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for teaching Julius Caesar in a sophomore English class

Description

Julius Caesar by William Shakespeare

Literature Guide Developed by Kristen Bowers for Secondary Solutions®

ISBN 13: 978-0-9772295-6-7 ISBN 10: 0-9772295-72 © 2006 Secondary Solutions

All rights reserved

A classroom teacher who has purchased this guide may photocopy the materials in this publication for his/her classroom use only

Use or reproduction by a part of or an entire school or school system,

by for-profit tutoring centers and like institutions,

No part of this publication may be reproduced,

translated or stored without the express written permission of the publisher

Created and printed in the United States of America

Secondary

Solutions

The First Solution for the Secondary Teacher www

Secondary Solutions

Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Julius Caesar Complete Literature Guide About This Literature Guide

Author Biography: William Shakespeare

Standards Focus: Exploring Expository Writing

The Real Julius Caesar

Anticipation/Reaction Guide

Pre-Reading Individual Reflection

Standards Focus: Elements of Drama

Literary Terms to Know

Standards Focus: Approaching Shakespeare’s Language

The Sonnet Form and Iambic Pentameter

Vocabulary List

17 Act One

Scene Guide

Act Two

Scene Guide

Act Three

Scene Guide

Act Four

Scene Guide

Monologue,

Act Five

Scene Guide

Anticipation/Reaction Guide

Post-Reading Individual Reflection

Act One Quiz

60 ©2006

Secondary Solutions

Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Act Five Quiz

Summary of the Play

Answer Key

Secondary Solutions

Julius Caesar Literature Guide

About This Literature Guide Secondary Solutions is the endeavor of a high school English teacher who could not seem to find appropriate materials to help her students master the necessary concepts at the secondary level

She grew tired of spending countless hours researching,

tests and extension activities to motivate and inspire her students,

address those ominous content standards

! Materials that were available were either juvenile in nature,

or were moderately engaging activities that did not come close to meeting the content standards on which her students were being tested

Frustrated and tired of trying to get by with inappropriate,

she finally decided that if the right materials were going to be available to her and other teachers,

she was going to have to make them herself

Bowers set to work to create one of the most comprehensive and innovative Literature Guide sets on the market

Joined by a middle school teacher with 21 years of secondary school experience,

Secondary Solutions began,

and has matured into a specialized team of intermediate and secondary teachers who have developed for you a set of materials unsurpassed by all others

Before the innovation of Secondary Solutions,

materials that could be purchased offered a reproducible student workbook and a separate set of teacher materials at an additional cost

Other units provided the teacher with student materials only,

the content standards were ignored

Secondary Solutions provides all of the necessary materials for complete coverage of the literature units of study,

numerous and varied vocabulary and comprehension activities,

literary analysis and critical thinking activities,

Each guide is designed to address the unique learning styles and comprehension levels of every student in your classroom

All materials are written and presented at the grade level of the learner,

and include extensive coverage of the content standards

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all teacher materials are included

you don’t have time to waste reinventing the wheel

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Our guides will allow you to focus on the most important aspects of teaching—the personal,

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Secondary Solutions®—The First Solution for the Secondary Teacher

Secondary Solutions

Julius Caesar Literature Guide

How to Use Our Literature Guides Our Literature Guides are based upon the National Council of the Teachers of English and the International Readers Association’s national English/Language Arts Curriculum and Content Area Standards

The materials we offer allow you to teach the love and full enjoyment of literature,

while still addressing the concepts upon which your students are assessed

These Guides are designed to be used in their sequential entirety,

or may be divided into separate parts

Not all activities must be used,

but to achieve full comprehension and mastery of the skills involved,

it is recommended that you utilize everything each Guide has to offer

Most importantly,

you now have a variety of valuable materials to choose from,

and you are not forced into extra work

! There are several distinct categories within each Literature Guide: • Comprehension Check: Exploring Expository Writing—Worksheets designed to address the exploration and analysis of functional and/or informational materials

• Comprehension Check—Similar to Exploring Expository Writing,

but designed for comprehension of narrative text—study questions designed to guide students as they read the text

• Standards Focus—Worksheets and activities that directly address the content standards and allow students extensive practice in literary skills and analysis

Standards Focus activities are found with every chapter or section

Some examples: 9 Figurative Language 9 Irony 9 Flashback • Assessment Preparation—Vocabulary activities which emulate the types of vocabulary/ grammar proficiency on which students are tested in state and national assessments

Assessment Preparation activities are found within every chapter or section

Some examples: 9 Context Clues 9 Connotation/Denotation 9 Word Roots • Quizzes and Tests—Quizzes are included for each chapter or designated section

final tests as well as alternative assessment are available at the end of each Guide

These include: 9 Multiple Choice 9 Matching 9 Short Response • Pre-Reading,

Post-Reading Activities,

Essay/Writing Ideas plus Sample Rubrics—Each Guide also has its own unique pre-reading,

post reading and essay/writing ideas and alternative assessment activities

Each Guide contains handouts and activities for varied levels of difficulty

We know that not all students are alike—nor are all teachers

! We hope you can effectively utilize every aspect our Literature Guides have to offer—we want to make things easier on you

! If you need additional assistance,

please email us at [email protected] For specific information on how our Guides are directly correlated to your state’s content standards,

please write us an email including the name of your state to: [email protected] Thank you for choosing Secondary Solutions®

Secondary Solutions

Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Exploring Expository Writing Author Biography: William Shakespeare William Shakespeare is widely believed to have been the greatest playwright in history

His plays are continually produced and students around the world read his works in school

Shakespeare is known for his ability to depict the depth of human character and his skill in illustrating issues to which for hundreds of years,

people around the world can relate

Shakespeare’s father,

John Shakespeare,

was a wealthy business owner and active citizen of Stratford-upon-Avon in England

He married Shakespeare’s mother,

Mary Arden,

and they had William on April 23,

During the sixteenth century,

waves of the Black Plague ravaged England and William was lucky to have survived

Two of his sisters,

Joan and Margaret,

William’s younger brother,

Gilbert,

fortunately escaped the deadly epidemic and had a long and successful career as a tradesman

John and Mary Shakespeare had four more children: Joan (named after their firstborn),

Anne (who died at age eight),

Richard,

who eventually followed in William’s footsteps as an actor

Shakespeare began his education at the age of six or seven at the Stratford grammar school,

known as the King’s New School of Stratford-upon-Avon

His lessons were primarily in Latin,

but William also likely learned in English

Shakespeare was taken out of school at about the age of thirteen,

due to his father’s financial problems at this time

It is believed that William continued his studies on his own,

educating himself as much as possible

The events of William’s life between the age of thirteen and when he emerged in London as an actor,

However,

at the age of eighteen he married Anne Hathaway,

who was eight years older than him and pregnant at the time

Shakespeare’s first child,

Susanna,

Two years later,

twins Hamnet and Judith were born

In 1596,

Hamnet died of unknown causes

The loss was said to have affected William deeply

his grief and loss is expressed in his writing

Little is known about Shakespeare’s life during the years of 1585 to 1592,

before he appeared as an actor in London

It is believed he spent this time perfecting his craft as an actor and playwright

By 1592,

Shakespeare was already an established and respected actor in London

Productions of Henry IV and The Comedy of Errors were performed by Pembroke’s Men,

a popular acting troupe who often performed for Queen Elizabeth

In 1594,

Shakespeare joined another acting troupe,

Lord Chamberlain’s Men,

and it was while he was with this group that Shakespeare wrote Romeo and Juliet,

Richard II,

King John,

Although Shakespeare was never wealthy,

buying a home in Stratford in 1597

He became part-owner of the most popular theater in London,

and the Blackfriars Theater in 1603

Shakespeare continued to act until 1613,

when he returned to Stratford to retire

Shakespeare is believed to have died on April 23,

exactly 52 years to the day of his birth

Secondary Solutions

Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Standards Focus: Exploring Expository Writing Directions: Answer the following questions using complete sentences

When and where was William Shakespeare born

? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ 2

Write an original thesis statement which best summarizes the article

__________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ 3

Rewrite the following paragraph to improve cohesion and logic: Shakespeare’s first child,

Susanna,

Two years later,

twins Hamnet and Judith were born

In 1596,

Hamnet died of unknown causes

The loss was said to have affected William deeply

his grief and loss is expressed in his writing

__________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ 4

If you were given an assignment to find out more information about the life of William Shakespeare,

what 3 questions would you like to find answers for in your research

? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ 5

What is significant about the date of Shakespeare’s death

? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ 6

Does this article primarily contain facts or opinions

? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ 7

How is the information in this article arranged: problem/solution,

? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________

Secondary Solutions

Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Standards Focus: Historical Context The Real Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar born July 12,

is one of the most well-known political leaders in history

Caesar was considered to be a military genius and brilliant politician,

and his life and conquests continue to be widely revered and studied throughout the world

It was believed that Caesar was a direct descendant of the Trojan prince Aeneas,

who was the son of the goddess Venus

His father,

was a war hero and respected politician

Although a member of the aristocracy,

Caesar and his family lived in one of the lower-class neighborhoods in Rome

Little is known about Caesar’s early years,

other than having two sisters,

both of whom were apparently named Julia

Caesar’s father died in 84BC,

and Caesar found himself the patriarch of the family at age sixteen

A year later,

Caesar married Cornelia,

daughter of the famous orator Cinna

As a young man,

Caesar saw plenty of political and social unrest under the harsh dictatorship of Lucius Cornelius Sulla

Shortly after Caesar married Cornelia,

Civil War erupted and Cinna was killed,

leaving Caesar without an inheritance

In fear for his own life,

he fled to Asia and joined the army,

He received numerous honors,

including the Civic Crown which was the second highest Roman military award at the time

In 78BC,

Sulla died unexpectedly in his sleep,

He began his political career,

becoming a renowned orator and powerful politician

In 63BC,

Caesar was elected to the position of Pontifex Maximus,

which gave Caesar great political and religious influence

Three years later,

Caesar was elected senior Counsul of the Roman Republic

Needing support both politically and financially,

Caesar formed the First Triumvirate with Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great) and Marcus Licinius Crassus,

an extremely wealthy businessman

Caesar then took the post of Proconsular Governor of Gaul and Illyria

Desperate for power,

Caesar began the Gallic War,

which lasted from 58BC to 49BC

His conquest was successful,

and Caesar seized enormous parts of Europe for the Roman Empire

This war would become only one small element of Caesar’s takeover as he continued to annex parts of Europe for Rome

Despite Caesar’s military and leadership success,

who believed Caesar wanted to have solitary rule

It was at this time that Caesar’s daughter Julia died during childbirth,

leaving both Caesar and Pompey (who had married Julia) devastated

Pompey married one of Caesar’s enemies’ daughters,

which would prove to drive a wedge into the already crumbling relationship of the triumvirate

In 50BC,

Pompey ordered Caesar to disband his army and return to Rome

After Caesar refused,

Pompey accused Caesar of treason

In 49BC Caesar returned to Rome with a small faction of his army,

Caesar defeated Pompey in 48BC,

although heavily outnumbered by Pompey

Caesar was then appointed sole ruler of Rome

In 47BC,

Caesar battled in the Middle East,

conquering King Pharneaces II of Pontus

He declared his famous words Veni,

Vici (I came,

I conquered) after his swift annihilation

His victories in battle made Caesar’s popularity soar

he became an icon and a god to the Romans who immediately built statues and minted coins with his countenance

Caesar’s growing power and popularity only inflated his ego and personal agenda

He did what he wanted,

He erected buildings,

appointed his friends and followers to important positions in government,

and declared holidays in his honor

This disregard for the electoral system that had been in place in Rome incensed many Romans

Caesar became an enemy of the state with a growing number of powerful underground factions

After Caesar was named dictator for life (Dictator Perpetuus),

concern intensified for the future of Rome

Marcus Brutus,

once Caesar’s close friend and confidant,

began to conspire with his brother-in-law and friend Cassius and others

They called themselves the Liberators,

and built a plan to assassinate Caesar

On March 15 (the Ides of March),

Caesar was lured to the forum to discuss a fake petition

Once there and distracted by the petition,

Caesar was stabbed to death by his conspirators

he was stabbed twenty-three times,

although Shakespeare increased that number to thirty-three wounds

It is reported that over 60 men either witnessed or participated in the assassination of one of the most powerful rulers of all time

Secondary Solutions

Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Anticipation/Reaction Guide Directions: Before reading the play,

write “yes” if you agree with the statement,

“no” if you disagree with the statement,

?” if you don’t have a strong opinion about the statement

After reading,

you will complete the last column,

revisiting your original responses

Yes = I agree

No = I disagree

Before Reading

? = I don’t know After Reading

Statement 1

Be careful whom you trust

Excessive pride can lead to your own ruin

Too much ambition can be dangerous

Good leaders acknowledge their own weaknesses

We cannot control our fate

Politicians are only concerned with what the majority of people want

Superstition can be a powerful driving force

People want to see the good in others

Weak people can be easily manipulated

One man’s hero is another man’s enemy

Words can be powerful weapons

After completing the “Before Reading” column,

and record your group members’ names

As a group,

tally (using tic marks: |||| ) the number of “yes”,“no” and “

?” responses for each question using the chart below

Group Members:

Statement #

I Don’t Know

discuss those issues about which your group was divided

Make your case for your opinions,

and pay attention to your classmates’ arguments

Once you have discussed all of the issues,

answer the questions on the next page

Secondary Solutions

Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Anticipation/Reaction Guide Response Pre-Reading Individual Reflection Directions: Use the information and discussion from the “Before Reading” responses to answer the following questions

Be sure to use complete sentences

Which statement triggered the most thought-provoking or interesting discussion

? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 2

Summarize your group’s most interesting discussion/debate

________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 3

For any of the statements that you discussed,

what were some of the strongest or most memorable points made by your group members

? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 4

How did you feel when a group member disagreed with the way you feel about an issue

? Did they accept your personal opinion or disrespect it

? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 5

Was any argument strong enough to make you change your mind or want to change any of your initial responses

? What made the argument effective

? How could your own arguments have been more effective

? _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ *Your teacher will collect your chart and responses to be used again when you have finished reading the play

* ©2006

Secondary Solutions

Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Standards Focus: Elements of Drama Literary Terms to Know Drama is a form of literature designed to be performed in front of an audience

There are two main types of drama: comedy and tragedy

Like fiction,

It is essential to know the elements of drama when reading a dramatic work

act: a division within a play,

aside: lines that are spoken by a character directly to the audience

cast of characters: a list of characters presented before the action begins

comedy: a humorous work of drama

dialogue: conversation between two or more characters

drama: a work of literature designed to be performed in front of an audience

dramatic irony: when the audience or reader knows something that the characters in the story do not know

foil: a character who is nearly opposite of another character

the purpose of a foil (or character foil) is to reveal a stark contrast between the two characters,

often the protagonist and antagonist

iambic pentameter: a line of poetry that contains 5 iambs of two syllables each

monologue: a long speech spoken by a character to himself,

scene: a division of an act into smaller parts

soliloquy: thoughts spoken aloud by a character when he/she is alone,

stage directions: italicized comments that identify parts of the setting or the use of props or costumes,

give further information about a character,

or provide background information 14

tragedy: a serious work of drama in which the hero suffers catastrophe or serious misfortune,

usually because of his own actions 15

tragic hero: a protagonist with a fatal flaw which eventually leads to his demise Activity: Using the words from the list above,

create a 15-question Multiple-Choice quiz

You must use the information/definitions from this page,

but you may also add your own knowledge to create your questions

Be sure to create an answer key and keep it on a separate piece of paper

For example: 1

The two main types of drama are: a

monologues and soliloquies When you have finished,

give the “quiz” to a partner and take his or her quiz

and your scores to your teacher

Your teacher can even find the best questions and use them on a real quiz

Secondary Solutions

Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Standards Focus: Approaching Shakespeare’s Language When approaching the works of Shakespeare,

it is important to remember that Shakespeare intended his works to be performed in front of an audience

If you are having trouble understanding what you are reading when you are reading silently to yourself,

remember that this could be one of the reasons you may be having difficulty

The following are some guidelines to help you approach the language,

and to comprehend the reading a little better

blank verse: most of Shakespeare’s plays are written in this form,

which is very close to normal speech rhythms and patterns

Often Shakespeare will deviate from this form in order to make a point about the character’s state of mind or for other emphasis,

double entendre: phrases or words which have double meanings,

one of which is usually sexual in nature 3

iambic pentameter: a 10-syllable line divided into 5 iambic feet (one stressed syllable followed by one unstressed syllable)

This is the basic rhythm of Shakespeare’s verse

imagery: language which works to evoke images in your mind (i

“And with thy bloody and invisible hand / Cancel and tear to pieces that great bond / Which keeps me pale

metaphor: a figure of speech in which a word or phrase is replaced by another,

often indicating a likeness or similarity between them (ie

“Life’s but a walking shadow,

Shakespeare often wrote certain characters speaking either in all verse or all prose,

indicating some personality trait of the character

If the character deviates from its normal form,

be aware of a changing state of mind…often prose signals a character slipping into insanity

pun: a play on words that either sound alike or that have multiple meanings 8

rhyming couplet: two rhyming lines at the end of a speech,

signaling that a character is leaving the stage or that the scene is ending 9

simile: a figure of speech comparing two unlike things that is often introduced by like or as (i

Secondary Solutions

Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Shakespeare’s Style The Sonnet Form and Iambic Pentameter Shakespeare wrote over 80 sonnets in addition to his plays

In fact,

he even added sonnets into his plays

Before we dive into reading an entire play,

we will be approaching Shakespeare’s style in a smaller poem,

The Shakespearean sonnet always follows the same format

It has 14 lines with approximately 10 syllables each line

Each line of the sonnet is written in iambic pentameter

A line of iambic pentameter consists of 10 syllables,

or five iambs of two syllables each

An iamb is an “unstressed” syllable followed by a “stressed” syllable

When written,

the “U” symbols mean unstressed,

and the “/” indicates a stressed syllable

To understand the idea of a stressed or an unstressed syllable,

think about the syllables of some common names

The name Christopher can be divided into three syllables: Chris/to/pher

If we place the stress,

on the “Chris” it would look like this: / U U Chris / to / pher If we place the emphasis on the “to” the name would sound odd to our ears,

and look like this: U / U Chris / to / pher When analyzing a line of Shakespeare’s work,

it would look like this: U / Let me

U / not to

U / U / the mar riage of

U / true minds

Finally,

Shakespearean sonnets always follow the same rhyme scheme: ABABCDCDEFEFGG,

ending with the rhyming couplet,

Now that the technical terms have been introduced,

it is time to put that knowledge to work in a practical activity

Directions: Read the sonnet on the next page

This sonnet is one of the most famous of Shakespeare’s sonnets: Sonnet 18

Read and analyze this sonnet,

paying careful attention to the rhyme scheme and the pattern of syllables

divide the sonnet into syllables and label its rhyme scheme

The first line has been done for you

Secondary Solutions

Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Shakespeare’s Style The Sonnet Form and Iambic Pentameter As an imperfect actor on the stage Who with his fear is put beside his part,

Or some fierce thing replete with too much rage,

Whose strength's abundance weakens his own heart

forget to say The perfect ceremony of love's rite,

And in mine own love's strength seem to decay,

O’ercharged with burden of mine own love's might

let my books be then the eloquence And dumb presages of my speaking breast,

Who plead for love and look for recompense More than that tongue that more hath more express'd

learn to read what silent love hath writ: To hear with eyes belongs to love's fine wit

Rhyme Scheme

Now You Try It

! Using the rhyme scheme and form of a Shakespearean sonnet,

write your own sonnet about new love,

! Draw the same grid as above on a separate piece of paper to plan and organize the sonnet

Then rewrite your sonnet and share it with the class for an exercise in public speaking and performance

Secondary Solutions

Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Julius Caesar Vocabulary List Directions: Before you read each act,

look up the definitions for each of the vocabulary words below

Be sure to keep all of your definitions for worksheets and quizzes

Act Four 1

Act Two 1

Act Five 1

Act Three 1

Secondary Solutions

Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Julius Caesar Words and Phrases to Know Below are common words and phrases found throughout Shakespeare’s works

Many of these words and phrases were common in the 17th Century,

but may have new meanings today

Use the list below to help you understand these words and phrases as you read Julius Caesar

adieu: goodbye an: if anon: at once attend: listen to betimes: at once bootless: useless break with: discuss

break the news to cobbler: a shoemaker coronets: small crowns or wreaths of vines or flowers 10

dispatch: to send away or to kill 15

good-den or do-den: Good Evening 22

“ill humour” may be a bad feeling about something or in a bad mood 28

Secondary Solutions

praetor: a judge of the court 35

sick offence: harmful illness or something that is said that comes across rudely 41

vile contagion: something said or done that has the ability to make one physically ill 53

Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Julius Caesar Allusions throughout the Play 1

Aenas (or Aeneas): a Greek legend and Trojan hero

Ides of March: the 15th of March

the ides are simply the middle of the month

Até: the personification of recklessness and menace and eventual downfall or punishment for this behavior

Nervii: a group of warriors,

considered by Julius Caesar to be one of the most brutal tribes in Gaul (now southern France)

Colossus: the word “colossus” means enormous

the “Colossus” is the large bronze statue of Apollo at the harbor of Rhodes

it was considered one of the Seven Wonders of the World until it fell in 255BC after an earthquake

Olympus: the mountain in Greece which was believed to have been the home of the twelve gods of Olympus in Greek Mythology

drachma: ancient currency (money)

Pluto’s mines: Pluto was the equivalent of the Greek god Hades,

it was believed that Pluto gave the Romans gold,

and other precious metals which he mined from below the surface of the earth

Epicurus: an ancient Greek philosopher who founded Epicureanism,

the idea that one should indulge in the pleasures in life (including materialistic and physical desires) in order to stave away any pain 6

Fates: in Greek mythology,

the three goddesses who were believed to control the events and length of one’s life

Phillipi: an ancient city in Macedonia (now an area in northern Greece)

Pompey: refers to Pompey the Great,

who was defeated by Julius Caesar in 48BC,

Sardis: an ancient city in what is now Turkey

Feast of Lupercal (Lupercalia): an ancient Roman festival held on February 15

it is believed to have been a ceremony to encourage fertility for animals and humans alike

Julius Caesar was crowned at this time

the Roman’s view of: contrary to the Christian view of suicide,

the ancient Romans believed that committing suicide was acceptable and honorable,

especially when facing the possibility of capture or enslavement in battle

Hybla: a city in ancient Sicily

triumvirate: a group of three rulers sharing authority and control

Secondary Solutions

Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Act One Scene Guide Directions: For each act,

you will be completing a Scene Guide to help you understand and follow the important elements of your reading

For each scene,

in short phrases or words summarize: 1) the setting,

and 3) the main characters involved in the action

Scene One

Scene Two

Scene Three

Now that you have read all of Act One,

make a prediction as to what you believe will happen next in the play

Write your prediction on the lines below

_______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________

Secondary Solutions

Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Act One Comprehension Check To give you a comprehensive understanding of all aspects of the play,

answer the following questions for Act One

Write your answers on a separate piece of paper using complete sentences

Scene One 1

What is the setting of the first scene

? Why have the shopkeepers left work

? What is Marullus and Flavius’s reaction to the citizens’ behavior

? What important information about the political and social atmosphere does Shakespeare provide us in the first scene

Scene Two 1

What does Caesar want Antony to do when he runs by Calpurnia

? What does the soothsayer tell Caesar

? How has Brutus been feeling lately

? How does this open a door for Cassius

? What is your reaction to Brutus’s lines: “Into what dangers would you lead me,

Cassius,

/ that you would have me seek into myself / for that which is not in me

?” What might this hesitation or caution foreshadow

? What does Brutus love (even more than his own life)

? Why does Cassius tell Brutus the story about Caesar swimming the Tiber River

? What does this reveal about Caesar

? What does this reveal about Cassius

? Describe Brutus’ reaction to Cassius’s ideas

Why does Caesar distrust Cassius

? Why does Caesar not fear Cassius,

? Why does Caesar tell Antony to “Come on [his] right side”

? Explain why the crown was offered to Caesar three times

What is your reaction to this spectacle

? Why does Cassius say: “No,

Caesar hath it now

we have the falling sickness”

? To what is Cassius referring

? The phrase “It’s all Greek to me” has become a common saying referring to something incomprehensible or meaningless

This saying comes from Casca’s line: “

it was Greek to me,” which originates from the Medieval Latin proverb Graecum est

” Explain how Casca’s line is ironic

What doubts does Cassius reveal about Brutus in his soliloquy

? How does Cassius plan to convince Brutus that he is more noble and loved than Caesar

Scene Three 1

What is the weather like at the opening of this scene

? How does this contribute to the mood

? Why is this mood significant

Why does Cassius say “I have exposed my naked chest to the thunder-bolt”

? To what could Cassius be referring

Why is Casca eager to convince Brutus to join the conspiracy

What directions does Cassius give Cinna

? What does Cassius hope to accomplish with this task

Secondary Solutions

Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Act One Standards Focus: Setting,

and atmosphere in which the action of a story takes place

Setting can include time of day,

and social or political atmosphere

an old barn outside of Greenbow,

Alabama

Spring,

Depression Era

Tone is the author’s feeling toward his subject

a clever writer can use a sympathetic tone to make the reader feel sorry for a character,

Conversely,

detached tone to keep the reader from relating to or feeling sentiment for a character

Mood is the general emotional response that a reader feels when reading

Writers use figurative language,

and foreshadowing to help set the mood in a piece of literature

Mood is often expressed in adjectives which describe how the writer intends to make you feel,

In Act One,

Shakespeare creates a mood of tension and unrest from the very first moment the characters appear onstage

Although the men are engaged in humorous wordplay,

it is clear that Caesar’s rise to power has created tension in Rome

Directions: For each of the quotes from the text,

underline the words that reveal the setting,

Then explain how these particular words indicate specifics about the setting

explain the tone Shakespeare uses to create mood

Include comments on the use of figurative language,

Finally,

describe the mood of the excerpt using as many details and appropriate adjectives as possible

An example has been done for you

? What conquest brings he home

? / What tributaries follow him to Rome / To grace in captive bonds his chariot wheels

you worse than senseless things

Setting: Rome is the city in which the story takes place

captive bonds refers to slaves and slavery,

chariot wheels indicate they used chariots,

which were used for transportation and in sport

Pompey was the ruler of Rome until Caesar took power

Tone: defiant,

Mood: anxious,

“And when you saw his chariot but appear,

/ Have you not made an universal shout,

/ That Tiber trembled underneath her banks / To hear the replication of your sounds / Made in her concave shores

? / And do you now put on your best attire

? / And do you now cull out a holiday

? / And do you now strew flowers in his way / That comes in triumph over Pompey’s blood

Setting: b

Tone: c

CASCA: “Bid every noise be still

Peace yet again

” / CAESAR: “Who is it in the press that calls on me

? I hear a tongue shriller than all the music / Cry ‘Caesar

Caesar is turned to hear

” / SOOTHSAYER: “Beware the ides of March

Secondary Solutions

Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________ a

Setting: b

Tone: c

BRUTUS: “Into what dangers would you lead me,

Cassius,

/ That you would have me seek into myself / For that which is not in me

/ And since you know you cannot see yourself / So well as by reflection,

/ Will modestly discover to yourself / That of yourself which you yet know not of

Setting: b

Tone: c

when all the sway of earth / Shakes like a thing unfirm

? O Cicero / I have seen tempests,

when the scolding winds / Have rived the knotty oaks,

and I have seen / Th’ ambitious ocean swell and rage and foam,

/ To be exalted with the threat’ning clouds

/ Did I go through a tempest dropping fire

/ Either there is a civil strife in heaven,

/ Incenses them to send destruction

Setting: b

Tone: c

“But if you would consider the true cause— / Why all these fires

Why birds and beasts,

/ Why all these things change from their ordinance / Their natures,

/ To monstrous quality—why you shall find / That heaven hath infused them with these spirits / To make them instruments of fear and warning / Unto some monstrous state

Setting: b

Tone: c

Secondary Solutions

Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Act One Vocabulary Assessment Preparation: Word Parts Directions: Complete the following chart,

finding the word parts and meanings for each of the vocabulary words from Act One

Use a dictionary for help

Two examples have been done for you

Base and Part of Speech of Base

Meaning of Base

producing no fruit or offspring

Root and meaning of Root

Affix(es)

How the Affix Changes the Word

changes from present to past tense

Inferred Meaning of Vocabulary Word

Vocabulary Word’s Part of Speech and Dictionary Definition

Secondary Solutions

Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Act One Vocabulary Assessment Preparation: Word Parts

Base and Part of Speech of Base Meaning of Base Root and Meaning of Root

Affix(es)

How the Affix Changes the Word

Inferred Meaning of Vocabulary Word

Vocabulary Word’s Part of Speech and Dictionary Definition

Secondary Solutions

Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Act Two Scene Guide Directions: Just as for Act One,

complete the Scene Guide for Act Two to help you understand and follow the important elements of your reading

For each scene,

in short phrases or words summarize: 1) the setting,

and 3) the main characters involved in the action

Scene One

Scene Two

Scene Three

Scene Four

Now that you have read all of Acts One and Two,

make a prediction as to what you believe will happen next in the play

Write your prediction on the lines below

_____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ ©2006

Secondary Solutions

Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Act Two Comprehension Check To give you a comprehensive understanding of all aspects of the play,

answer the following questions for Act Two

Write your answers on a separate piece of paper using complete sentences

Scene One 1

Through the analogy of a ladder,

how does Brutus explain what happens when someone gains power

To what does Brutus compare Caesar

? Why does Brutus feel that he must kill Caesar immediately

What day is it

Brutus explains that he has not been able to sleep

How does he explain what happens to a man’s conscience between the “acting of a dreadful thing / And the first motion”

How are Cassius and Brutus related

Why does Brutus insist that the men do not need an oath

Why do the men want Cicero on their side at first

? Why do they change their minds

Who does Cassius want to murder in addition to Caesar

What is Brutus’s response to this idea

How does Decius plan to get Caesar to come to the Capitol

What has Portia noticed about Brutus’s recent behavior

What reasons does Portia give to insist that Brutus reveal his feelings to her

What does Portia do to prove her strength to Brutus

? What is your reaction to this act

? BONUS: An anachronism is when an author unknowingly or purposefully inserts something from a different period of time into his or her writing

Shakespeare uses an anachronism in this scene

See if you can find it

Why do you think Shakespeare might have used this anachronism

Why has Calpurnia been unable to sleep

? About what omens does Calpurnia tell Caesar

Why does Caesar insist on leaving the house

On what evidence do the priests (“augerers”) recommend that Caesar not leave the house

How does Decius convince Caesar to leave

Caesar instructs his men to keep close to him

What is the irony

Artemidorus reads from a letter at the beginning of this scene

Who wrote the letter and what does Artemidorus plan to do with it

What is ironic about Portia’s statement: “How hard it is for women to keep a secret”

? (Hint: think about her speeches in Scene One

What instructions has Portia given Lucius

Whom do Portia and Lucius run into

Secondary Solutions

Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Act Two Standards Focus: Character Map Directions: There are numerous characters in Julius Caesar,

which can make reading and following the plot quite confusing

Complete the Character Map below as much as you can from the information you have been given in Acts One and Two

As you read the rest of the play,

fill in each blank with the names of other characters

When you finish reading the play,

your Character Map should be complete

Tries to warn with a dream Tries to warn with a date

Tries to warn with a letter

Julius Caesar

Loyal follower

Backstabbing “friend”

Brother-in-Law/Main conspirator

Put to death

Conspirators

Collateral damage

Servants,

Secondary Solutions

_________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ Julius Caesar Literature Guide

Name _____________________________________ Period __________

Act Two Standards Focus: Characterization and Character Motivation Characterization is the technique by which authors develop characters

• Direct characterization is when the author or narrator tells the reader what the character is like

For example,

“Rhonda works diligently to make sure her cookies are the best in town

” • Indirect characterization is when the author gives information about a character and allows the reader to draw his or her own conclusions about that character

Two ways we can learn about a character through indirect characterization are: o A character’s own thoughts,

feelings and actions— the reader witnesses what the character does or says,

and learns something about the character from these thoughts,

For example,

“On her way to class after lunch,

Susan saw some trash on the ground that wasn’t hers

She decided to pick it up anyway,

” → The reader can make some assumptions about Susan from this excerpt: she cares about the environment,

she takes pride in her school,

she likes things neat and tidy,

Each of these are appropriate assumptions based on Susan’s actions

o Interactions with other characters— the reader witnesses the interactions between characters,

such as how other characters act,

and what they say about another character

For example,

‘Julia seems to not care about her school work anymore

It’s as if she is distracted or concerned about something

What do you think

but it is certainly unlike her to get bad grades,’ Ashley replied

” → The reader can make assumptions about Julia from the conversation between Emma and Ashley

The reader can conclude that Julia used to work hard and get good grades in school,

that she is distracted about something,

and that she is not behaving like her usual self

In a play,

there is often very little direct characterization

We learn about the characters through their dialogue

much of the character development comes from what characters say about each other or what they say about themselves through indirect characterization

Motivation is what drives a character to do what they do

In other words,

ask yourself: what is this character’s strongest desire

? Characters’ decisions are important to the plot,

their decisions will affect the play’s outcome

Just as we can tell a great deal about a person by the way he or she lives his or her life,

we can also learn a lot about characters by what they say and do

Similarly,

just as some of the decisions we make in our lives are minor and trivial,

and others change our lives forever,

a skilled writer develops characters that also make both seemingly unimportant as well as life-altering choices

Directions: For each of the characters below,

complete the chart with textual examples of indirect characterization from Act One or Two of the play

find a quote in which another character describes something about that character,

and then find a quote in which the character describes himself

Be sure to give scene and line numbers from where you obtained the quote

Then in your own words,

fill in what you think is the character’s main motivation this far in the play

An example has been done for you

Character

Another Character’s Description

I do observe you now of late