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ge English for Scientists Teacher'

Description

Professional English

Cambridge English for

Scientists

TEACHER’S NOTES Tamzen Armer Bethany Cagnol

Professional English

Cambridge English for

Scientists

TEACHER’S NOTES

Getting started in research

Planning a career in science Applying for research funding l'Writing up a résumé or CV l'Preparing for an interview l'

Go to page 12 for essential background information on the topic and useful web links

Don’t forget to use the Additional activity worksheet in the Resources section of the Cambridge English for Scientists website

Science-specific terms can be found in the Glossary on Student’s Book pages 117–125

Refers to the Audioscript on Student’s Book pages 91–102

Planning a career in science Before you begin … If this is the beginning of a course with a new group of students and your students don’t know each other,

you could ask them to give a three-minute presentation on themselves: their name,

ambitions and areas of expertise and interest within science and research (both in the public and private industries if they are professionals)

You could also brainstorm with the class the various scientific fields and write their ideas on the board

Afterwards,

compare their ideas with a list from a dictionary (e

several scientific fields and their definitions can be found here: http://www

com/definition/List_of_academic_disciplines#Natural_sciences http://dictionary

Print some English-language adverts for jobs in science,

com/naturejobs or a website in your country

The jobs should be suitable for your students,

according to their area of science

For example,

Nature Jobs has a function where you can search by job title,

area of the world or a selection of employers

If your students are still in higher education,

they may be interested in reading adverts for internships or fellowships

Doing a search for ‘internship’ here: http://www

gov/internships yields a wide range of internship adverts

Give each pair one or two different adverts

Students read the job adverts and discuss in pairs whether (a) the job sounds interesting and (b) they would have the necessary qualifications,

skills and experience to apply

They then pass theirs to the next group and discuss the next adverts

At the end,

elicit from the class which jobs look the most attractive and suitable for members of the group

They could also underline useful vocabulary from the adverts,

which you could put up on the board

b Make sure students read and understand the terms in the table as they will be useful in the ‘Writing up a résumé or CV’ and the ‘Preparing for an interview’ sections of the unit

Allow time for students to make a similar table from their countries

Students discuss the questions in pairs and then feed back to the class

Cambridge English for Scientists Cambridge University Press 2011   www

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UNIT 1 Getting started in research

Note Students may ask about the ‘post-doctorate’,

which relates to advanced academic work and research,

which is the highest academic qualification a person can achieve in certain European and Asian countries

Students may ask how to explain what the habilitation is in English,

therefore a good definition is: the habilitation requires the candidate to write a professorial thesis based on scholarly accomplishments and/or publications,

reviewed by and defended before an academic committee in a process similar to that of the doctoral dissertation

In the sciences,

between 10 and 30 (or more) research articles have to be published during a period of about 4 to 10 years

While the PhD is sufficient for a faculty position at a university in the United States,

in other countries only the habilitation qualifies the candidate to independently supervise doctoral students and/or receive an academic promotion

a cross next to the options which don’t

You could ask the students for definitions of the vocabulary,

which is heard in the conversation

After they have listened,

you could ask students to look at the Audioscript and try to guess their meanings from the context and/or use a dictionary

teaching (undergraduate) students doing post-doctoral research supervising a research team finding a permanent position at a university discussing theory doing practical fieldwork staying in London finding a well-paid job

Extension activity: private or public industry You could write the following question on the board: ‘What are the advantages and disadvantages of working in academia or industry

?’ and ask the students to brainstorm in pairs and then feed back to the class

b Students listen to the eight sentences and write the number of the sentence in the corresponding column

c Students write the underlined phrases from the Audioscript in the correct column in the second row of the table

Cambridge English for Scientists Cambridge University Press 2011   www

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UNIT 1 Getting started in research Answers Talking about … likes or dislikes

while I was working as a research assistant in the lab

basically I’ve done everything here

Language note As a follow up lesson,

mention that the present perfect is commonly used when listing professional experience

Write examples on the board such as: I have published three articles

I have taught introductory calculus and I have supervised interns

The past simple is also useful for actions in the past,

such as: I went to Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

I completed my PhD in 2002 and in 2003 I moved to Budapest

Extension activity: present perfect Using the present perfect and the past simple,

students write a list of their scientific,

educational and/or professional experience

Ask them to include some dates

Students then work in pairs and read their lists to each other

Mention this list will be useful in Exercises 3b and 15 later on in the unit

b Students take turns to interview each other in pairs

Applying for research funding Before you begin … Ask students if anyone has ever applied for a scholarship or fellowship

Ask students what it involved and the time it took them to apply

Doing a search for ‘fellowship’ here: http://www

gov/internships yields a wide range of fellowship adverts

You could print off two or three examples for the students and ask them to identify the characteristics the adverts have in common such as qualifications,

the benefits and the required documents (e

 cover letter,

Students discuss the questions in pairs and then feed back to the class

You could ask students to elaborate on their reasons for answering ‘yes’ or ‘no’ in question 2

To follow up on question 4,

you could ask students to elaborate on the importance of government investments in the sciences by asking the following question: How is providing money to scientists at the beginning of their career seen as an ‘investment’

Cambridge English for Scientists Cambridge University Press 2011   www

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UNIT 1 Getting started in research Answers 1 No – the scholarship is for the individual,

research experience Project proposal – what you want to work on,

how much funding you will need

why it is useful research 4 These potential leaders will be able to guide future research and train and mentor future researchers

The investment in one leader now will therefore be amplified in the future

Extension activity: investigating a fellowship Elicit questions from the students that they could ask to obtain more information about the fellowship in Exercise 4a

Ask students to write an email to the fellowship committee asking their questions

Suggested answers 1 2 3 4 5 6

Can two applicants share the fellowship

? Is there a particular area of research that is given priority

? Can candidates apply over consecutive years

? Would it be possible to get in touch with last year’s fellowship winners

? Will the fellowship committee help in obtaining a visa

b Students work in pairs or individually to complete the matching activity

Answers 1 j   2 e   3 i   4 c   5 h   6 g   7 b   8 a   9 d   10 f

Make sure they understand instructions 1–6

Let students know they can download this document to help them: http://www

au/learning/ assets/downloads/research-report-writing

Language note It is not uncommon for project summaries to be written in the first person plural (we) when the applicant is representing an institution or working with a co-author

b Allow time for students to read Eriko’s complete project summary

You could

remind students that the Glossary in the Student’s Book can help them with some of the vocabulary

Ask them to brainstorm,

what the commercial applications of the research might be

Answers Possible applications for the robot technology could include many of the functions sniffer dogs are used for today,

for example: ●   in rescue operations following disasters (earthquakes,

) to detect bodies ●   to detect chemical/gas leaks (e

in mining) ●   at customs to detect plant matter,

drugs and other materials ●   to locate mines or unexploded bombs ●   to find truffles

Cambridge English for Scientists Cambridge University Press 2011   www

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UNIT 1 Getting started in research

Extension activity: odour-detecting robots Depending on your students’ interests,

ask them to do an Internet search for odour detection robots to see if they can find up-to-date examples of institutes,

companies and parts of the world where this technology is being researched and put to use

Ask them to try to find out who the leading experts in this field are

Students then feed back to the class

Additional reading on this subject can be found on the following websites: l'What Can Sharks Tell Us About Designing Robots http://www

com/technology/engineering/robots/sharksmell-and-robot-design l'Robots that Smell http://itotd

com/articles/240/robots-that-smell

c Students work in pairs to complete the matching activity

Answers A 2   B 6   C 3   D 1   E 5   F 4

d Students work independently to underline words they could use in their own summaries

Suggested answers B C D'E F

The proposed research will concentrate on … This technology will … This research aims to … This will then (be tested experimentally) This should produce …

Answers 1 However 2 The proposed research 3 will indicate 4 aims to 5 The study 6 The initial phase

Additional activity Unit 1: a project summary If students need more help writing project summaries,

you can use this Additional activity worksheet for Unit 1 in the Resources section to help them expand their vocabulary

b Allow time for students to write a project summary using the phrases from Exercises 5d and 6a and,

the Additional activity worksheet

Writing up a résumé or CV Before you begin … Ask students if anyone has already written a résumé,

CV or cover letter in English

If they have,

ask if it is up-to-date and whether they would like to bring it to class to help their classmates

You could ask students to go to this website (which provides useful input on résumés/CVs for the sciences): http://artsandsciences

edu/gradschoolcareer/academiccareers/ applicationmaterials/cvs

Cambridge English for Scientists Cambridge University Press 2011   www

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UNIT 1 Getting started in research

You could ask the students what they think is considered an attractive résumé/ CV (e

Remind the students that recruiters often spend seconds,

You could give them an example of a poorly written résumé/CV and ask them how long it takes them to read it

Then compare it with a résumé/CV that’s easy to read

Speed reading exercise: have students read a résumé/CV and time them to answer the important questions: education,

b Students refer back to the SARF application in Exercise 4a and discuss the questions in pairs

Suggested answers Computer skills: what programs,

programming languages you are familiar with and how proficient you are at using them Dissertations: the title,

a short description of the work and your conclusions,

the name(s) of your supervisor(s) and the date it will be finished if in progress Education: begin with your most recent or expected degree

List degrees,

and dates of completion (or expected date) in reverse chronological order

You could also list key units

Grants and awards: details of any grants or awards you have received – who they were from and for how much money Personal information: name,

telephone number and email address Presentations: list items in standard bibliographic format Publications: as presentations,

list in standard bibliographic format

Those in press or submitted manuscripts can be included

Research experience: job title,

the name of the employer or institution,

your responsibilities and accomplishments Study abroad: where and when you studied,

what courses you took Teaching experience: what courses you taught (and in what capacity,

the name of the employer or institution,

your responsibilities and accomplishments Technical skills: include any additional technical skills you have which will not be immediately obvious from the dissertations / work experience you listed Travel: where you have been and why (to work as a volunteer,

b Students compare their list of headings from Exercise 7b with the list in Audioscript 1

You could also ask students whether the kind of information under the headings in Audioscript 1

c Students listen to the conversation again and answer the question

3 page 91

Cambridge English for Scientists Cambridge University Press 2011   www

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UNIT 1 Getting started in research Answers 1 Use a lot of different headings 2 Write the most recent thing first

Students may ask about translating the education establishments into English

You may want to remind them that this is unnecessary given that potential employers may want to find the institutions on the Internet

Students may also suggest Carlos provides a working title for his PhD thesis

Answers Yes – he should write his most recent educational experiences first

b Make sure students understand the term ‘bullet points’,

then ask them to answer the questions

Answers 1 A verb in the past simple

Regular verbs add

Extension activity: word formation You may wish to give the students more practice with word formation and changing existing vocabulary into various word forms

For example: analysis (n)

analyse (v) (also perhaps mentioning that many don’t change their form)

Ask students to guess the verb and noun forms of the following verbs,

which also appear in Exercise 9c: focus

Ask the students to write sentences using the different forms of the verbs then feed back to the class

For example: ‘I was involved in many projects’,

‘My involvement in this project goes back five years’

Suggested answers

Cambridge English for Scientists Cambridge University Press 2011   www

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UNIT 1 Getting started in research

c Ask students to re-write the sentences like the examples they studied in Exercise 9b

Suggested answers 1 used pure cloned enzymes to generate specific carbohydrate oligomers 2 created a new CD4 positive HeLa cell clone 3 developed sensitive methods to determine the fine structure of pectins in maize 4 investigated the way the myocardium adapts at the sub-cellular level following exercise

In pairs,

Remind them that using the correct citation forms of publications will be useful for their résumés/CVs,

as well as any articles they may write in English (e

for the References Cited section at the end of journal articles)

You may also want to ask students what ‘Working Title’ means: a title of the thesis or paper,

which has not been officially decided upon

Answers 1 1 author’s name   2 year   3 title of article   4 journal name 5 journal volume and/or issue number   6 page numbers 2 In press 3 Submitted manuscript

b Ask students to put the different elements of the publications in the correct citation order

Answers 1 Hernandez Sanchez,

(2011) ‘Salinity and intra-annual variability of perilagoonal vegetation’ Submitted manuscript

Gomez Herrera,

(2011) ‘Declining peri-dunal variability in Doñana’ Environmental Management Review

In press

(2010) ‘Hydroperiod effects on peridunal vegetation’ Spanish Hydrology Journal Vol 2

Ask students to think of a job or scholarship they could apply for

They could do a search at http://www

com/naturejobs or a company of their choice

If your students need to apply for internships,

you might encourage them to apply for companies that have partnerships with their institutions

Students then work independently to write a first draft of the Personal Information and Education sections of their résumés/CVs

You could provide corrections yourself,

or involve the class in a peer-correction session (thus preparing them for future editing and article review practice,

which is addressed later in the book)

Preparing for an interview Before you begin … Ask students if anyone has conducted an interview in English

Has anyone been both an interviewee and an interviewer

brainstorm with the students key characteristics (in personality,

work ethic and background) that interviewers may look for in a fellowship or job applicant

Ask them what they think interviewers are most interested in knowing about them

Is it their education

? Or even money they’ve obtained through grants

Cambridge English for Scientists Cambridge University Press 2011   www

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UNIT 1 Getting started in research

Ask students to read the extract and answer the questions

Answers 1 By conference call 2 Confirm her availability for the date and time,

upload a video of her presenting her research proposal 3 Suggested answer She cannot see the interviewers,

there might be a time delay between the UK/ Australia,

it might be difficult to hear what is said

In pairs,

students list the advantages and disadvantages of the three bulleted points

You may want to mention that preparing a pre-written script is acceptable provided they learn how to pronounce jargon correctly

b Students listen to the conversation and answer the questions

Question 1 can be answered in several different ways,

though students should recognise that Eriko is feeling nervous,

c Students predict what advice Carlos might give Eriko on her second attempt to make the presentation even better

d Students listen to Carlos’s feedback and answer the questions

See if the students made the right predictions

e Students listen and answer the questions

6 page 92

Answers 1 Yes 2 Yes

f Students listen to the extracts and mark the stressed words

7 page 92

Answers 2 research (NB: Eriko uses the American English pronunciation

British English would stress this word as ‘research’) 3 useful 4 example 5 However,

g Students complete the phrases in Exercise 13f with information that is related to

Ask them to practise the phrases,

paying close attention to the stress and intonation

Cambridge English for Scientists Cambridge University Press 2011   www

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UNIT 1 Getting started in research

h Ask students to plan a short presentation text (about 70 words),

or choose the text from Eriko’s presentation in Audioscript 1

You may wish to ask students to underline key words and syllables to improve their pronunciation and intonation

This activity can be given as homework,

or memorised during class as study practice

Students can work in pairs to help each other memorise their texts

Students complete the interview advice using the words in the box

Answers 1 see 2 phone number 3 application form 4 questions 5 late

Extension activity: interview advice You could also ask students to add to the advice in the book

Some possibilities include: l'Check the local time for the interviewers

Students can do so,

by going to this website: http://www

com/worldclock/ l'Smile when speaking on the phone to sound more confident

You may then want to ask students to write an email to an interviewer confirming the local time for each person,

 telephone,

video conference) and ask if the candidate can prepare anything in advance for the interview

b Students decide which pieces of advice in Exercise 14a are the best

You may wish to include the advice they suggested in the Extension activity above

In pairs,

ask students to make a list of possible interview questions

They can use the ideas they came up with at the beginning of this section in the Student’s Book (see previous: Before you begin

They can also use the website mentioned in the ‘Background information and useful web links’ section of this unit

Extension activities: interview practice

You may wish to ask students to practice interviewing with their backs to each other

Or one student can sit in front of the class with his or her back to the group and the rest of the class can ask questions (jury style)

Turning their backs could help recreate the ‘teleconference’ aspect of interviewing

Encourage students to smile while answering questions – remind them it’s not to show happiness,

but to improve the sound of confidence and pronunciation

In a small class or one-to-one class,

you may want to record the students and play back the recording

Ask the student/s to describe the quality of their voice

Is it monotone

? Does it need more ‘smile’ in the intonation

You can also ask students to answer the questions using the past simple and present perfect to review work done in Exercise 2c

Students could run a long-term group project: pooling together all the questions students at their institution have been asked during interviews in English

Put these questions in a file and publish it on an internal school website,

to help future students prepare for their interviews

Cambridge English for Scientists Cambridge University Press 2011   www

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UNIT 1 Getting started in research

Background information and useful web links Getting started in research Research can be defined as the thorough study of a subject,

especially in order to discover (new) information or reach a (new) understanding

Applied research is discovering,

and the development of methods and systems on a wide variety of scientific matters of our world and the universe

‘Publish or perish’ is the scientist’s maxim

Career advancement hinges on publications

But data generation requires time and money

Useful web links Research definition http://en

Planning a career in science Useful web links English-language adverts for jobs in science http://www

com/naturejobs Funding Your Future: Publish Or Perish http://sciencecareers

org/career_magazine/previous_issues/ articles/2009_09_11/science

r0900077

Applying for research funding Writing proposals has become an important feature of modern scientific research

The person,

responsible for providing funding will base their decision on the quality of the written project proposal via a ‘peer review’

Winning a grant or fellowship is one of the most important steps for scientists to obtain the resources needed to carry out their research

Useful web links A wide range of fellowship adverts http://www

gov/internships Research proposal definition http://en

Writing up a résumé or CV CVs are typically requested for fellowship and internship applications

A résumé/CV should be well-organized and easy to follow,

should highlight an applicant’s strongest qualifications,

and should be tailored to each application submitted

Maintaining a résumé/CV is a process that requires frequent updating (say,

which will grow in length as the student progresses in his or her career

Useful web links CVs http://artsandsciences

edu/gradschoolcareer/academiccareers/ applicationmaterials/cvs

com/article/The-Basics-of-Science-CVs/46275/

Preparing for an interview Candidates may,

be asked a wide variety of questions

However,

the list on this website is fairly typical of interviews for positions in the geosciences: Useful web links Some Typical Academic Interview Questions http://serc

edu/NAGTWorkshops/careerprep/jobsearch/interviewquestions

html You’ve Worked Hard to Get This Far http://sciencecareers

org/career_development/previous_issues/ articles/2030/you_ve_worked_hard_to_get_this_far/ 12

Cambridge English for Scientists Cambridge University Press 2011   www

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Professional English

Cambridge English for

Scientists

TEACHER’S NOTES

The scientific community

Communicating with scientific communities Writing a critical review l'Completing a Material Transfer Agreement l'

Go to page 24 for essential background information on the topic and useful web links

Don’t forget to use the Additional activity worksheet in the Resources section of the Cambridge English for Scientists website

Science-specific terms can be found in the Glossary on Student’s Book pages 117–125

Refers to the Audioscript on Student’s Book pages 91–102

Communicating with scientific communities Before you begin … You could ask the class to discuss the following questions: 1 Who did you last communicate with about your scientific work

? 2 Did you have any difficulties in the communication

? 3 How might communicating with a member of the general public about your work be different to communicating with another scientist

Answers 1 f   2 a   3 b   4 e   5 d   6 c

b Students look at the pictures and discuss in pairs which methods of

communication they usually use

You could also ask students to work in pairs to give specific examples of a journal,

that they know for their field

Students could also be asked to say why they consider these methods of communication to be useful or important (e

I always try to attend the annual Lunar and Planetary Science Conference because …

I like reading New Scientist because …)

c Students discuss the questions in small groups and then feed back to the class

Suggested answers a because developments in one specialism within the field can contribute to research in other areas

to ensure they have a more rounded picture of the field

for general interest b to share protocols/materials/results

to ‘bounce’ ideas off one another

to avoid replication of experiments

to collaborate on particular areas of research c'for general interest

because the boundaries between fields are often blurred

because developments in one field can have a knock-on effect on other fields

Cambridge English for Scientists Cambridge University Press 2011   www

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UNIT 2 The scientific community

Note: field and specialism Field refers to the general area of interest e

Specialism refers to the particular part of the field in which you mainly focus your research and in which you are an expert e

fungal genetics or clinical genetics

d Students work in pairs to choose an appropriate form of communication for each speaker

Suggested answers 1 A popular science magazine or book

Maybe a newspaper

An online forum 3 An online forum

An academic journal

A conference

Note The Hadron Collider (see statement 1 in Exercise 1d on page 14 of the Student’s Book) is a gigantic particle accelerator used by physicists to study the smallest known particles

Two beams of subatomic particles called ‘hadrons’ travel in opposite directions inside the accelerator,

Physicists collide the beams head-on at very high energy to recreate the conditions just after the Big Bang

More information can be found at: http://public

Make sure students know that more than one correct answer may be possible and that there is not a direct match between the forms of communication from Exercise 1a and the extracts A–E

Answers A 6 (a popular science magazine) or 2 (an online forum or science blog) B 3 or 6 (a newspaper or a popular science magazine) C 4 (an academic journal) or possibly 6 (a popular science magazine) D'2 (an online forum or science blog) E 4 (an academic journal) Not included 1 (a conference),

b Students discuss the questions in pairs and then feed back to the class

Language note: noticing style in writing Noticing the style (or genre) of a text can be challenging for students at intermediate levels

However,

the ability to recognise that different kinds of writing (e

research paper) use different kinds of language will be necessary for students to progress to a more advanced level

Some features you could draw students’ attention to for each extract are given below

A includes: l'less formal phrases (more people were … there are some points to consider when putting …),

which suggest a newspaper l'an in-text reference (the study by Lipton et al

which suggests an academic paper This extract probably comes from a popular science magazine or a science blog (the actual source is NHS Options,

an online journal for employees of the UK’s National Health Service)

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UNIT 2 The scientific community B includes: l'multi-word verbs (be down to … look at …) and verb-noun collocations (have a lower risk of … has the greatest effect) suggest that this is a newspaper l'descriptions which give the general idea but no specific details (Tea and coffee drinkers …a large body of evidence … may not be …) l'reference to researchers but no mention of the name or date ( …,

say researchers) This extract probably comes from a newspaper (the actual source is the BBC news website)

C includes: l'a passive verb (can be … generated) l'very specific descriptions (lentivrius-mediated transgenesis … current gene silencing techniques in mammalian systems) l'abbreviations which the writer assumes the reader knows (RNAi) This extract probably comes from an academic journal or a high-quality science magazine aimed at professionals (the actual source is an abstract for a scientific research paper in an academic journal)

D'includes: l'Informal phrases (Hi

!) and an ‘emoticon’ (a symbol which represents the writer’s feeling about something) ( :-( ),

which suggest a personal email l'An address to more than one reader (Has anyone …

which suggests a forum post l'very specific descriptions (nanoparticles sticking to glassware … silylation protocol),

which suggest a more formal academic use This extract probably comes from a forum post (the actual source is in fact a science forum)

E includes: l'use of Latin phrases in italics (in vitro) l'very specific descriptions (inhibit breast cancer metastasis … risk of death from breast cancer … a prospective observational study) l'use of ‘hedging’ language – phrases which make a claim more cautious (studies suggest that … aspirin may inhibit … Animal and in vitro studies suggest that aspirin may …) This extract probably comes from an academic journal or a high-quality science magazine aimed at professionals (the actual source is an abstract for a scientific research paper in an academic journal)

Students read extracts A–E in Exercise 2a again carefully and complete the second column of the table

Answers 1 does anyone know …

! 4 say researchers in Archives of Internal Medicine 5 Lipton et al

(2010) 6 This was a prospective observational study 7 will need to be verified 8 in vitro

b Students discuss the questions in pairs and then feed back to the class

Answers Features 5,6,7 and 8 are appropriate for formal scientific research papers Features 1,2,

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b Allow time for students to read the posts and to think about the answers to the questions

Students then feed back to the class

Extension activity: online research Ask students to research the answers to these 3 questions online

Answers posted in response to the forum posts at the time said the following: A: Virologists don’t know B: Barium sulphate,

Writing clearly helps because it makes it easier for a busy editor to understand the message but a paper wouldn’t be declined just because it was not well-written

c Students read the posts again and match each sentence to its function

Answers Post A: a 1,

d Ask students to look at the Subject fields and then elicit how the questions differ from normal questions

Answers There are no question words,

the) and no main verbs (can’t in B belongs to the relative clause which can’t …

considered in C is a past participle)

Extension activity: noun phrases* as questions Write the following questions on the board and ask students to make each one into an appropriate subject line for an online post: l'

Can anyone tell me what V5 antibody I should use for IP

What’s the best protocol for extracting bacterial RNA from cells in agar

Suggested answers V5 antibody for IP

? Best protocol for extracting bacterial RNA from cells in agar

? * Noun phrases are widely used in all forms of academic writing,

including scientific research papers

A noun phrase consists of a noun (e

whose meaning is specified by the addition of words before and/or after the noun (e

nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or survival among women with breast cancer)

For more information on noun phrases see Cambridge Grammar of English pages 318–373

Additional activity Unit 2: indirect questions One way to make questions more polite is to make them less direct

For practice with indirect questions,

you can use this Additional activity worksheet for Unit 2 in the Resources section of the Cambridge English for Scientists website

e Allow time for students to think of a question and to write their forum post

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Extension activity: getting answers to forum posts If your class have related specialisms,

they could try to answer their peers’ posts

You could also encourage the students to post their questions on a real internet forum such as http://network

which both have free registration

Students discuss the questions in pairs and then feed back to the class

Suggested answers 2 If you use an inappropriate style,

your work will not be respected and it may not even be understood

Even good research may not be published if written in an inappropriate style

keep a record of where you read it (a book,

why it was written (to entertain,

who it was written for (the public,

then underline useful words and phrases that you only/mostly find used in those texts

Writing a critical review Before you begin … Find a selection of news headlines reporting recent developments in your class’s areas of interest

com/ is a good source as it can be browsed or searched by subject area

Elicit what the story behind the headline might be

Students then read the articles and report back on the actual news story

Suggested answers 2 The science reported in the media is often exaggerated so,

something that was found to reduce stress may be portrayed as curing it,

something which causes a small change may be suggested to cause a large change

In addition,

the context of the research is often removed or the findings are extrapolated,

is presented as applying to humans,

a finding in certain people presented as applying to the population as a whole

The difference occurs because bold statements are much more eye-catching and the public is often not (believed to be) interested in details

look at the original journal article

b Allow students time to complete the sentences individually

Students then discuss their ideas in pairs and feed back to the class

Suggested answers a If you read research critically,

it means that you think about what you are reading,

considering what is good and what is not good about the research done (particularly the method used and the conclusions drawn from the results)

b You should always read research critically because it allows you to judge how reliable the results obtained are and how credible the conclusions drawn are

Note: critical review and criticism A critical review of a piece of research is not the same as a criticism

A critical review should consider both the positive and negative points of the research

A criticism focuses only on the negative aspects

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They then listen to the recording and make notes on Martina’s answers to the questions

Ryuchi needs to read the whole paper in order to write a critical review of it

make a table and note the key points from each section of the paper

b Students match the questions to the correct section of the research paper and then feed back to the class

Note: dependant variables,

independent variables and controlled variables Variables are the features which can change in an experiment

In any experiment,

there will be one dependent variable,

which is the feature being measured,

one or more independent variables,

the features which are changed and one or more controlled variables,

Answers Introduction: 4,

c Allow students time to check the meanings of the words in the box

d'Students read the summary column of the table and answer as many of the questions in Exercise 7b as they can

You could ask the students to say what they think the answers to questions 4 and 7 might be

Answers The questions which can be answered are: Method 1 What variables were investigated

? Changes in cortisol and catecholamines in urine,

and changes in energy metabolism and in gut microbial activities before eating dark chocolate and after 8 and 15 days of eating 40 g chocolate/day in high and low anxiety participants 5 Who/What was studied

? 30 young healthy adults 6 What procedure was used

? Questionnaire to divide group into high vs low anxiety

Blood and urine samples taken

Blood and urine samples taken again at 8 days and 15 days Results 3 What were the main findings

? All participants had lower levels of stress hormones in the blood

the high and low anxiety groups had more similar energy metabolism and gut microbial activity after eating the chocolate than before

Discussion 2 How did the authors interpret the results

? 40 g chocolate a day for 2 weeks can change metabolism

This could affect health in the long term

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UNIT 2 The scientific community Suggested answers The research is relevant because stress-related diseases are believed to be increasing in society

Finding something which reduces stress could be of therapeutic benefit

The hypothesis could have been that chocolate could reduce stress

People often claim this anecdotally

e Before they look at the opinion column and listen to Ryuchi and Martina

you could elicit from students their opinion of the research

Allow students time to look at the opinion column before you play the recording

Students listen to the recording to complete the notes

You could also check the meanings of: sample size: the number of subjects (in this case people) assigned to a treatment condition in an experiment or study

*These two items are in the Glossary on Student’s Book pages 117–125

f Students discuss the questions in pairs and then feed back to the class

Note: credible,

significant and valid If research is credible we can believe the results

If it is original,

the research has not been done before

If it is reliable,

the research could be repeated and the same results would be found

Significant research produces findings which are important

If research is valid,

it tests what it claims to test

A good piece of research should be all of these things

Answers 1 No,

they don’t include all the main points from the notes

Not mentioned are: From the summary column: – The researcher’s interpretations of the results as presented in the discussion section of the table From the opinion column: – The short trial period – The fact that they did not look at stress levels / reported anxiety after eating the chocolate – The suggestions for improving the study (i

need more people with the same anxiety levels / give chocolate or placebo / look at long-term changes / use a blind trial) 2 a Extract A summarises part of the research b Extract B gives an evaluation

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b Students read the extracts and replace the underlined phrases with an underlined expression from Exercise 8a

Note The brachial artery referred to in extract b is the main artery in the upper arm

Answers a b c'd'e f

One problem with this research is

In addition / Furthermore Furthermore / In addition changes in [blood flow] were analysed The research found The results cannot be applied to

making it impossible to Blood samples were taken

c Students order the extracts in Exercise 8b to make two paragraphs

Answers A paragraph which summarises the research: f,

d A paragraph which gives an evaluation: a,e

Students find a piece of published research in their field to review

Many of the articles at http://www

com/ have links to the original research or if students have access to a database such as Science Direct www

they could use this to find an article

Students make a table and take notes on the key points in the article,

Encourage the students to use only their notes when writing their critical review rather than looking back at original text

This will help them to write using their own words and will stop them being tempted to ‘copy’ from the source text

Extension activity: comparing science in the media with actual scientific research The news articles introduced by the headlines in Exercise 6a can be found at the following links: http://www

com/releases/2009/11/091111123612

php Students read these articles and compare how the science presented in the news article differs from the actual science as described by Ryuchi

Alternatively,

they could compare a news report of the research they chose in Exercise 9 with the actual science

Completing a Material Transfer Agreement Before you begin… Ask students to make a list of the most common materials they use in their research and where they get these materials from

Students compare their lists in pairs and then feed back to the class

You might want to ask students if any of the materials on their list require approval and why

You could introduce the terms BioSafety and Ethics Committee Approval

These committees are explained in a note under Exercise 11a,

Note An MTA is sometimes referred to as a Material Transfer Agreement and sometimes Materials Transfer Agreement

Both versions are acceptable and commonly used

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Students read the email,

discuss the questions in pairs and then feed back to the class

Answers 1 To remind members of staff that protecting their work and using their work commercially are important

b Students read the next part of the email and match the headings to the extracts

Answers 1 D   2 C   3 B   4 E   5 A

c Students discuss the questions in pairs and then feed back to the class

Write the students’ answers to question 3 on the board to be referred to after Exercise 11a

Suggested answers 2 MTAs may be needed for things like: ●  substances (e

nucleic acid) ●  biological organisms (e

plants) ●  genetically modified organisms (e

micro-organism) ●  biological materials (e

urine or other body products) ●  software ●  nuclear materials Any material that is commercially available will not require an MTA

what the material is and what it is to be used for

where the material will be used/stored

whether approval has been given for its use (e

biosafety approval / ethics approval)

whether it will be used for commercial gain

Allow time for students to read the MTA

Students then feed back on the information which is the same as or different to that mentioned in Exercise 10c,

Note A Biosafety Committee reviews applications regarding research projects involving the use of Genetically Modified Organisms and biohazardous materials

It ensures that laboratory activities are planned and carried out in ways that protect the health and safety of employees,

and prevent damage to property

An Ethics Committee reviews applications for research involving the use of animals and human subjects

IP (Intellectual Property) refers to creations of the mind including discoveries and inventions for which property rights are recognized

b Students listen to the recording and complete the MTA

Answers 1 No   2 No   3 Yes   4 Yes   5 No   6 Yes   7 Joint   8 Yes

c Students discuss the questions in pairs and then feed back to the class

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UNIT 2 The scientific community Suggested answers 1 A lay summary is a summary written for the general public,

not for an expert in the field

Anyone should be able to understand it

He should keep the writing impersonal,

for example by avoiding personal pronouns and by using passive forms

He should avoid exclamation marks,

If they are a scientist,

they will not necessarily work in Binh’s field

d Students complete the summary using the phrases in the box

Answers 1 2 3 4

material is samples of different types of will be stained to show The aim of the research is to investigate

Extension activity: completing an MTA Students complete the blank version of the MTA form below for some material they use in their research

MATERIAL TRANSFER FORM SECTION A (to be completed when sending or receiving material): Recipient Researcher: Recipient Institution & Address: Provider Researcher: Material Name: Is this work involved with existing commercial arrangements

? Does the work involving the material have commercial potential

? Is BioSafety Committee Approval required

? Is Ethics Committee Approval required

has Ethics and/or BioSafety Approval been received

?  Who will own the IP in any modifications to,

or data collected  on the material

? Will any University of the South students be involved in using the material

Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No University / Other / Joint Yes / No

SECTION B (to be completed when receiving material): Brief lay summary of what the material is and what it will be used for:

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Allow time for the students to think of some material and to write their lay summary

If you used the extension activity in Exercise 10b,

you could ask the students to add their summary to section B of the MTA

If the students are from different fields,

they could read each other’s summaries to check that they are understandable to a lay person

Extension activity: comparing MTAs Ask the students to find MTAs from different institutions online (or their own institution if they have an MTA in English)

Students compare the MTAs to find similarities and differences and then feed back to the class

Additional activity Unit 2: Ethics Committee Approval For more on Ethics Committee Approval,

use this Additional activity worksheet for Unit 2 in the Resources section

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UNIT 2 The scientific community

Background information and useful web links Critical Review A critical review summarizes and evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of a book,

A critical review does not mean criticising the text in a negative manner

Useful web links Writing a Critical Review http://www

html Using a Scientific Journal Article to write a Critical Review http://www

ca/assistance/writing_services/components/documents/ scientific_review

Technology Transfer and Material Transfer Agreements Technology transfer is the process of sharing of skills,

between institutions to ensure that scientific developments are accessible to a wider range of users

A Material Transfer Agreement (MTA) is a contract that governs the transfer of tangible research materials between two organizations,

when the recipient intends to use it for his or her own research purposes

The MTA defines the rights of the provider and the recipient with respect to the materials and any derivatives

Useful web links Technology Transfer http://en

org/wiki/Technology_transfer Material Transfer Agreement http://en

org/wiki/Material_transfer_agreement Quick Guide to Material Transfer Agreements at UC Berkeley http://www

Chocolate and stress Chocolate can affect the brain by causing the release of various neurotransmitters,

molecules which transmit signals between neurons

The neurotransmitters affected by chocolate include endorphins,

which are known to reduce pain and stress

which affects blood pressure and blood-sugar levels and increases alertness,

improves mood and reduces depression

which stimulates dopamine production leading to positive feelings

which causes physical and mental relaxation and increases alertness

Useful web links Brain cannabinoids in chocolate http://kkloukin

htm The sweet lure of chocolate http://www

edu/exploring/exploring_chocolate/index

Ethics Committee An Ethics Committee is an independent body consisting of science professionals and non-specialist members,

whose responsibility it is to protect the rights,

safety and well-being of human and animal subjects involved in research