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Calculation of Displacement, LWT and DWT

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Description

Document no : 01

Displacement,

LWT and DWT

Attachment Number of pages

Miftahuddin nur rev

Document Title

Prepared by

Dwi Priyanta Ir

Hari ,MSE Prastowo,

Reviwed by Approved by

Electrical Systems and Engine Room

Project Doc

No Displacement,

LWT and DWT Rev

No page

Table of contents 1

Introduction…

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

Objective……………

……………………………………………………………………………………………

Reference………

………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1 4

Abbreviation……………

………………………………………………………………………………………

Description of calculation……………

………………………………………………………………

Summary

……………………………………………………………………………

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Introduction 1

Displasement Displasemen volume is the total volume of water displaced by the weight of an object

There are two factors that affect the displacement of the ship,

the weight of the ship components that can be transformed (DWT) and the weight of the ship components that can not be changed (LWT)

Light Weight Tonnage Based on the book "Practical ship design chapter 4" LWT ship explained that consists of several components: 1

Weight of ship's structural 2

Weight of outfitting 3

Weight of Machinery 4

Recidual Weight

Dead Weight Tonnage Is the weight that come from the value of weight displacement minus the light weight tonnages

That consist of cargo's weight,

provision and ship's crew weight 2

Objective The objective of this document is to determine the estimation of displacement,

and dead weight tonnage in order to find the relation between 3

Reference Practical Ship Design,

Chapter 4 Weight-Based Designs,

Abbreviation Lpp = Length of between perpendicular Lwl = Length of waterline B = Breadth of ship H = Height of ship T = Draught of ship Vs = Ships velocity Cb = Block coefficient ρsea water = Sea water density K = Wet steel weight's constant SFOC = Specific Fuel Oil Consumption

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No W res ▼ ∆ Wst E l1 l2 h1 h2 Woa Wm Wd MCR RPM Wr Wres

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

Reserve weight Displacement volume Ships displacement Wet steel weight Steel weights parameter Length of forecastle deck Length of poop deck Height of forecastle deck Height of poop deck Weight of outfit and accomdation Machineriy weight Main engines weight Maximum continous rating (kW) Engine RPM Auxiliary engines weight Reserve weight

Description of calculation 5

Displacement Volume ▼= Lwl x B x T x Cb where : ▼ = Displacement volume Lwl = Ships length on the water line B = Ship width in the middle of ship T = Draft on fully cargo Cb = Block coefficients b

Weight Displacement ∆ = ▼x ρ sea water where : = ships displacement ∆ = ships displacement volume ▼ ρ sea water = the density of sea water 5

Weight of ship's structural According to the book "Practical Ship Design chapter 4/4

to calculate the weight of the structure of the ship can use the formula :

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Wst = K x E1,36 where : K = Coefisien,

depend on ship type E = Equipment Numerical

According the value of the number of equipment (E) Lyold appropriate as written in the book "Practical Ship Design"by DGM Watson,

referring to the 1877 RINA (Lecure Ship Design and Ship Theory,

Poels Herald p

85 L'( D

-T ) + 0

70 to 0

so that needed to do a correction

Weight Outfit and accommodation (Woa) For heavy outfit and accommodation according to Practical Ship Design,

it can be seen the value of Wo/L xB

For container ships withLpp 112 m = 0,3

Weight of Machinery Divided into two components: propulsion machinery and remainder

Based on the book "Principal Ship Design"by DGM Watson page 108 Chapter 4

Main Engine weight can be estimated with the following formula : Wd = 12 (MCR/RPM)

weight of remainder can be estimated with the following formula : Wr = K x (MCR)^0

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So the result of Machinery Weight is Wd+Wr,

Wm = Wd+Wr

Recidual Weight According to Practical Ship Design on page 114,

for the calculation of reserves it is necessary to add weight

Weight by 2-3% due to avoid mistakes in planning and things that might not been included in previous calculations

So the formula of recidual weight is : Wres = 2% (Wst + Woa + Wd + Wr + Wmt)

Now we know the value

then we can calculate the value of LWT by summing the weight calculation remains the ship: LWT = Wst + Woa + Wd + Wr + Wmt + Wres

Deadweight is the weight of that load cargo ship laden water up to a maximum allowable

This can be formulated with the formula: DWT = ∆

- LWT 5

Here are steps in determining the payload

Payload = DWT

DWT = Dead Weight Tonnage Wtotal =Weight of fuel oil,

HFO (Heavy Fuel Oil) a

HFO's weight The formula,

as follows : WHFO = SFOC x BHP x time to voyage x constants addition of fuel Where,

= weight of heavy fuel oil SFOC = specific fuel oil consumption (project guide) BHP = break horse power of main engine (project guide) constants addition of fuel = 1

Project Doc

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HFO's tank volume We should consider about the increasing temperature inside the tanks of HFO,

so we add some alocation of expansion margins approximately 2%

The formula,

as follows : VHFO = ((100%+3%)*WHFO)/ ρHFO Where,

VHFO = HFO's tanks volume WHFO

= weight of heavy fuel oil Alocation of expansion = 3% 3 ρHFO = 0

DO (Diesel Oil) a

DO's weight estimation of diesel oil's weight is 10%-20% of hfo weight for the result : WDO = 20% x WHFO b

DO's tanks volume We should consider about the increasing temperature inside the tanks of DO,

so we add some alocation of expansion margins approximately 2%

The formula,

as follows : VDO = ((100%+3%)*WDO)/ ρDO Where,

= weight of heavy fuel oil Alocation of expansion = 3% 3 ρDO = 0

LO (Lubricating Oil) a

LO's weight The formula,

as follows : WLO = SLOC x BHP x time to voyage x constant addition of fuel where,

SLOC = Specific Lubricating Oil Consumption = 0

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LO's tanks volume We should consider the increasing temperature inside the tanks of LO,so we add some alocation of expansion margins approximately 2% 3%

The formula,

as follows : VLO = WLO / ρLO where,

3 ρLO = 0

9 ton/m iv

Fresh Water a

Consumption for crew fresh water needs estimation = 20 kg/persons/day b

Bath and laundry needs fresh water needs estimation = 200 kg/persons/day c

Cooking needs fresh water needs estimation = 4 kg/persons/day d

Machinery needs 1

main engine fresh water needs estimation = 7 gr/kWh 2

auxiliary engine fresh water estimation = 0

Crew and Provision a

crew's weight total crews = 20 persons average weight of crews = 70 kg b

provision's weight average provisions needs =

Weight Total of Ship Supplies W total = WHFO+WDO+WLO+Wfreshwater+Wcrews+Wprov PAYLOAD

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Summary NO

CALCULATION

1 2 3 4 5

Displacement Volume

9402,12

Weight Displacement

9637,17

Light Weight Tonnage

3953,68

Dead Weight Tonnage

5683,49

5538,85

Payload

Attachment 1 Detail Calculation of Displasement,

LWT dan DWT

Project

Estimation of Displasement,

No LWT dan DWT page

Calculation Details Principal Dimension Container Ship Lpp = 112,00 meter

Lwl = 117,60 meter

Power Engine =

B = 20,00 meter

Sailing time =

Vs = 16,50 knots =

Calculation of Ship's Displacement Volume Displacement ▼ = Lwl x B x T x Cb =

Weight Displacement

Because the ships operating at sea,

then the value of rho(density) was used sea water rho(density) : ρ = 1,025 ton/m³ ∆=∇xρ = 9637,2 ton Determination of the number of crew

In determining the number of the crew should be as efficient as possible,

as this affects the size of the room and the limited amount of supplies of food and fresh water

Factors that influence the type of ship,

the number of jobs served by the crew,

sisitem existing automation on ships,

and regulations of the country concerned

In determining the number of crew that is used is 20 people

Payload

The payload is the cargo on board and pay (making money)

The formula can be used to determine the payload is : Payload = DWT

So to be able to know the payload on the vessel which is designed we must calculate the first (LWT),

which brought supplies and Weight Lightweight

Project

Estimation of Displasement,

No LWT dan DWT page

Light weight (LWT) ~ Weight of ship's structural According to the book "Practical Ship Design chapter 4/4

to calculate the weight of the structure of the ship can use the formula perndekatan as follows:

Wst = K x E

depend on ship type E = Equipment Numerical According the value of the number of equipment (E) Lyold appropriate as written in the book "Practical Ship Design"by DGM Watson,

referring to the 1877 RINA (Lecure Ship Design and Ship Theory,

Poels Herald p

E = L'x (B + T) + 0,85L x (H

Lfore =

Hfore =

H MAIN DECK =

LDECK A =

H DECK A =

LDECK B =

H DECK B=

L DECK C =

H DECK C=

H DECK D=

MAIN DECK

Project

Estimation of Displasement,

No LWT dan DWT page

E = L'x (B + T) + 0,85L x (H

K = 0,036 (for container ship) Wst = k x E1

70 to 0

so that needed to do a correction : correction of Cb = Cb + ( 1

Weight Outfit and accommodation (Woa) For heavy outfit and accommodation according to Practical Ship Design,

it can be seen the value of Wo/L xB

For container ships with Lpp 112 m= 0,3 Woa = the value of(Wo / L'xB) x Lpp x B = 672,00 Ton

Propulsion machinery weight Based on the book "Principal Ship Design"by DGM Watson page 108 Chapter 4

Main Engine weight can be estimated with the following formula :

Project Estimation of Displasement,

No LWT dan DWT Rev

No page

No 0,84 Wd = 12 (MCR/RPM) = 139,6 ton

BHPMCR = 3900 kW rpm= 210

Calculation weight of remainder (Wr) Based on the book "Principal Ship Design"by DGM Watson page 110 Chapter 4

weight of remainder can be estimated with the following formula : Wr = K x (MCR)^0

Weight of generator set (Wmt)

Based on the book "Principal Ship Design"by DGM Watson page 111 Chapter 4

72(MCR)^0

Maximum

Continous Rating genset However,

because of the power generator to be installed is not known,

it is assumed that the generator will be installed is with the power of 120 kW of 3 sets

So the value can be calculated as follows wmt : Wmt = 0

72(MCR) 0

Calculation of Recidual weight According to Practical Ship Design on page 114,

for the calculation of reserves it is necessary to add weight

Weight by 2-3% due to avoid mistakes in planning and things that might not been included in previous calculations

Wres = 2% (Wst + Woa + Wd + Wr + Wmt) =

Calculation of LWT Now we know the value

then we can calculate the value of LWT by summing the weight calculation remains the ship: LWT = Wst + Woa + Wd + Wr + Wmt + Wres = 3953,7 ton

Project

Estimation of Displasement,

No LWT dan DWT page

Dead weight (DWT) According to the book "Ship Knowledge A Modern Encyclopedia" page 28,

Deadweight is the weight of that load cargo ship laden water up to a maximum allowable

This can be formulated with the formula: DWT = ∆

- LWT =

Payload Calculation Payload is the total weight of cargo that can be transported by ship to the income (profit) of a ship

Here are the steps in determining the payload weight

Payload = DWT

Calculation of Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO) Unknown: SFOC =

Constanta addition of fuel oil = 1,3-1,5 taken = 1,3

107,7 ton

Calculation of Volume HFO Tank VHFO = WHFO/ ρ HFO ρHFO = 1 Ton/m3 3 = 108,66 m

According to the book "Ship Design and Construction section 5" page 65,

in the calculation of the volume of the fuel tank (HFO) will need to add a margin of 2% ~ 4% to anticipate expansion of fuel because of increases in temperature in the tank,

so that the volume of HFO tanks required: VHFO = (1+4%) x WHFO) 3 = 111,99 m

Calculation of Marine Diesel Oil (DO) Diesel oil is usually used as fuel for generators and motor process of flushing the mains when not operated in the long term

Heavy Diesel Oil which is carried in shipping approximately 0

in this case tken 0,2 Weight of Marine Diesel Oil (WMDO) WMDO = 0

Project

Estimation of Displasement,

No LWT dan DWT page

Calculation of tank volume MDO Selected : type of DO = DM-A ρ DO (at 15° C) = 1 ton/m3 VMDO = WMDO/ ρ MDO 3 = 24,20 m According to the book "Ship Design and Construction section 5" page 65,

the calculation of the volume of the fuel tank (DO) should be added margin of 2% ~ 4% to anticipate if fuel (DO) terekspansi because of increases in temperature in the tank,

so that the volume of tank DO required: V MDO = (1+4%)x VMDO ~

Weight of Crew and Provision Weight provision = Total crew x provision needed per day x Longest trip

Total crew = Weight per crew =

Project

Estimation of Displasement,

No LWT dan DWT page

Wcrew = 1,4 ton weight of total crew = total crew x the average weight of crew where : porvision need = 3

Freshwater needs Supplies of fresh water on the ship in this case is calculated on the maximum demand conditions,

namely when the ship set sail and when the ship was doing loading and unloading

The need for fresh water on board is divided over the need: a

Eat and drink of crew b

Washing and sanitary c

Cooling Engine In the design of planned: Sea time = 5 day Loading and unloading = 2 day Based on data used to determine the need is : a

Eat and drink of crew (Wfwd) Consumption = 10 kg/man/day (estimation between 10

Shower and wash (WFS) Consumption = 60 kg/man/day (estimation between 60

Cooking (Wfwc) Consumption = 4 kg/man/day (estimation between 3

Project

Estimation of Displasement,

No LWT dan DWT page

= 7,0 day ∑ Water Needs = 0,6 ton d

Cooling engine

Wfwj = P x c'x (S/Vs) x 10 = 2,34 ton

can know the total requirement of fresh water during travel and handling that is equal to: Wfw = Wfwd + Wfws + Wfwc + Wfwj + Wfae = 13,05 ton From the calculations above requirement can be further calculated the total weight by using the following calculation: W total provision = WHFO + WMDO + WLO + Wcrew + Wprov + Wfw = 144,64 ton Calculation of Payload After knowing the total weight of supplies and deadweight ship,

the vessel can be calculated the amount of payload: Payload = DWT