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Chloride Handbook

Description

CALCIUM CHLORIDE HANDBOOK A Guide to Properties,

Storage and Handling

Table of Contents A Profile of DOW Calcium Chloride Products LIQUIDOW* calcium chloride liquid

Health and Safety Handling Data

*Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company

The Responsible Care® Commitment Dow is committed to the safe and responsible use of its products

Because of this commitment,

Dow has adopted the Guiding Principles of the Responsible Care initiative

Dow is well positioned to endorse the Responsible Care initiative because several programs have already been implemented toward the responsible management of the chemicals Dow sells

Dow’s calcium chloride products and it's related environmental stewardship program is one of

The stewardship program for calcium chloride is a comprehensive program of safety literature and materials,

regulatory and environmental information and other stewardship resources available to all Dow customers

It is designed to provide all users of Dow calcium chloride with materials they may need to use,

and dispose of calcium chloride in a safe and responsible manner

® Service Mark of The American Chemistry Council

alcium chloride is one of the most versatile of the basic chemicals

It has been produced commercially for well over 100 years

The properties and characteristics of calcium chloride make it useful in a large number of applications

This handbook details the significant properties of calcium chloride in its pure form and in the specific commercial forms available from Dow

The properties of pure calcium chloride are generally very similar to those of commercial products since they contain only a small percentage of other substances

This handbook gives instructions on dissolving solid forms of calcium

chloride and diluting and concentrating liquid forms

It discusses equipment,

materials of construction and methods of handling and storing calcium chloride

Finally,

it gives important precautions to be observed in the interest of safety and environmental protection

Recognizing that no handbook can possibly cover every question,

we welcome questions related to the use of this highly versatile chemical

Call or write The Dow Chemical Company,

Customer Information Center,

Midland,

Michigan 48674

Phone 1-800-447-4369

Calcium Chloride Products available from Dow The Dow Chemical Company markets calcium chloride under the trademarks LIQUIDOW*,

DOWFLAKE* and PELADOW*

LIQUIDOW calcium chloride is a solution

DOWFLAKE and PELADOW calcium chloride are both solid forms

DOWFLAKE calcium chloride is sold as a 77–80% calcium chloride flake while PELADOW calcium chloride is available as a 90% pellet and a 91–92% briquette

Complete product specifications are available through your Dow sales representative or through our Customer Information Group at 800-447-4369

The following is a brief description of each product

DOWFLAKE

LIQUIDOW

Table 1 — Solid Calcium Chloride Equivalence @ 25°C (77°F)

LIQUIDOW calcium chloride is manufactured in concentrations of 28% to 42% and 45% and is also available in a Food Grade formulation (32% calcium chloride)

LIQUIDOW food grade calcium chloride meets or exceeds Food Chemicals Codex (FCC IV) monograph for calcium chloride solution and complies with FDA Good Manufacturing Practice Guidelines

It also meets American Water Works Association (AWWA) Standard B-550 and is Kosher certified

During colder seasons — late fall through early spring — it is important to ship high concentration solutions in insulated trucks to avoid crystallization

Weaker solutions (less than 32–35%) can be shipped in regular trucks

Table 1 shows approximate volume-weight relationships between LIQUIDOW,

DOWFLAKE and PELADOW (90% and 94–97%) products,

and approximate freezing points for calcium chloride solutions

LIQUIDOW calcium chloride meets ASTM D'98 classification “Type L

” *Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company

DOWFLAKE calcium chloride is manufactured in flake form

The product contains approximately 78% calcium chloride and about 17% water from crystallization

This form of calcium chloride is also known as the “dihydrate

” DOWFLAKE 77–80% calcium chloride meets ASTM D'98 classification as “Type S,

Grade 1,

Class A

” DOWFLAKE 77–80% process grade calcium chloride meets or exceeds Food Chemicals Codex (FCC IV) monograph for calcium chloride dihydrate and complies with FDA

Good Manufacturing Guidelines

It also meets the American Water Works Association (AWWA) standard B-550 and is Kosher certified

The bulk density of DOWFLAKE calcium chloride is 51 to 60 pounds per cubic foot and its angle of repose is approximately 30° from the horizontal

However,

due to the storage properties of DOWFLAKE,

in order to obtain gravity flow,

to design storage bins with slopes steeper than the angle of repose for the dry material

The minimum serviceable angle from the horizontal for DOWFLAKE is approximately 45

Typical Concentration of LIQUIDOW 32%

Pounds DOWFLAKE equivalent to 1 gallon LIQUIDOW

Pounds PELADOW 90% equivalent to 1 gallon LIQUIDOW

Pounds Anhydrous Calcium Chloride 94–97% Mini-pellets equivalent to 1 gallon LIQUIDOW

Gallons LIQUIDOW equivalent to 1 ton DOWFLAKE

Gallons LIQUIDOW equivalent to 1 ton PELADOW 90%

Gallons LIQUIDOW equivalent to 1 ton Anhydrous Calcium Chloride 94–97% Mini-pellets

Gallons LIQUIDOW in 1 liquid ton

9°C (48°F)

Freezing Point

DOWFLAKE calcium chloride meets the following gradation requirements: Table 2 — Gradation Requirements of DOWFLAKE Sieve Size

Weight Percent Passing

80–100

0–5 4

Pellets Pelletized concentrated calcium chloride is manufactured in pellet (PELADOW),

briquette (PELADOW DG) or Mini-pellets (Anhydrous) form

Pellet form products are 90–92% calcium chloride (PELADOW) or an anhydrous 94–97% calcium chloride

The high calcium chloride content and the pellet form are the principal differences between these products and DOWFLAKE calcium chloride

PELADOW meets ASTM D'98 specification “Type S,

Grade 2,

Class B

” Anhydrous Calcium Chloride 94–97% Mini-pellets meets ASTM D'98 specification “Type S,

Grade 3,

Class B

” Dow also produces pelletized calcium chloride that is suitable as a direct additive for human foods: FOOD GRADE Anhydrous 94–97% Calcium Chloride Mini-Pellets

This highly concentrated form of calcium chloride meets or exceeds the Food Chemical Codex (FCC IV) monograph for solid calcium chloride,

is manufactured according to FDA Good Practice Guidelines,

meets American Water Works Association (AWWA) standard B-550,

all physical property information that pertains to Anhydrous Calcium Chloride 94–97% Mini-Pellets also applies to our FOOD GRADE Anhydrous Calcium Chloride 94–97% Mini-Pellets

) For indirect use in food processing,

Dow produces BRINERS CHOICE* Anhydrous Calcium Chloride

BRINERS CHOICE anhydrous calcium chloride meets or exceeds the Food Chemicals Codex (FCC IV) monograph for aqueous solutions of calcium chloride,

is manufactured according to the FDA Good Manufacturing Practice Guidelines,

meets American Water Works Association (AWWA) standard B-550,

The bulk densities of pelletized products vary

See Table 5

This data is available on sales specifications of each specific product or by contacting your nearest Dow Sales representative

The angle of repose of these products varies between 25° and 32° from the horizontal

chloride for dehydration applications

This product is briquetted in an “almond” shape

The briquettes are designed to reduce the amount of bridging and channeling that occurs occasionally in dehydrators

PELADOW DG calcium chloride has a minimum of 91% calcium chloride

Table 4 presents some typical physical properties of PELADOW DG calcium chloride

In addition to its calcium chloride content,

these are considered the most important properties relative to the use of PELADOW DG in dehydration

However,

due to the storage properties of pelletized products,

in order to obtain gravity flow,

to design storage bins with slopes steeper than the angle of repose for the dry material

The minimum serviceable angle from the horizontal for pelletized products is approximately 35°

PELADOW DG PELADOW DG calcium chloride is the latest improvement in calcium

PELADOW and Anhydrous Calcium Chloride 94–97% Mini-pellets products meet the following gradation requirements: Table 3 — Gradation Requirement of Pelletized Products PELADOW

Anhydrous Calcium Chloride 94–97% Mini-pellets

Sieve Size

Weight Percent Passing

Sieve Size

Weight Percent Passing

80–100

80–100

TABLE 4 — Typical Physical Traits of PELADOW DG Bulk Density

Briquette Density

88 g/cc

Briquette Porosity

15–20%

Bed Void Space (Loose Pack)

45–50%

Briquette Shape

Briquette Size

1" length

Angle of Repose

Table 5 — Bulk Densities of Pellet and Flake Calcium Chloride Product

Bulk Density

PELADOW Calcium Chloride

Anhydrous Calcium Chloride 94–97% Mini-pellets

BRINERS CHOICE Anhydrous Calcium Chloride

DOWFLAKE 77–80% Calcium Chloride

DOWFLAKE Process Grade Calcium Chloride

*Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company

Properties of Pure Calcium Chloride

Literature data on the physical properties of calcium chloride,

its hydrates and solutions refer generally to pure material

Pure calcium chloride,

is only available in smaller quantities from chemical reagent supply houses

LIQUIDOW,

DOWFLAKE,

PELADOW,

and PELADOW DG brand calcium chloride are commercial grades of calcium chloride which contain other trace elements and compounds manufactured within the limits defined by The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standards

Data specific to these commercial materials are given in this handbook

Other physical properties of interest,

which have been determined only for pure calcium chloride are included in this section since they can be applied to Dow’s calcium chloride products with an error of a few percent,

which is accurate enough for most purposes

Temperature Scale Most modern physical property data are given in terms of the Celsius (°C) scale of temperature and this is the primary scale for graphs and tables in this handbook

However since the Fahrenheit (°F) scale is still extensively used,

Fahrenheit temperature will also be given when convenient

Conversion of temperatures can be done through the use of the following equations

From °F to °C,

°C = 5/9(°F – 32) From °C to °F,

°F = (9/5 x °C) + 32 Physical Properties of Hydrates

chemical values have negative signs when the process is exothermic,

This convention follows present National Bureau of Standards practice

A positive sign or no sign indicates the process is endothermic,

Anhydrous calcium chloride and the lower hydrates emit a large amount of heat when dissolved in water

this may cause a temperature rise great enough to boil water and create a safety hazard

Data regarding temperature rise resulting from dissolution of DOWFLAKE and PELADOW calcium chloride is summarized in Figure 4 on page 11 of this handbook

The physical properties of pure anhydrous calcium chloride and the hydrates of calcium chloride shown in Figure 1 are listed in Table 6

This data was compiled from the literature and files of The Dow Chemical Company

Note that the thermo-

TABLE 6 — Properties of Calcium Chloride Hydrates Property

CaCl2•6H2O

CaCl2•4H2O

CaCl2•2H2O

CaCl2•H2O

Composition (% CaCl2)

Molecular Weight

Melting Point1 (°C) (°F)

176 349

187 369

773 1424

Boiling Point2 (°C) (°F)

174 345

183 361

1935 3515

2 –25

8 –131

8 –174

2 –317

Density at 25°C (77°F),

g/cm3 Heat of Fusion (cal/g) (Btu/lb) Heat of Solution3 in H2O (cal/g) (to infinite dilution) (Btu/lb) Heat of Formation3 at 25°C (77°F),

kcal/mole Heat Capacity at 25°C (77°F),

°C or Btu/lb

°F 1Incongruent

where dissociation pressure reaches one atmosphere for hydrates

TEMPERATURE,

–20 SOLUTION & ICE –40 ICE & CaCl2 • 6H2O

CaCl2 • 2H2O & CaCl2 • H2O

CaCl2 • 4H2O & CaCl2 • 2H2O

CaCl2 • 6H2O & SOLUTION

Although calcium chloride is highly soluble in water at ordinary temperatures,

solid phase separation will occur under certain temperatureconcentration conditions

These conditions are defined by the phase diagram of the CaCl2-water system shown in Figure 1

The heavy solid line indicates the point at which a given solution becomes saturated with respect to a solid phase,

either ice or a calcium chloride hydrate

Four hydrates have been identified in the published literature: CaCl2•6H2O,

CaCl2•4H2O,

CaCl2•2H2O and CaCl2•H2O

As an example of how to use the phase diagram,

if a 25% solution of calcium chloride is cooled below –29°C (–20°F),

crystals of ice begin to form and the concentration of the remaining solution increases

As cooling is continued,

more ice separates out and the solution gradually thickens and may appear solid

However,

true solidification does not occur until the temperature reaches –50°C (–59°F),

at which point the remaining solution,

crystallizes as a mixture of ice and calcium chloride hexahydrate

When solutions of concentrations greater than 29

the initial solid phase is a calcium chloride hydrate and the concentration of the remaining solution decreases

Concentrated solutions of calcium chloride have a marked tendency to supercool,

the temperature of the solution may fall several degrees below the line on

Figure 1 — Phase Diagram for CaCl2 and Water Solutions

TEMPERATURE,

Solubility

WEIGHT PERCENT CALCIUM CHLORIDE

the phase diagram without crystallization taking place

When crystals finally do form in these supercooled solutions,

the temperature of the mixture will rise back to the limit defined by the phase diagram

Crystallization points of commercial calcium chloride brines will differ slightly from pure calcium chloride

TABLE 7 — Approximate Properties of Solutions of DOW Calcium Chloride

Specific Gravity @ 77°F (25°C)

Weight lb/gal @ 77°F (kg/liter @ 25°C)

195) 10

205) 10

215) 10

224) 10

236) 10

247) 10

259) 10

271) 10

283) 10

290) 10

294) 10

306) 10

318) 11

330) 11

341) 11

353) 11

365) 11

377) 11

388) 11

400) 11

412) 11

424) 11

435) 12

Gallons per Ton of Sol

@ 77°F (liters/dry metric ton @ 25°C)

— (920) (912) (903) (895) (888) (880) (873) (865) (858) (851) (844) (837) (830) (823) (817) (809) (802) (794) (787) (779) (775) (773) (766) (759) (752) (746) (739) (733) (726) (720) (714) (708) (702) (697) (680)

Gallons per Dry Ton @ 77°F (liters/dry metric ton @ 25°C)

DOWFLAKE 77–80% CaCl2 Equivalent lb/gal of Sol

— 2,208 (9,200) 1,989 (8,287) 1,808 (7,528) 1,653 (6,887) 1,523 (6,334) 1,408 (5,869) 1,309 (5,454) 1,222 (5,089) 1,144 (4,769) 1,074 (4,479) 1,012 (4,219) 956 (3,985) 905 (3,772) 858 (3,578) 817 (3,404) 777 (3,236) 740 (3,084) 706 (2,942) 674 (2,810) 654 (2,688) 629 (2,619) 618 (2,578) 592 (2,470) 569 (2,371) 547 (2,278) 526 (2,193) 507 (2,112) 488 (2,035) 471 (1,963) 455 (1,891) 439 (1,832) 425 (1,771) 411 (1,713) 398 (1,659) 363 (1,512)

139) (0

155) (0

170) (0

186) (0

202) (0

218) (0

235) (0

252) (0

269) (0

286) (0

304) (0

322) (0

340) (0

358) (0

377) (0

396) (0

416) (0

436) (0

456) (0

477) (0

490) (0

498) (0

519) (0

541) (0

563) (0

585) (0

607) (0

630) (0

653) (0

676) (0

700) (0

724) (0

748) (0

773) (0

PELADOW Anhydrous 90%–92% CaCl2 Calcium Chloride Approx

Equivalent 94–97% Mini-pellets Freezing lb/gal of Sol

CaCl2 Equivalent Point in °F @ 77°F lb/gal of Sol

(°C) (kg/liter @ 77°F (kg/liter @ 25°C) @ 25°C)

119) (0

133) (0

146) (0

160) (0

173) (0

187) (0

201) (0

216) (0

231) (0

245) (0

261) (0

276) (0

291) (0

307) (0

323) (0

340) (0

356) (0

374) (0

391) (0

409) (0

420) (0

427) (0

445) (0

463) (0

482) (0

501) (0

520) (0

540) (0

560) (0

580) (0

600) (0

621) (0

631) (0

662) (0

114) (0

127) (0

140) (0

153) (0

166) (0

179) (0

193) (0

207) (0

221) (0

235) (0

250) (0

264) (0

279) (0

294) (0

309) (0

325) (0

341) (0

358) (0

375) (0

392) (0

402) (0

409) (0

426) (0

444) (0

462) (0

480) (0

498) (0

517) (0

536) (0

555) (0

575) (0

594) (0

614) (0

634) (0

Analysis The American Society for Testing and Materials has adopted methods for sampling and analyzing calcium chloride

The fundamental procedures for analysis of these products are found in ASTM Designation E 449

For all tables and graphs in this

the entry “% Calcium Chloride” should be understood to be the value determined by E 449 methods

Copies of current issues of these test methods are available from: American Society for Testing and Materials 1916 Race Street Philadelphia,

PA 19103

DENSITY (lbs/gal)

Solutions of LIQUIDOW,

DOWFLAKE and PELADOW have the same properties at the same concentration

The properties of specific gravity,

density and freezing points are given in Table 7 for calcium chloride solutions

(Specific gravities at various temperatures are shown in Figure 2)

In addition to the above mentioned properties,

PELADOW and Anhydrous Calcium Chloride 94–97% Mini-pellets per gallon of solution at a given strength is presented in Table 7

Pages 18–19 of this handbook give detailed instructions and formulas for solution make-up and dilution of DOW calcium chloride

Figure 2— Specific Gravity vs

% Calcium Chloride at Various Temperatures

SPECIFIC GRAVITY

Solution Properties of DOW Calcium Chloride

DOW CaCl2

TEMPERATURE,

The boiling point of a liquid is the temperature at which its vapor pressure becomes equal to the atmospheric pressure

This temperature varies with different atmospheric pressure

a pressure of 760 mm of mercury is regarded as the standard atmosphere for boiling points

Figure 3 shows the boiling points of 0–70% aqueous solutions of pure and DOW commercial calcium chloride

Solutions of pure calcium chloride above 69% cannot be prepared by boiling at 760 mm pressure because dihydrate begins to separate as a solid phase and the solution composition remains constant

Boiling points of commercial calcium chloride vary with the amount and the kind of impurities present

The curve shown (in Figure 3) represents an average Dow material from which any individual sample should not be expected to deviate by more than 1°C (2°F)

Figure 3 — Boiling Points of Calcium Chloride Solutions

TEMPERATURE,

Boiling Point

WEIGHT PERCENT CALCIUM CHLORIDE

TEMPERATURE INCREASE,

When DOWFLAKE or Anhydrous calcium chloride is dissolved in water,

considerable heat is liberated

This temperature increase is shown in Figure 4 for concentrations up to 50% calcium chloride

For example,

the heat generated in preparing a 40% calcium chloride solution with DOWFLAKE would result in a temperature increase of approximately 47°C (84°F)

With Anhydrous,

the temperature increase would be approximately 91°C (164°F)

if the temperature of the water is 23°C (74°F),

the final solution temperature will exceed 68°C (155°F) for DOWFLAKE and 114°C (238°F) for Anhydrous

These temperature calculations are theoretical in that they do not account for heat loss

In the interest of safety and to avoid the requirement for specialized handling practices,

hot water should never be used for dissolving DOWFLAKE or Anhydrous calcium chloride

To illustrate the importance of using water at ambient temperatures,

consider the make-up of a 34% solution of Anhydrous

When such a solution is prepared,

the temperature rise due to dissolution of the Anhydrous calcium chloride is 78°C (140°F)

If warm water — for example,

water at 49°C (120°F) — is used,

the temperature of the resulting solution will be 127°C (260°F)

As shown in Figure 3,

Boiling Points of Calcium Chloride Solutions,

this temperature is above the boiling point of 34% solution,

and considerable pressure will be created from the vaporizing liquid

Therefore,

always use cool water when dissolving DOWFLAKE and Anhydrous calcium chloride

Figure 4 — Theoretical Temperature Increases in Preparing Aqueous Solutions of DOWFLAKE or Anhydrous (94%)

TEMPERATURE INCREASE,

Temperature Increase in Dissolving DOWFLAKE or Anhydrous Calcium Chloride

Vapor Pressure Figure 5 shows the vapor pressure of calcium chloride solutions and the dissociation pressures of three hydrates

These values refer to pure CaCl2

for commercial material a correction should be read from Figure 3

For example,

a 60% solution of DOW calcium chloride boils about 7°C (13°F) higher than 60% pure CaCl2 and the vapor pressure curve for DOW 60% calcium chloride is therefore shifted 7°C (13°F) higher than the 60% curve of Figure 5

vapor pressure needed to liquefy calcium chloride is 7 mm,

corresponding to 22% relative humidity

Since summer humidities are usually higher than 22%,

flakes or pellets will pick up water from the air and either dilute or dissolve

This property makes calcium chloride useful in dehumidification of air and other gases and in dust control applications

The moisture absorption properties of DOWFLAKE and PELADOW calcium chloride are discussed further in the section titled “Atmospheric Moisture Absorption

The relative humidity of air in equilibrium with calcium chloride solutions is readily obtained from Figure 5

As an example,

the vapor pressure of pure water at 25°C (77°F) is 24 mm while the vapor pressure of a 30% calcium chloride solution is 15 mm

The relative humidity is simply the ratio 15/24 multiplied by 100,

The saturated solution curve gives the minimum water vapor pressure needed for solid calcium chloride hydrates to deliquesce,

At 30°C (86°F),

Figure 5 — Vapor Pressure of Calcium Chloride Hydrates and Solutions WEIGHT PERCENT CALCIUM CHLORIDE

1000 800

0 20 30

SATURATED CALCIUM CHLORIDE SOLUTIONS 100 80 60 50 40 30 20

D SO LI

D LI SO

6 5 4 3

VAPOR PRESSURE,

TEMPERATURE,

Atmospheric Moisture Absorption Calcium chloride is both hygroscopic and deliquescent

solid material will absorb moisture from the air until it dissolves,

and the solution will continue to absorb moisture until an equilibrium is reached between the vapor pressure of the solution and that of the air

If the humidity of the air increases,

more moisture is absorbed by the solution

water evaporates from the solution to the air

The rate at which moisture is absorbed by a given quantity of DOWFLAKE or PELADOW calcium chloride or its solutions depends upon (1) the surface area of the calcium chloride exposed to the air,

Table 8 shows the amount of water absorbed per pound of DOWFLAKE and Anhydrous Calcium Chloride 94–97% Mini-pellets and the concen-

tration of the resultant solution at various relative humidities

The same information is presented graphically in Figures 6 and 7

The data shows that in an atmosphere having a relative humidity of 40% and a temperature of 25°C (77°F),

one pound of water is absorbed per pound of DOWFLAKE calcium chloride and 1

As the relative humidity increases,

the amount of water absorbed likewise increases

TABLE 8 — Atmospheric Humidities in Equilibrium with Solutions of DOWFLAKE 77–80% Calcium Chloride and Anhydrous Calcium Chloride 94–97% Mini-pellets at 25°C (77°F) Relative Humidity Percent

Final Solution Percent CaCl2

Pounds of Water Absorbed per lb DOWFLAKE (77–80%)

Pounds of Water Absorbed per lb Anhydrous Calcium Chloride 94–97% Mini–pellets

Figure 6 — Percent Relative Humidity of Air in Equilibrium with Solution of DOWFLAKE or PELADOW Calcium Chloride at 25°C (77°F)

RELATIVE HUMIDITY,

PERCENT

Figure 7 — Atmospheric Humidities in Equilibrium with Anhydrous Calcium Chloride 94–97% Mini-pellets and DOWFLAKE Calcium Chloride at 25°C (77°F) 95 90

DOWFLAKE

ANHYDROUS CALCIUM CHLORIDE 94–97% MINI-PELLETS

PERCENT

until at 95% relative humidity,

one pound of DOWFLAKE calcium chloride will absorb approximately 14

The ability of calcium chloride to absorb moisture makes it useful in many construction,

commercial and industrial applications

Surface tension is that force on the surface of a liquid which tends to diminish the surface area to a minimum

It results because of differences in intermolecular attraction at the surface and in the interior of the liquid

At the surface all of the molecules are attracted inward,

while in the interior the attraction is the same in all directions

Surface tension has an important effect on the wetting and penetrating ability of a liquid,

and on its ability to form emulsions

The lower the surface tension,

the greater are these abilities

Figure 8 shows the surface tension of calcium chloride solutions at 10°C (50°F) and 25°C (77°F)

Figure 8 — Surface Tension of Pure Calcium Chloride Solutions 110 SURFACE TENSION,

DYNES PER CENTIMETER

Surface Tension

Specific Heat Figure 9 — Specific Heat of Aqueous CaCl2 60

PERCENT SOLUTION 40 30 20

100 80 60

EITHER cal/g

°C or Btu/lb

TEMPERATURE,

Specific heat is the amount of heat required to raise a unit weight of a substance one degree in temperature at either constant pressure or constant volume

It can be expressed either as calories per gram per degree Celsius,

or as British thermal units per pound per degree Fahrenheit,

and the expressions are numerically equal

The specific heat of water is approximately 1 at ordinary temperatures

The specific heat of aqueous calcium chloride solutions of various concentrations is shown in Figure 9

Viscosity

Figure 10 — Viscosity of Pure Calcium Chloride Solutions 15

Viscosity is a measure of the internal friction of a liquid

As viscosity increases,

the tendency to flow decreases

The viscosity of a solution of calcium chloride varies inversely with temperature at constant concentration and increases with increasing concentration at constant temperature

Table 9 and Figure 10 show the viscosities of calcium chloride solutions at various temperatures

If desired,

viscosity values can readily be converted from centipoises to centistokes by dividing the centipoises by the density of the solution in grams per milliliter at the indicated temperature

–10°C ABSOLUTE VISCOSITY IN CENTIPOISES

13 12 11

7 80°C

3 2 1 0

Table 9 — Absolute Viscosity in Centipoises of CaCl2 Solutions Temperature,

Weight % CaCl2

Making and Diluting Solutions

Formula 3

Solution Makeup Formulas (Formulas 1–3)

Formula for determining the final volume in gallons of a solution at 25°C (77°F)

Percentages used in all examples are expressed as whole numbers,

Weight of water is 8

Example:

Formula 1

Example for DOWFLAKE in Formula 1

Formula for calculating the number of gallons of water to add to DOWFLAKE or PELADOW calcium chloride to obtain the desired percent solution at 25°C (77°F)

lb dry CaCl2 x % CaCl2 a desired % solution

Concentrating a weaker solution (Formula 4)

Example: Making 34% solution from 70,000 pounds DOWFLAKE calcium chloride

Formula 4

Formula for calculating pounds of DOWFLAKE or PELADOW calcium chloride to add to a weak calcium chloride solution to obtain a stronger solution at 25°C (77°F)

Formula 2

) x (weight of weak in lb/gal) (% CaCl2 in solid form – % solution desired)

Formula for preparing a solution of a given strength and a given quantity

Example:

lb dry weight x capacity x capacity of tank sol

/gal of tank – CaCl2/gal sol

Example: Desire to make 30% solution,

starting with a 25% solution and using PELADOW (91% CaCl2)

Using DOWFLAKE calcium chloride to make a 34% solution in a tank of 3,400 gal capacity at 25°C (77°F)b (11

Formula 7

Diluting a strong solution d'(Formulas 5–7)

Formula for determining the number of gallons of strong solution for a required number of gallons of weaker solution of LIQUIDOW calcium chloride

Formula 5 Formula for determining the number of gallons of water to add to a strong solution to obtain a weaker solution at 25°C (77°F)

sp gr weak x % weak sp gr strong x % strong

Example: For 4,000 gal of 34% from 38%

Example: Diluting 38% solution to 34% solution 38 – 34 34

4,000 x

345 x 34 1

392 x 38

= 3,458 gallons (of strong solution)

392 = 0

Effect of temperature Since an aqueous solution is more dense when cool than warm,

the correct unit weight must be used for the appropriate temperature

Below are some temperature ranges and corresponding unit weights of water

Formula 6 Formula for determining the number of gallons of weak solution from each gallon of strong solution of LIQUIDOW calcium chloride

sp gr strong x % strong sp gr weak x % weak

Temperature < 7°C (45°F) 7°C (45°F)–17°C (63°F) 18°C (64°F)–23°C (73°F) 24°C (75°F)–28°C (83°F) 29°C (84°F)–32°C (90°F)

Weight in lb/gal 8

Example: Notes

Continuation of Formula 5 example

392 x 38 1

345 x 34

PELADOW (91% typical),

or Anhydrous Calcium Chloride 94–97% Mini-pellets (95% typical) b When calcium chloride is dissolved,

its heat of solution causes the brine to expand and take up more space than it will when cooled

Additional tank capacity required is approximately 26 gallons for every 1000 gallons of 34% solution that is made up

c'Dissolving rate in CaCl solution is slower than dissolving in 2 water

d'To obtain quantities for producing a desired volume of weaker solution,

Total water is then obtained by multiplying answers from Formulas 5 and 7

Handling & Storage Guidelines

This section gives a brief overview of the information needed to successfully and safely handle liquid and dry calcium chloride

It is broken down into several sections that include handling and storage of both liquid and solid material and the dissolution of solid calcium chloride

Most of Dow’s calcium chloride products are available in bulk rail cars,

General rail car precautions and preliminary procedures are found at the end of this section

Because no handbook can answer all questions,

customers are encouraged to contact Dow to discuss additional property and handling questions

Unloading and Storage of Solid Calcium Chloride Bag Shipments DOWFLAKE and PELADOW products are shipped in a variety of bag sizes,

The airtight bags used for shipment are either of the multiwall paper type,

Bag shipments are made in truckload and carload quantities

Dow bagged material is on pallets and is shrink-wrapped for protection

Storage should be in a dry,

well ventilated room or building with a wood or concrete floor

The bags should be placed on pallets or planks raised about 4 inches above the floor to permit air to circulate below the bottom tier

Bags should be kept in a flat position unless they are being used

Turning the bags from a flat position can break the seal on the

Once this happens the bag will not seal airtight again

Ordinarily,

older bags should be used first

a bag becomes damaged it should be mended and used ahead of others

The tops of partially used bags should be rolled down tightly to the unused portion

Full pallets with intact shrinkwrapped covers can be successfully stored outside

However,

if individual bags must be temporarily stored outdoors,

the bottom tier should be laid on raised planks or pallets and the pile protected by a waterproof covering

General Considerations — Storage Bulk calcium chloride may be stored in closed hoppers or silos

Storage of PELADOW calcium chloride is different from the storage of DOWFLAKE calcium chloride since the round spherical particles tend to flow more easily than the flat particles of DOWFLAKE

As with unloading,

several considerations need to be taken into account when storing calcium chloride in bulk form,

and Dow encourages customers to discuss these considerations with our production experts

Bag Sizing for Dry Calcium Chloride

Bulk Shipments Bulk shipments are made in hopper cars of approximately 90 tons and hopper trucks of various capacities

Personal protective clothing and equipment must be worn throughout the unloading process

General Considerations — Unloading Bulk calcium chloride has been handled and moved by a number of methods including drag chains,

belt conveyors and hopper-car unloaders

Before any system can be designed,

considerations such as how much,

and at what rate the material is to be conveyed,

and how much degradation of the product is acceptable must be taken into consideration

The Dow Chemical Company encourages customers to discuss these considerations with our production experts

Experience has shown that bag sizing for dry calcium chloride is not as straightforward as it may seem

Bulk density of these products can vary due to numerous factors including variability in product bulk density,

how the bulk material is transported and unloaded prior to bagging,

the type of bag that is to be used,

the type of bag filling equipment that is to be used and how the bags will be stacked and fit on the pallets

Dow production and packaging experts,

can assist customers with bag sizing if needed

Tank Truck Unloading of LIQUIDOW Calcium Chloride Procedures for unloading tank trucks are similar to those for unloading tank cars except that pressures and fitting locations may vary from truck to truck

The driver of the calcium chloride tank truck is usually responsible for his own unloading

Truckers should wear the same protective equipment and obey the safety precautions outlined in other sections of this Handbook

This includes goggles and rubber gloves at all times

Additional equipment,

such as rubber suits and pants,

a full face shield and rubber boots may be required under certain circumstances

It is common practice to unload by air (Figure 11)

For discharge elevations above 30 ft,

it is recommended the calcium chloride be unloaded by using a pump (Figure 12)

Once the unloading is completed,

water must be available so that the trucker can wash out and dilute any calcium chloride remaining in his unloading hose

Collection facilities should be provided to handle spills and wash out streams

During cold weather operations,

tank trucks that are not insulated will cool quickly

When the contents of the truck cool down,

the possibility of crystallization increases

Generally,

uninsulated trucks lose 3°C (5°F) to 6°C (10°F) per day,

while insulated trucks will only lose 1°C (2°F) to 2°C (4°F) per day

Figure 11 — Unloading of Tank by Air—Top and Bottom

Air Pressure Gauge

Flexible Connection

Pressure Reducing Top Unloading Valve Level Indicator Plant Air

Pressure-rated Relief Valve Hose

High Level Alarm

TANK TRUCK

STORAGE TANK

Overflow

Flexible Connection

Bottom Unloading

Figure 12 — Unloading of Tank Truck by Pump

Discharge Valve Level Indicator

High Level Alarm

TANK TRUCK

STORAGE TANK

Pump Flexible Connection

Overflow

Rail Car Unloading of LIQUIDOW Calcium Chloride Rail Car Precautions and Preliminary Procedures The following precautions and preliminary procedures are recommended: 1

All workers should be suitably trained for safe tank car unloading procedures

All workers should familiarize themselves with the environmental,

health and safe handling data for calcium chloride found in this Handbook as well as information contained in the Material Safety Data Sheet

The unloading track should be level

Once the car is spotted,

set the hand brake and chock the wheels

Metal caution signs should be locked to the track,

preferably near the metering switch,

Sign size should not be less than 12" by 15," with the legend: STOP — TANK CAR CONNECTED

The letters should be in white on a blue background

The word STOP should be in gothic letters at least 4" high

the other letters should be at least 2" high

These signs should not be removed until the car is unloaded and all fittings are disconnected

Unless the car is protected by a switch that is closed and locked,

“derails” should be placed at the open end or ends of the siding not less than one car length from the car

Partially unloaded tank cars should not be moved if at all possible

If it should become necessary to move a partially unloaded car,

close the internal and external outlet valves,

drain the connecting lines and disconnect all connections

If unloading by pressure,

release the pressure on the tank car and lines before disconnecting

The dome cover must be closed and all bolt closures tightened securely before the tank car is moved

Cars should be connected,

unloaded and disconnected in daylight if at all possible

Adequate lighting should be provided if these operations must be done at night

Before connecting the tank car to the unloading line,

workmen should make sure that the storage tank is properly vented and that it will hold the entire contents of the car

To open or close fittings on rail cars,

wrenches or bars should be pushed instead of pulled

This will minimize the danger of falling if the tool should slip

Under no circumstances should the car be entered

Unloading Instructions — General In general,

the instructions in this section apply to both 28% to 42% and to 45% LIQUIDOW calcium chloride

However,

because of the higher crystallization temperature of the 45% product,

refer to additional information on steaming rail cars found in the section “Railway Tank Car Steaming” located on page 24 of this handbook

LIQUIDOW calcium chloride is shipped in tank cars having a capacity of usually 16,000 gallons

A general overview of a tank car and an unloading station is given in Figures 13 and 14

Calcium chloride solutions are normally unloaded through the bottom outlet valve using either air pressure or a centrifugal pump to transfer the solution to a storage tank

Unloading Through Bottom Outlet Valve by Pump Personal protective clothing and equipment should be worn throughout the unloading process

If gravity flow to the pump inlet is used,

the outlet valve in the piping from the transfer pump should be throttled to prevent cavitation on the suction side of the pump

In all cases,

the flow rate to the pump must be greater than the flow rate from the discharge side of the pump

These steps should be followed when unloading liquid calcium chloride solutions: 1

Relieve any pressure buildup in the car by opening the vent valve,

Keep manway open during the unloading operation

Cautiously remove the protective plug below the valve on the bottom discharge leg

Attach the unloading line

Open the external bottom outlet valve

Open the internal bottom outlet valve† to allow the calcium chloride solution to flow to the pump

Start the pump

Check for leaks

Shut down,

the internal outlet valve handle does not turn with moderate pressure,

or if calcium chloride does not start to flow,

it indicates that frozen calcium chloride is present in the bottom of the car and steaming is necessary

DO NOT ATTEMPT TO FORCE THE HANDLE

See section “Railway Tank Car Steaming” found on page 24 of this manual

When the tank car is empty,

close the tank car internal and external valves and disconnect and clean out the unloading hose with steam or water

Prepare the car for return to Dow

Figure 13 — Tank Car Bottom Unloading Calcium Chloride Solution by Pump Vent Level Indicator

High Level Alarm

Unloading Through Bottom by Air Pressure Personal protective clothing and equipment must be worn throughout the unloading process

Air pressure should never exceed 50 psi

These steps should be followed when unloading liquid calcium chloride solution: 1

Relieve any pressure buildup in the car by opening the vent valve

Cautiously remove the plug from the external outlet valve

Attach the unloading line

Open the external outlet valve

Then proceed as follows: 5

Recheck to be sure the manway cover is fastened securely and close the vent valve

Connect the air supply line to the air inlet on the top of the car

Open the internal outlet valve

Check for leaks

Shut down,

Apply air pressure until the car is empty

NOTE: A drop in air pressure or the sound of air rushing through the discharge pipe indicates that the tank car is empty

Allow the flow of air to continue until the unloading line is empty

TANK CAR Internal Outlet

STORAGE TANK

Overflow

Steam Jacket

Pump 1" Drain Note: Car’s Equipment To This Point Flexible Connection Includes External Outlet Valve

Figure 14 — Steam Coil Piping Diagram Internal Bottom Discharge Valve Operating Rod

Calcium Chloride

In Case of Emergency Call 800-424-9300

See Typical Details of Steam-Out Piping

Steam to Coils Inside of Car

Unloading Valve

Note: Many other variations of discharge piping and steam coils exist depending on car manufacturer,

car owner and types of materials shipped in the cars

Stem & Inside Bottom Frog of Tank Car

External Valve Cap

Condensate From Coils Inside of Car

Fit 2" Valve or Steam Trap to Throttle Condensate Returns

the outlet valve handle does not turn with moderate pressure,

or if calcium chloride does not start to flow,

it indicates that frozen calcium chloride is present in the bottom of the car and steaming is necessary

DO NOT ATTEMPT TO FORCE THE HANDLE

See section “Railway Tank Car Steaming” found on page 24 of this manual

Shut off the air supply line and close the valve to the storage tank

Close the unloading valves on the rail car and carefully open the vent valve to completely relieve pressure

Close the air inlet valve and disconnect the air supply line fitting from the air inlet on top of the car

Prepare the car for return to Dow

Railway Tank Car Steaming Tank cars in service of LIQUIDOW calcium chloride are insulated to help prevent freezing

However,

since commercial solutions do freeze at fairly high temperatures [42% solution begins to freeze at about 21°C (70°F)],

transit delays during cold weather may cause some freezing

Therefore,

it is always a good idea to check the solution temperature before unloading

it can generally be unloaded without steaming

If the temperature is below 21°C (70°F),

steaming is almost always necessary

Between 21°C (70°F) and 29°C (84°F),

it is often a good idea to heat the car simply to reduce the viscosity of the solution for easier and faster unloading

it can generally be unloaded without steaming

If the temperature is below 26°C (79°F),

steaming is almost always necessary

Between 26°C (79°F) and 35°C (95°F),

it is often a good idea to heat the car simply to reduce the viscosity of the solution for easier and faster unloading

Care in the Use of Steam Steam pressure (150 lb maximum) should be built up gradually to avoid the rupture of the heating coils or steam jacketed outlet leg

Extreme care should be taken to keep the temperature of the contents below the point where the calcium chloride might expand and overflow the dome

Continued heating after the calcium chloride is liquefied will waste steam and may damage the special lining on the inside of the car

The temperature of calcium chloride solutions should never exceed 79°C (174°F) in lined cars

Never apply heat by blowing steam directly into a lined car without the express permission of Dow

Lined cars must not be used as mixing tanks

Once the calcium chloride is completely in solution,

the car is ready for sampling and unloading

Shut off and disconnect the steam lines before starting the unloading procedure

In extremely cold weather,

continue the steam on the bottom outlet leg until the calcium chloride flow to storage has begun

CAUTION: Continued steaming of the coils,

after 1/4 of the solution has been unloaded,

may cause severe damage to the lining of the car

In cold weather,

it may be necessary to preheat the unloading lines to prevent the lines from plugging

This can be done with a maximum of 15 psi steam tracing or by electrical heat tracing

Either way,

the unloading line should be well insulated

All horizontal portions of the unloading line leading to the top of the storage tank should be freedraining toward the tank

This will assure that this portion of the unloading line is empty except when unloading

Preparing the Empty Tank Car for Return to Dow Once the tank car has been unloaded,

it should be promptly released to the railroad (customer must notify their local railroad that Car # “XXX” is ready to go) for return to Dow by reverse routing

If the railroad does not pick up the car after being released

the customer should contact Dow

The following procedure should be carefully followed in preparing the empty tank car for return: 1

Close the internal bottom outlet valve

Close the external bottom outlet valve,

disconnect the unloading line carefully and replace the bottom external outlet valve plug securely

Disconnect the steam lines and blow out the heating coils with compressed air

Do not replace the caps on the inlet and outlet steam connections

If steam has been applied to the steam jacket of the bottom outlet leg,

do not replace these caps after the steam line has been disconnected

Allow them to hang by their chains

otherwise the bottom outlet leg may freeze and crack

After removing all connections,

replace the closures on all other tank openings

Fasten the dome cover securely

Figure 15 — Simple Piping Diagram for Mixing Tank for Truck Delivery

Water Meter Storage Tank

5 2 3 4 6

Unloading Line 2-1/2" X 3" Pump 200-250 GPM

Loading Hopper Sparger Pipe Dissolving Hopper Car and Truck Shipments of DOWFLAKE or PELADOW Calcium Chloride Solid calcium chloride can be transported by hopper car or truck to a dissolving and storage tank

Figure 15 shows a typical design and gives operation instructions for unloading and dissolving from a truck

A similar arrangement can also be used for hopper cars

Verify the weight and assay of calcium chloride in the hopper car or truck with Dow

Given this information,

and the strength of the desired solution,

formulas found in the “Physical Properties” section of this manual can be used to determine the amount of water needed for solution makeup

The use of any additional water will lower the strength of the final solution

CAUTION: An extreme rise in temperature accompanies dissolving of calcium chloride in water

Do not use hot water

Hot solutions may cause thermal burns,

care should be exercised to avoid contact

For complete information,

see the Material Safety Data Sheet

Hopper Car and Hopper Truck Shipments The unloading procedure to follow