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Cadastral surveying II


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Working in a group to complete the refixation task

To strengthen the knowledge of refixation works and applying the theories in the field

Share knowledge and collaborate in dealing with problems and challenges in the course of refixation survey

Practice the field work in accordance with circulars Director General of survey and mapping

Practice of recording method using the external workbook

Practice in computation work

Practice in computing the offset distance and bearing for refixation

Familiarize in providing the Calculation Volume (CV) and Certified Plan (CP)

To describes the purpose and requirements of conducting refixation

To understand more about the exact terms in the traversing work

To explain the rules in carrying out the refixation work

To show the calculation of the external workbook data with the way it has been set up

To provide the CV and CP in accordance with the prescribed format

Bandar Shah Alam,

Daerah Petaling,

Selangor Darul Ehsan

The solar observation was conducted at station 2 besides the lot 364

Latitude of station 2 : 30 04’ 4


The area shaded dark gray LOCATION PLAN

Seksyen 2,

Shah Alam

Total Station – To measure bearing and distance Prism – To target the next point Tripod – To stand the total station and prism at a proper height Picket – To mark a station that was established

Replacing the boundary marks which are missing or lost or broken to their original positions based on the refixation calculations

Two basic assumpations are to be taken into account before starting to refix the boundary marks

A boundary mark which is found to be upright,

firm and projecting at the correct height above the ground level is assumed to be in its original position until it is proved otherwise

and the position of the base of a slanting boundary mark must be assumed to be in its original position until proven otherwise


the boundary mark should be set upright to its proper level before any measurements or observations are taken to or from it

Refixation is a very costly process and therefore the land surveyor must consider the following factors before deciding to refix the boundary marks

the effects to the land owner if the boundary mark is not refixed,

the significant of the boundary mark to be used in future datum

The displacement limits for refixation are as follows

For boundary line less than 40 meters  

Bearing not exceeds 01’ Distance not exceeds 0

For boundary line more than 40 meters  

Bearing not exceeds 30” Distance not exceeds 0

Criteria have to be considered whether to carry out refixation or not for town,

built up and industrial areas,

refixation is required if the displacement is more than 0

refixation is only needed if the displacement exceeds 0

the old values are adjusted to the new values as the old values physically do not exist

The boundary marks are placed to its original positions based on offset values computed from nearby traverse stations

There are exceptional cases for refixation

First for areas which have been previously surveyed by third class or lower,

the boundary marks are accepted as in their original positions except if there are significant differences with the previous values

Second for areas which have been previously surveyed by demarcation survey,

boundary marks are considered to be in their original positions provided

boundary marks found in good condition are considered to be in their original positions,

boundary marks found in good condition are considered to be in their original positions,

Before starting the work,

we recon the site to familiarize the place

we searched the boundary marks that are suitable for the survey work

After that,

we sketched the plan location of the site and designed the traverse plan for ease the work

Established stations using picket for traversing

Set up the total station at station 2,

one prism at the back station,

and another one at forward station,

The prism at backsight station was observed and the estimated datum bearing was set as 1600 00 00

The total station was swing in clockwise direction to observe station 3

The value of FL for bearing and distance of line 1-3 was recorded in fieldbook

The same process was repeated in FR but the bearing set up was added up 1800

The instrument station now moved to station 3 as follow the clockwise direction

The same observation procedures were followed but the backsight bearing was set up by using last mean bearing ±1800

The whole processes were repeated until the closed traverse is formed

The solar observation for determining azimuth was conducted at station 2 to get the real bearing to use in the M correction

The correction processes in fieldbook were followed using the rule of corrections

The offset observation and recording was conducted using prism pole as a replacement to the prism and tripod

The offset was for doing the baselining work

The values of bearing and distance of offsets were taken by a face only

The values of bearing of the offsets are recorded to the nearest 1’

After all the C and M corrections have been done,

we proceed to computation work

The traverse work that had been done was drawn in the P

O plan of the site in the microstation

The suitable baseline was calculated

The baseline of New and P

O was compared

From the value calculated,

we corrected the boundary mark of the lot

the offset from the station to the boundary mark that need to be fixed was calculated

From that value,

we can proceed to the refixation work at the site

Offset distance less than 1 meter a

Set total station at a station

Set back bearing to reference station

Open bearing at calculated offset bearing

Plant a picket at station 100 on the offset bearing (about 4m) and measure the distance

By using another reference station,

perform angle and distance checking to station 100 f

Measure distance from station 100 to the mark to be refixed at

Plant boundary mark according to the distance deduced

Re-measure the distance

Offset distance More than 1 meter a

Set total station at a station

Set back bearing to reference station

Open bearing at calculated offset bearing

Measure offset distance to the mark to be refixed at and plant the boundary mark

Perform angle checking to the boundary mark by using another reference station

Re-measure the distance for checking

The observations were made in morning and evening day to avoid from the mirage and the refractive that can produce error

The observation also stop when the weather in the bad condition to reduce error

The data recorded in the observations were recorded using permanent ink to avoid the confusion

The reading of the bearing and distance was repeated couple of time to have the mean value

Explanation of the readings and data were made clearly

The safety of self and instrument are to be priority when doing this observation

Bearing 60 21 06 44 02 07 52 27 25 138 02 41 217 55 49 225 05 54 249 27 59 342 35 40

Distance 66

136 162

Linear Misclosure = (ℯN)2 + (ℯE)2 = 0

Latid 33

691 ∑ =

Depart 58

We decided to choose line 10 to 15 as the baseline for the refixation as it comply all the requirements as a baseline

BKL 10 to 15 – Measured 550 40’ 29” PO 550 38’ 45” Correction bearing : +1’44” Distance : x 1

017m 368

Refix at BKB A Line Distance 1- 10 7

- BKB A 20

653 BKB A

- 1 Pol(16

Bearing 94 21 13 325 16 50

Depart 7

Bearing 162 35 40 343 53 34 343 06 23

Depart 20

Distance : 17


Refix at BKB B Line 2-1 1-BKB A BKB A

Distance 67

Distance : 1

Refix at BKB C Line Distance 3-2 67


Bearing 240 21 06 28 13 44 75 32 50

275 133

771 148

Distance : 29


Refix at BKB D'Line 5-4 4-3 3-BKB C BKB C- BKB D'BKB D'– 5 Pol(-1

Distance 91

784 199

Distance : 1

Bearing 232 27 25 224 02 07 221 35 31 47 55 21


Refix at BKB E Line 6-5 5-BKB D'BKB D'– BKB E BKB E – 6 Pol(-2

Distance 49

Bearing 318 02 41 142 18 37 140 02 33

Latid 37

Latid 114

Depart 114

Distance : 2

7 BKB F 8

Refix at BKB F Line 8-7 7-6 6-BKB E BKB E-BKB F BKB F-8 Pol(9

Distance 162

446 208

Distance : 13

Bearing 45 05 54 37 55 49 187 13 57 227 25 15

many errors have been made and this things should be prevented because it will waste time and will corrupted all project of surveying

From this task we have learn how to reduce the error and the data that we collected was accepted

The result of the traverse project should be accurate with the small error

The cooperation and patience of each group members should be praised because without all of group members’ participation in this project,

If the procedures of refixation that we have learned are followed,

the field work can be done faster and the result will be accurate

After this practical was done,

I have acquired many lessons in completing a refixation work

Without the help from the lecturer,

we won’t be able to finish this field work completely

I have learned how to reduce errors in carrying out traverse survey

I went through a lot with my team

We learn from wrong to right




U(+)/S(-) T(+)/B(-)

LUAR LOT 28-31 LOT 346365 2

60 21 06

44 02 07

52 27 25

138 02 41

217 55 49

225 05 54

249 27 59

323 35 40

TIKAIAN LURUS 1 : 27898 LUAS = (17028