遅刻 です ね。― いいえ、遅刻 して いません よ。早め に 着きました。 あなた は ちこく です ね。― いいえ、ちこく して いませ ん よ。はやめ に つきました。 anata wa chikoku desu ne

[ɑnɑtɑ ɰɑ ʨi ̥ko̞kɯ̥ de̞sɯ̥ ne̞ || ― iːe̞ | ʨi ̥ko̞kɯ̥ ɕi ̥te̞ imɑse̞ɰ̃ jo̞ || hɑjɑme̞ ni ʦɯ̥ kʲimɑɕi ̥tɑ ||] She isn't home

She's at work

彼女 は 今 うち に いません。仕事 です。 かのじょ は いま うち に いません。しごと です。 kanojo wa ima uchi ni imaseɴ

[kɑno̞ʥo̞ ɰɑ imɑ ɯʨi ̥ ni imɑse̞ɴ || ɕiɡo̞to̞ de̞sɯ̥ ||]

Here's your coat

The weather's warm and sunny today

これ は あなた の コート です。 これ は あなた の コート です。 kore wa anata no kōto desu

[ko̞ɾe̞ ɰɑ ɑnɑtɑ no̞ ko̞ːto̞ de̞sɯ̥ ||]

あなた の 名前 は 何ですか? あなた の なまえ は なんですか? anata no namae wa naɴdesuka

? [ɑnɑtɑ no̞ nɑmɑe̞ ɰɑ nɑnde̞sɯ̥ kɑ ||]

My name's Alan

私 の 名前 は エレン です。 わたし の なまえ は エレン です。 watashi no namae wa ereɴ desu

[ɰɑtɑɕi ̥ no̞ nɑmɑe̞ ɰɑ e̞ɾe̞n de̞sɯ̥ ||]

Where are you from

あなた は どこ から 来ました か? あなた は どこ から きました か? anata wa doko kara kimashita ka

? [ɑnɑtɑ ɰɑ do̞ko̞ kɑɾɑ kʲimɑɕi ̥tɑ kɑ ||]

I'm from New York

私 は ニューヨーク から 来ました。 わたし は ニューヨーク から きました。 watashi wa nyūyōku kara kimashita

[ɰɑtɑɕi ̥ ɰɑ nʲɯːjo̞ːkɯ̥ kɑɾɑ kʲimɑɕi ̥tɑ ||]

How old are you

What's your name

今 何歳 です か? いま なんさい です か? ima naɴsai desu ka

? [imɑ nɑɰ̃ sɑi de̞sɯ̥ kɑ ||]

ENJA 24

私 は 二十歳 です。 わたし は はたち です。 watashi wa hatachi desu

[ɰɑtɑɕi ̥ ɰɑ hɑtɑʨi ̥ de̞sɯ̥ ||]

What's your job

あなた は どんな 仕事 を して います か? あなた は どんな しごと を して います か? anata wa doɴna shigoto o shite imasu ka

? [ɑnɑtɑ ɰɑ do̞nnɑ ɕiɡo̞to̞ o̞ ɕi ̥te̞ imɑsɯ̥ kɑ ||]

I'm a teacher

私 は 先生 です。 わたし は せんせい です。 watashi wa seɴsei desu

[ɰɑtɑɕi ̥ ɰɑ se̞ɰ̃se̞ː de̞sɯ̥ ||]

What's your favorite color

あなた は どんな 色 が 一番 好き です か? あなた は どんな いろ が いちばん すき です か? anata wa doɴna iro ga ichibaɴ suki desu ka

? [ɑnɑtɑ ɰɑ do̞nnɑ iɾo̞ ɡɑ iʨibɑɰ̃ sɯ̥ kʲi ̥ de̞sɯ̥ kɑ ||]

My favorite color is blue

I'm twenty (20) years old

私 の 一番 好き な 色 は 青 です。 わたし の いちばん すき な いろ は あお です。 watashi no ichibaɴ suki na iro wa ao desu

[ɰɑtɑɕi ̥ no̞ iʨibɑɰ̃ sɯ̥ kʲi ̥ nɑ iɾo̞ ɰɑ ɑo̞ de̞sɯ̥ ||]

あなた は 何 に 興味 が あります か? あなた は なに に きょうみ が あります か? anata wa nani ni kyōmi ga arimasu ka

? [ɑnɑtɑ ɰɑ nɑni ni kʲo̞ːmi ɡɑ ɑɾimɑsɯ̥ kɑ ||]

I'm interested in music

私 は 音楽 に 興味 が あります。 わたし は おんがく に きょうみ が あります。 watashi wa oɴgaku ni kyōmi ga arimasu

[ɰɑtɑɕi ̥ ɰɑ o̞ŋɡɑkɯ̥ ni kʲo̞ːmi ɡɑ ɑɾimɑsɯ̥ ||]

It's hot today

今日 は 本当 に 暑い です。 きょう は ほんとう に あつい です。 kyō wa hoɴtō ni atsui desu

[kʲo̞ː ɰɑ ho̞nto̞ː ni ɑʦɯi de̞sɯ̥ ||]

It isn't hot today

今日 は 暑くない です。 きょう は あつくない です。 kyō wa atsukunai desu

[kʲo̞ː ɰɑ ɑʦɯ̥ kɯnɑi de̞sɯ̥ ||]

It's windy today

What are you interested in

今日 は 風 が 強い です。 きょう は かぜ が つよい です。 kyō wa kaze ga tsuyoi desu

[kʲo̞ː ɰɑ kɑze̞ ɡɑ ʦɯjo̞i de̞sɯ̥ ||]

ENJA 34

今日 の 風 は あまり 強くない です。 きょう の かぜ は あまり つよくない です。 kyō no kaze wa amari tsuyokunai desu

[kʲo̞ː no̞ kɑze̞ ɰɑ ɑmɑɾi ʦɯjo̞kɯnɑi de̞sɯ̥ ||]

My hands are cold

私 の 手 は 冷たい です。 わたし の て は つめたい です。 watashi no te wa tsumetai desu

[ɰɑtɑɕi ̥ no̞ te̞ ɰɑ ʦɯme̞tɑi de̞sɯ̥ ||]

Brazil is a very big country

ブラジル は とても 大きい 国 です。 ブラジル は とても おおきい くに です。 burajiru wa totemo ōkī kuni desu

[bɯɾɑʥiɾɯ ɰɑ to̞te̞mo̞ o̞ːkiː kɯni de̞sɯ̥ ||]

Diamonds are not cheap

ダイヤモンド は 安く ありません。 ダイヤモンド は やすく ありません。 daiyamoɴdo wa yasuku arimaseɴ

[dɑijɑmo̞ndo̞ ɰɑ jɑsɯ̥ kɯ̥ ɑɾimɑse̞ɴ ||]

Toronto isn't in the United States

It isn't windy today

トロント は アメリカ に は ありません。 トロント は アメリカ に は ありません。 toroɴto wa amerika ni wa arimaseɴ

[to̞ɾo̞nto̞ ɰɑ ɑme̞ɾikɑ ni ɰɑ ɑɾimɑse̞ɴ ||]

疲れました。 つかれました。 tsukaremashita

[ʦɯ̥ kɑɾe̞mɑɕi ̥tɑ ||]

I'm not tired

疲れて いません。 つかれて いません。 tsukarete imaseɴ

[ʦɯ̥ kɑɾe̞te̞ imɑse̞ɴ ||]

I'm hungry

お腹 が 空きました。 おなか が すきました。 onaka ga sukimashita

[o̞nɑkɑ ɡɑ sɯ̥ kʲimɑɕi ̥tɑ ||]

I'm not hungry

お腹 は 空いて いません。 おなか は すいて いません。 onaka wa suite imaseɴ

[o̞nɑkɑ ɰɑ sɯite̞ imɑse̞ɴ ||]

He's a good swimmer

I'm tired

彼 は 水泳 が 上手 です。 かれ は すいえい が じょうず です。 kare wa suiei ga jōzu desu

[kɑɾe̞ ɰɑ sɯie̞ː ɡɑ ʥo̞ːzɯ de̞sɯ̥ ||]

ENJA 44

私 は 政治 に は 興味 が ありません。 わたし は せいじ に は きょうみ が ありません。 watashi wa seiji ni wa kyōmi ga arimaseɴ

[ɰɑtɑɕi ̥ ɰɑ se̞ːʥi ni ɰɑ kʲo̞ːmi ɡɑ ɑɾimɑse̞ɴ ||]

What's your name

あなた の 名前 は 何 です か。 あなた の なまえ は なん です か。 anata no namae wa naɴ desu ka

[ɑnɑtɑ no̞ nɑmɑe̞ ɰɑ nɑn de̞sɯ̥ kɑ ||]

My name's Amanda

私 の 名前 は アマンダ です。 わたし の なまえ は アマンダ です。 watashi no namae wa amaɴda desu

[ɰɑtɑɕi ̥ no̞ nɑmɑe̞ ɰɑ ɑmɑndɑ de̞sɯ̥ ||]

Are you married

あなた は 結婚 して います か? あなた は けっこん して います か? anata wa kekkoɴ shite imasu ka

? [ɑnɑtɑ ɰɑ ke̞kˀko̞ɰ̃ ɕi ̥te̞ imɑsɯ̥ kɑ ||]

I'm single

I'm not interested in politics

まだ です、独身 です。 まだ です、どくしん です。 mada desu,

[mɑdɑ de̞sɯ̥ | do̞kɯ̥ ɕin de̞sɯ̥ ||]

おいくつ(何歳)です か? おいくつ(なんさい)です か? oikutsu (naɴsai) desu ka

? [o̞ikɯ̥ ʦɯ̥ (nɑɰ̃ sɑi) de̞sɯ̥ kɑ ||]

I'm twenty-five (25)

二十五歳 です。 にじゅうごさい です。 nijūgosai desu

[niʥɯːɡo̞sɑi de̞sɯ̥ ||]

Are you a student

あなた は 学生 です か? あなた は がくせい です か? anata wa gakusei desu ka

? [ɑnɑtɑ ɰɑ ɡɑkɯ̥ se̞ː de̞sɯ̥ kɑ ||]

はい、そう です。 はい、そう です。 hai,

sō desu

Am I late

How old are you

私 は 遅刻 です か? わたし は ちこく です か? watashi wa chikoku desu ka

? [ɰɑtɑɕi ̥ ɰɑ ʨi ̥ko̞kɯ̥ de̞sɯ̥ kɑ ||]

ENJA 54

いいえ、時間通り に 着きました。 いいえ、じかんどおり に つきました。 īe,

[iːe̞ | ʥikɑndo̞ːɾi ni ʦɯ̥ kʲimɑɕi ̥tɑ ||]

Is your mother at home

あなた の お母さん は 家 に います か? あなた の おかあさん は いえ に います か? anata no okāsaɴ wa ie ni imasu ka

? [ɑnɑtɑ no̞ o̞kɑːsɑɰ̃ ɰɑ ie̞ ni imɑsɯ̥ kɑ ||]

いいえ、出かけました。 いいえ、でかけました。 īe,

[iːe̞ | de̞kɑke̞mɑɕi ̥tɑ ||]

Are your parents at home

あなた の 両親 は うち に います か? あなた の りょうしん は うち に います か? anata no ryōshiɴ wa uchi ni imasu ka

? [ɑnɑtɑ no̞ ɾʲo̞ːɕiɰ̃ ɰɑ ɯʨi ̥ ni imɑsɯ̥ kɑ ||]

いいえ、出かけました。 いいえ、でかけました。 īe,

[iːe̞ | de̞kɑke̞mɑɕi ̥tɑ ||]

はい、少し 寒い です。 はい、すこし さむい です。 hai,

[hɑi | sɯ̥ ko̞ɕi ̥ sɑmɯi de̞sɯ̥ ||]

Your shoes are nice

Are they new

結構 いい 靴 です ね、新品 です か? けっこう いい くつ です ね、しんぴん です か? kekkō ī kutsu desu ne,

? [ke̞kˀko̞ː iː kɯ̥ ʦɯ̥ de̞sɯ̥ ne̞ | ɕimpin de̞sɯ̥ kɑ ||]

はい、新品 です。 はい、しんぴん です。 hai,

Where's your mother

Is it cold in your room

? あなた の 部屋 は 寒い です か? あなた の へや は さむい です か? anata no heya wa samui desu ka

? [ɑnɑtɑ no̞ he̞jɑ ɰɑ sɑmɯi de̞sɯ̥ kɑ ||]

あなた の お母さん は どこ ですか?うち に います か? あなた の おかあさん は どこ ですか?うち に います か? anata no okāsaɴ wa doko desuka

? [ɑnɑtɑ no̞ o̞kɑːsɑɰ̃ ɰɑ do̞ko̞ de̞sɯ̥ kɑ || ɯʨi ̥ ni imɑsɯ̥ kɑ ||]

ENJA 64

あなた は どこ から 来ました か? あなた は どこ から きました か? anata wa doko kara kimashita ka

? [ɑnɑtɑ ɰɑ do̞ko̞ kɑɾɑ kʲimɑɕi ̥tɑ kɑ ||]

I'm from Canada

わたし は カナダ から 来ました。 わたし は カナダ から きました。 watashi wa kanada kara kimashita

[ɰɑtɑɕi ̥ ɰɑ kɑnɑdɑ kɑɾɑ kʲimɑɕi ̥tɑ ||]

What color is your car

あなた の 車 は 何色 です か? あなた の くるま は なにいろ です か? anata no kuruma wa nanīro desu ka

? [ɑnɑtɑ no̞ kɯɾɯmɑ ɰɑ nɑniːɾo̞ de̞sɯ̥ kɑ ||]

It's red

赤 です。 あか です。 aka desu

How old is Hassan

Where are you from

ハッサンさん は 何歳 です か? ハッサンさん は なんさい です か? hassaɴsaɴ wa naɴsai desu ka

? [hɑsˀsɑɰ̃ sɑɰ̃ ɰɑ nɑɰ̃ sɑi de̞sɯ̥ kɑ ||]

How are your parents

あなた の 両親 は お元気 です か? あなた の りょうしん は おげんき です か? anata no ryōshiɴ wa ogeɴki desu ka

? [ɑnɑtɑ no̞ ɾʲo̞ːɕiɰ̃ ɰɑ o̞ɡe̞ŋkʲi ̥ de̞sɯ̥ kɑ ||]

They're doing fine

両親 ともに 元気 です よ。 りょうしん ともに げんき です よ。 ryōshiɴ tomoni geɴki desu yo

[ɾʲo̞ːɕin to̞mo̞ni ɡe̞ŋkʲi ̥ de̞sɯ̥ jo̞ ||]

These postcards are nice

How much are they

これら の はがき は 素敵 です ね。いくら です か? これら の はがき は すてき です ね。いくら です か? korera no hagaki wa suteki desu ne

? [ko̞ɾe̞ɾɑ no̞ hɑɡɑkʲi ̥ ɰɑ sɯ̥ te̞kʲi ̥ de̞sɯ̥ ne̞ || ikɯɾɑ de̞sɯ̥ kɑ ||]

They're a dollar

They're a buck

They're a pound

They're a euro

He's twenty-four (24)

彼 は 二十四歳 です。 かれ は にじゅうよんさい です。 kare wa nijūyoɴsai desu

[kɑɾe̞ ɰɑ niʥɯːjo̞ɰ̃sɑi de̞sɯ̥ ||]

一枚 一ドルです いちまい いちドルです ichimai ichidorudesu [iʨimɑi iʨido̞ɾɯde̞sɯ̥ ]

ENJA 74

ROM IPA

What's your phone number

Who's that man

あの 男 の 人 は 誰 です か? あの おとこ の ひと は だれ です か? ano otoko no hito wa dare desu ka

? [ɑno̞ o̞to̞ko̞ no̞ çi ̥to̞ ɰɑ dɑɾe̞ de̞sɯ̥ kɑ ||]

He's the boss

この 旅館 は あまり よく ない のに どうして こんな に 高 い の です か? この りょかん は あまり よく ない のに どうして こんな に たかい の です か? kono ryokaɴ wa amari yoku nai noni dōshite koɴna ni takai no desu ka

? [ko̞no̞ ɾʲo̞kɑɰ̃ ɰɑ ɑmɑɾi jo̞kɯ̥ nɑi no̞ni do̞ːɕi ̥te̞ ko̞nnɑ ni tɑkɑi no̞ de̞sɯ̥ kɑ ||]

あなた の 電話番号 は 何番 です か? あなた の でんわばんごう は なんばん です か? anata no deɴwabaɴgō wa naɴbaɴ desu ka

? [ɑnɑtɑ no̞ de̞ɴɰɑbɑŋɡo̞ː ɰɑ nɑmbɑn de̞sɯ̥ kɑ ||]

This hotel isn't very good

Why is it so expensive

彼 は 社長 です。 かれ は しゃちょう です。 kare wa shachō desu

[kɑɾe̞ ɰɑ ɕɑʨo̞ː de̞sɯ̥ ||]

あなた の 友達 は どこ です か? あなた の ともだち は どこ です か? anata no tomodachi wa doko desu ka

? [ɑnɑtɑ no̞ to̞mo̞dɑʨi ̥ ɰɑ do̞ko̞ de̞sɯ̥ kɑ ||]

She's in the bathroom

彼女 は トイレ に います。 かのじょ は トイレ に います。 kanojo wa toire ni imasu

[kɑno̞ʥo̞ ɰɑ to̞iɾe̞ ni imɑsɯ̥ ||]

How's your father

あなた の お父さん は 元気 です か? あなた の おとうさん は げんき です か? anata no otōsaɴ wa geɴki desu ka

? [ɑnɑtɑ no̞ o̞to̞ːsɑɰ̃ ɰɑ ɡe̞ŋkʲi ̥ de̞sɯ̥ kɑ ||]

He's doing great

彼 は 元気 です よ。 かれ は げんき です よ。 kare wa geɴki desu yo

[kɑɾe̞ ɰɑ ɡe̞ŋkʲi ̥ de̞sɯ̥ jo̞ ||]

Are you tired

Where's your friend

疲れました か? つかれました か? tsukaremashita ka

? [ʦɯ̥ kɑɾe̞mɑɕi ̥tɑ kɑ ||]

ENJA 83

はい、疲れました。 はい、つかれました。 hai,

[hɑi | ʦɯ̥ kɑɾe̞mɑɕi ̥tɑ ||]

Are you hungry

お腹 空いて います か? おなか すいて います か? onaka suite imasu ka

? [o̞nɑkɑ sɯite̞ imɑsɯ̥ kɑ ||]

いいえ、空いて いません が、喉 が 渇きました。 いいえ、すいて いません が、のど が かわきました。 īe,

[iːe̞ | sɯite̞ imɑse̞ŋ ɡ