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Description

CADD PRIMER A Free Book on Computer Aided Design and Drafting (CADD)

This condensed version on CADD PRIMER is free of copyrights as long as it is distributed in its entirety and no money is made distributing it

Feel free to share it with your friends

CADD Education Center http://www

CADD PRIMER (Condensed version) This condensed version of CADD PRIMER is intended to give you an overview of Computer Aided Design and Drafting (CADD)

It contains only selected topics from CADD PRIMER and it does not include any diagrams

For a better understanding of CADD refer to CADD PRIMER: available at http://www

com or contact the publisher listed below to order the book

CADD PRIMER publication data: Publisher’s Cataloging-in-Publication (Provided by Quality Books,

CADD primer : a general guide to computer aided design and drafting : CADD,

CAD / Vijay Duggal

-- 1st ed

Includes bibliographical references and index

LCCN: 99-74579 ISBN: 0-9629165-9-5 (pbk

Computer-aided design

Computer graphics

D84 2000

CADD PRIMER is available at 30% off the cover price when you order directly from the publisher at the address listed below or through the web site http://www

MailMax Publishing,

Suite 1R,

Elmhurst,

New York 11373

Voice mail: (212) 894-3748 Ext

E-mail: [email protected] Note: We do not take orders over the phone or by fax

You may place your order directly on-line or send your payment by mail

Softcover: (ISBN: 0-9629165-9-5) List price: US $32

Price after 30% discount: US $23

priority air mail within USA: $4,

Canada: $7,

air mail anywhere: $10 Download: You can download the complete CADD PRIMER at http://www

Credit cards are accepted on this secured web site

Please include your E-mail address

Please let your fellow students,

professionals and the library know about the availability of this book

Join our affiliate program and earn 50% commission from the sale of this book: http://www

Author: Vijay Duggal: Architect with extensive experience using CADD,

New York

Member: American Design Drafting Association (ADDA) US National CAD Standard committee CAD Society

Technical Editors: Al Zoli Sella Rush

Reviewers and Contributors: Prof

Eden Muir: CAD department,

Columbia University Mr

Robert Mertz: CAD class,

New York Institute of Technology Prof

Bruice M

Coleman: CAD class,

Syracuse University Dr

Jens Pohl: CAD Research Center,

California Polytechnic State University Mr

Emille Griffing: American Design Drafting Association Mr

David Byrnes: CAD systems magazine Mr

Richard Todd: CAD class,

New York University Mr

James Wilson: CADD/GIS Technology Center,

US Department of Defense

Acknowledgments: Editors,

reviewers and contributors Friends and family Hardware and software vendors listed in this book

What others are saying about CADD PRIMER Mr

David Byrnes,

CAD Systems Magazine (June 2000 issue): "CADD Primer is a fine introduction to the field of computer-aided drafting and design

Its discipline-independent,

platform-independent and programindependent coverage has something for everyone,

from the prospective Pro/E modeller on her Unix workstation to the prospective FormZ designer on his Macintosh

And if you’re no longer a “prospective” CADD user yourself,

you probably know someone who’s starting out in the field

Do them—and maybe yourself—a favour,

and give them a copy of CADD Primer

Tony Zilles: Editor CADinfo

It is also suitable for those considering CAD for work or hobby use but who are confused or intimidated by the technology and the jargon that goes with it

The CADD Primer contains all the information that very quickly becomes second knowledge to those who use CAD systems on a regular basis

Most "old hands" learned the information the CADD Primer contains over many years

For the new recruit,

the body of "must-have" basic information presents a great hurdle within itself,

even before learning a particular CAD program and the discipline that you intend to use it with

All the basic information anyone could need is available,

accessible and affordable in the CADD Primer

Highly recommended

Eden Muir,

Director of Computer Sequence,

Columbia University: “It is a useful and clear guide for a general introductory course which is not product-specific

Jeffrey Ge,

State University of New York: “I enjoyed reading the book

The material is well organized and clearly explained in layman terms

Bruce M

Coleman,

CAD class,

Syracuse University: “This book would be helpful to any individual seeking knowledge about CADD,

regardless of a formal training program

James Wilson,

CADD/GIS center,

US Department of Defense: “This is a good manual to use as a guide to teach someone with no CADD experience,

It is best when it is used before an actual application has been purchased

It meets its intended goals for its audience

” See detailed reviews at http://www

Preface Welcome to the world of Computer Aided Design and Drafting (CADD)

CADD PRIMER is designed to teach you all the skills necessary to learn CADD in a successful and professional manner

It assumes that you have very little experience with computers

you are familiar with basic geometry and the concept of drafting

CADD software is commonly used for drafting architectural and engineering drawings and for making technical illustrations of any kind

If you are a professional associated with design or drafting or would just like to widen your knowledge about CADD applications,

CADD enables you to prepare fast and accurate drawings

It provides flexibility to change drawings with minimal effort

In recent years,

many professionals have switched to CADD to enjoy the benefits of this precise and creative tool

many educational institutions include CADD as part of their academic curriculum

As a result,

CADD knowledge has become very important to all professionals involved in the field of design and drafting

There are a variety of systems and programs available in the CADD industry and new programs are frequently introduced

It has become very confusing to select a system and learn all the applications and techniques of CADD

Design and operation of CADD programs differ from system to system,

and time spent in learning one system may not prove very useful on another

CADD PRIMER does not focus on a specific CADD program

It provides general information that is applicable to all the leading CADD programs,

MicroStation and Cadkey

CADD PRIMER can give you a head start in learning CADD,

regardless of whatever CADD program you may have to use

Who can benefit from CADD PRIMER: • Students associated with drawing

Design or drafting professionals who would like to get a quick overview of CADD

A novice or scholar who always wondered how the drawings are created using a computer

Important note: CADD PRIMER is not a “how-to” book

Although it uses examples from leading CADD programs,

they are intended to illustrate general principles only

CADD PRIMER is a beginner’s reference book on CADD

Table of Contents Note: Not all the topics listed below are included in the condensed version on CADD PRIMER

For complete understanding of CAD refer to CADD PRIMER available at http://www

Introduction n n n n n n

CADD Hardware and Software n n n n n n n

Key Terms in this Chapter What is CADD

? What to Expect from CADD A Look at the CADD Industry The Focus of this Book How to Use CADD PRIMER

About this Chapter Key Terms in this Chapter Hardware and Software Overview CADD Hardware CADD in a Network Environment CADD Software CADD User Interface

The CADD Basics n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n

About This Chapter Key Terms in this Chapter Components of a CADD Drawing Beginning to Draw Locating Points Accurately The Coordinate System The Formats to Enter Coordinates User-Defined Coordinate System A Prototype CADD Drawing What if You Made a Mistake

? When to Save the Drawing or Quit Automatic Data Saving Features CADD Filing System A Word about Data Security Getting Help

n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n

About this Chapter Key Terms in this Chapter The Drawing Tools of CADD Using Line Types Drawing Multiple Parallel Lines Drawing Flexible Curves Drawing Arcs and Circles Drawing Ellipses and Elliptical Arcs Adding Text to Drawings Defining a Text Style Drawing Dimensions Writing Dimensions with Different Units Setting Dimension Styles Adding Hatch Patterns to Drawings Drawing Symbols Drawing Arrows The Artistic Side of CADD AutoCAD,

MicroStation and Cadkey Terms

View Displays n n n n n n n n n n

The Drawing Tools n

AutoCAD,

MicroStation & Cadkey Terms

About this Chapter Key Terms in this Chapter The View-Display Functions Displaying a Full View Moving the View Zoom-in and Zoom-out Enlarging View by Indicating a Window Saving and Displaying Views Displaying Previous Views AutoCAD,

MicroStation and Cadkey Terms

The Edit Functions n n n n n n n

About this Chapter Key Terms in this Chapter The Role of Edit Functions Selecting Objects to Edit Erasing Drawing Objects Moving Drawing Objects Copying Drawing Objects

Key Terms in this Chapter The Concept of Layers in CADD Creating Layers for an Engineer’s Office The Tools to Work with Layers Are Layers Absolutely Necessary

MicroStation and Cadkey Terms

Introduction to 3D n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n

Working With Layers n

Changing Drawing Appearance Using Edit Functions as a Drawing-Aid Tool Steps to Draw an Engineer’s Office Steps to Complete the Engineering Complex AutoCAD,

MicroStation and Cadkey Terms

About this Chapter Key Terms in this Chapter Why 3D

? Pictorial Views Concept Oblique Views Isometric Views Steps to Draw an Isometric Isometric Drawing-Aid Functions 3D Modeling Working with 3D Coordinates Steps to Draw a 3D Model Displaying Views 3D Drawing-Aid Functions Shading and Rendering AutoCAD,

MicroStation and Cadkey Terms

Printing and Plotting n n n n n n

About this Chapter Key Terms in this Chapter The Printing and Plotting Process Steps to Plotting Printers and Plotters AutoCAD,

MicroStation and Cadkey Terms

Maximizing CADD n n n n n n n

About this Chapter Key Terms in this Chapter Streamlining CADD Drawing Environment The Design Applications of CADD Integrated Systems Collaborating CADD Projects on the Internet CADD Artificial Intelligence (AI) Resources

CADD Industry Resources n n n n n

About this Chapter CADD Industry Terms Product Selection Criteria Leading CADD Products Important CADD Resources on the Internet

Introduction

Contents Key Terms in this Chapter

What is CADD

What to Expect from CADD

Presentations Flexibility in Editing Units & Accuracy Levels Storage and Access of Drawings Sharing CADD Drawings Project Reporting Engineering Analysis Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) Design Add-on Programs

A Look at the CADD Industry

The Focus of this Book

How to Use CADD PRIMER

Introduction

Note: This condensed version of CADD PRIMER is intended to give you an overview of CADD

It includes only important topics from CADD PRIMER

It does not include any diagrams

CADD PRIMER includes more than 100 diagrams that illustrate the working of CADD

For complete understanding of CADD refer to CADD PRIMER

This complete book is available for download for $9

com or you can order printed copies through the publisher listed at the end of this chapter

Key Terms in this Chapter Term

Description

Attributes CAD

Descriptions of electronic drawing elements

An acronym for Computer Aided Design

It synonymously used for Computer Aided Drafting

CADD CADD system CAFM CAE CAM Command Database

An acronym for Computer Aided Design & Drafting

A computer system that enables you to perform drawing and design tasks

Function Menu Parametric design

An acronym for Computer Aided Facility Management An acronym for Computer Aided Engineering An acronym for Computer Aided Manufacturing A single instruction issued by the user to complete a task on the computer

A stored collection of data that can be retrieved and organized in different ways

A task in a program that can be completed by issuing a set of commands through the program

A collection of functions or commands that are displayed on the screen

You can make selections from the menu with a pointing device such as a mouse

A computer capability that links graphics on the screen with automated calculations and vice versa

Introduction

What is CADD

? When we think of Computer Aided Design and Drafting (CADD),

certain questions arise that we never think of while working on the drawing board

We do not use the essential drawing board tools: paper,

T-square,

yet still have to design or make a drawing

When even one of these tools is missing we know how aggravating it can be

With CADD we don’t need even one of them

! CADD is an electronic tool that enables you to make quick and accurate drawings with the use of a computer

Unlike the traditional methods of making drawings on a drawing board,

with CADD you can sit back in an easy chair and create wonderful drawings just by clicking the buttons of a keyboard

Moreover,

drawings created with CADD have a number of advantages over drawings created on a drawing board

CADD drawings are neat,

Electronic drawings can be modified quite easily and can be presented in a variety of formats

A decade ago,

CADD was used only for specific engineering applications that required high precision

Due to CADDs high price,

only a few professionals could afford it

In recent years,

computer prices have decreased significantly and more and more professionals are taking advantage of CADD

There are hundreds of CADD programs available in the CADD industry today

Some are intended for general drawing work while others are focused on specific engineering applications

There are programs that enable you to do 2D drawings,

3D drawings,

There is a CADD program for virtually every engineering discipline you can think of

CADD is primarily intended for single-line drafting

It has very limited capabilities to create artistic impressions

However,

CADDs 3D and rendering features are fascinating

You can create a 3D model of an object and view it from any angle

With proper shading and rendering,

it can be made to look picture perfect

What to Expect from CADD You can do amazing things with CADD that you never thought possible while creating drawings with a pen or pencil

The following are some of the important capabilities that make CADD a powerful tool:

Presentations Flexibility in editing Units & accuracy levels Storage and access for drawings Sharing CADD drawings Project reporting

CADD PRIMER: http://www

Engineering analysis Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) Design Add-on programs

Presentations You can create fine drawings with hundreds of colors,

presentation symbols and text styles

Even if you dont like something about your presentation after you have finished it,

It takes only a few simple steps to change the text style,

color or line type and you can print a fresh copy of the drawing

There are a number of ready-made presentation symbols and hatch patterns available in CADD that can be used to enhance the look of drawings

For example,

a site planner can add tree symbols,

and other landscape elements to create a site plan

Similarly,

an architect can use ready-made symbols of doors,

In addition to preparing impressive presentations on paper,

you can use CADD to make on-screen presentations

You can plug your computer into a projector and present your ideas on-screen

Advanced CADD programs even allow you to created animated images

You can illustrate how a building would appear while walking through it,

or how a machine would function when different machine assembly parts operate

Flexibility in Editing CADD provides the flexibility to make quick alterations to drawings

You can erase any portion of a drawing with pinpoint accuracy

It takes only seconds to do a job that could take hours on a drawing board

In many cases,

you won’t even have to erase the drawing to make the change

You can rearrange the existing components of the drawing to fit new shape

This enables you to analyze design options with minimal effort

The following are some of the editing capabilities of CADD:

Move or copy drawing elements Enlarge or reduce parts of a drawing Add one drawing to another Stretch a drawing to fit new dimensions Make multiple copies of a drawing element Change the size and style of text Change units of measure,

accuracy and style of dimensions

Introduction

Units & Accuracy Levels CADD allows you to work with great accuracy

If you need to create highly accurate geometrical shapes,

CADD is the answer

It can help avoid timeconsuming mathematical calculations

You can work with different units of measure,

scientific units and surveyor’s units

These units are represented in standard formats commonly used by professionals

Example:

When working with engineering units,

you can specify whether all the dimensions should be represented in inches,

Similarly,

you can choose angular units of measurement such as decimal degrees,

You can set an extremely high accuracy for the units of measurement

You can work with as high precision as 1/1000th of an inch

such accuracy is seldom required

You will often need to set the CADD program to a lesser accuracy to avoid unnecessary fractions

In general,

when you need to work on a large scale drawing such as a plan of a township,

you may want to set a lesser degree of accuracy,

The computer will round off all the measurements to the next foot and you won’t see any fractions less than a foot

When you need to work on a minute detail,

you can set a higher degree of accuracy such as 1/8th or 1/64th of an inch

Storage and Access of Drawings It is quick and convenient to organize CADD drawings in a computer

You can have thousands of drawings on a computers hard disk and can open any one of them within seconds

A computers electronic filing system has the following advantages over the traditional filing system:

It enables you to create a highly organized environment It contributes to savings in working space An electronic drawing never gets old and faded

Any time you need a drawing,

you can print a new copy from the disks

Sharing CADD Drawings The electronic drawings can be shared by a number of users,

allowing them to coordinate projects and work as a team

This is accomplished by connecting different computers via a network

Example: In a building project,

different professionals such as architects,

engineers and construction managers can use the same set of electronic drawings to coordinate building services

If a change is

CADD PRIMER: http://www

this information becomes available to all the team members automatically

With the use of modems and the Internet,

it has become far easier to share information

Most architects and engineers these days share drawings electronically

You can also publish your drawings on the Internet and collaborate CADD projects using a web site

Many CADD programs include special functions that allow you to export drawings in a format that can be viewed on the Internet

Refer to Chapter 9 "Maximizing CADD" for more information on collaborating CADD projects on the Internet

Project Reporting The computer can be used to prepare project reports such as records of areas,

Using the database capabilities of CADD,

you can link non-graphic information (such as text or value) with the graphic elements of the drawing

The non-graphic information is stored in a database,

which can be used to prepare reports

Example: An architect can link text attributes associated with the symbols of doors and windows in a drawing

The attributes can describe the size of the door,

Later on the computer can automatically prepare a door schedule listing all the doors and windows in the drawing

The non-graphic information is directly linked with the drawing objects

When a change is made to the drawing,

the values in the reports are updated automatically

This provides a useful means to manage large projects

There is a special category of software called Computer Aided Facility Management (CAFM) designed for building management

These programs allow you to import drawings from CADD programs and link attributes to them to form a database

The database can be used to keep track of spaces,

building maintenance schedule,

See Chapter 10 "CADD Industry Resources" for a list of CAFM software

Engineering Analysis There is a separate category of programs called Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) that can use CADD drawings for engineering analysis

The CAE programs have a number of applications in structural design,

mechanical engineering and electrical engineering

Example: A structural engineer can use a CAE program to test the design of structural components in a building

The engineer can instantly analyze the impact on structural members when a different load is applied to the structure or the spacing between the members is changed

Similarly,

there are programs for mechanical engineers to test machine assemblies

The mechanical engineer can create a

Introduction

prototype electronic model and test it without building a physical model

The advanced engineering programs even provide the ability to link calculations with the CADD drawings

This capability is known as parametric design" that allows the computer to automatically update the drawings when the associated calculations are changed and vice versa

Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) CADD extends its power to yet another branch of engineering called Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM)

CAM is a common method of manufacturing used by large corporations

CADD and manufacturing programs are often integrated into one system called CAD-CAM

These systems import CADD drawings into CAM programs to automate the manufacturing process

Example: An engineer can draw a machine part using CADD

The CADD drawing is brought into a computer aided engineering (CAE) program for engineering analysis

When the design is finalized,

the drawing is brought into a CAD-CAM system that uses numerical data from the CADD drawing for actual manufacturing

Design CADD provides a convenient means to create designs for almost every engineering discipline

It can be used for architectural design,

textile design and product design

CADDs drafting capabilities provide ample means to create a design scheme

You can create designs with great accuracy and have the flexibility to easily edit them

This allows you to quickly prepare design alternatives

In addition to the drafting capabilities of CADD,

there are special programs that can analyze designs or even create new ones

These programs use artificial intelligence to "think" and make design decisions

The design capabilities of CADD are available only in advanced CADD programs

There are only a few such programs available

Design programs are usually not generic

They often need to be custom-written to accomplish a specific task

See Chapter 9 "Maximizing CADD" for discussion on design programs

Add-on Programs There are a number of separate programs available that can enhance the power of CADD

The add-on programs work as an extension of CADD to accomplish specific tasks

there are hundreds of add-on programs available for popular CADD programs

An architectural add-on program can allow you to instantly draw symbols of doors,

A shading and rendering

CADD PRIMER: http://www

program can be used to enhance the look of 3D images

A plumbing design program includes special functions to draw pipes,

A civil engineering program includes special features to work with contours and land development

Most manufacturers market CADD programs in separate modules

They sell a basic drafting module for a certain price with the options to add on other modules

There are a number of add-on programs available from independent vendors as well

A Look at the CADD Industry There are hundreds of CADD programs available in the CADD industry today

Most of them are simply drafting programs,

while some offer certain engineering analysis,

design or database capabilities

Some programs are more elaborate than the others are

Refer to CADD PRIMER for details

The Focus of this Book With so many CADD programs available,

it is impossible to learn each one

Most programs have similar drawing capabilities,

but the exact procedures are quite different

You may be an expert on one program and yet not know much about another

This is because different CADD programs use different terminology and procedures to accomplish the same tasks

It may take you quite some time to learn the intricacies of a particular CADD program

CADD PRIMER is designed to give you a head start in learning CADD regardless of any program you may have to use

It describes the general principles and applications of CADD that are applicable to most of the programs

Its objective is to familiarize you with all the aspects of working with CADD

Once you understand what individual functions do and which functions to use where,

you can apply this knowledge to any CADD program

The following are the main objectives of CADD PRIMER:

To present an overview of CADD and describe its applications in different fields

To describe common terms associated with CADD hardware and software

To outline the basic principles associated with CADD and to demonstrate common drafting techniques and shortcuts used by professionals

To introduce the advanced capabilities of CADD and how they can be used to increase productivity

To provide information about the CADD industry resources

Introduction

How to Use CADD PRIMER CADD PRIMER is a reference book

The examples in this book are illustrated in a generic way,

because our objective is not to focus on a specific program

The examples used in this book are intended to give you an idea of how CADD works and what it can do for you

To learn about a specific program,

you will have to obtain literature specific to that program

A look inside CADD PRIMER

Chapter Chapter 1: CADD Hardware and Software

Chapter 2: CADD Basics

Description Gives an overview of CADD hardware and describes the terminology associated with the equipment

Presents an overview of CADD functions and describes their role in CADD and how they are organized in various menus

Teaches you how to communicate with CADD through different means of data entry

Instructs you on the basic drawing concepts of CADD

You will start with a simple drawing exercise

Explains the essential features of CADD,

such as how to enter distances using different coordinate methods

You will learn how to use Absolute,

Relative and Polar coordinates

Chapter 3: The Drawing Tools Chapter 4: View Displays Chapter 5: The Edit Functions Chapter 6: Working with Layers

Presents guidelines on setting up a prototype CADD drawing

You will learn how to save and manage CADD drawings

Gives you a closer look at all the drawing capabilities of CADD

You will learn different methods for drawing lines,

Describes how View-Display functions are used to display different views of a drawing

You will learn how to zoom in on portions of the drawing and how to save and restore selected views

Describes the application of CADDs edit functions

You will learn a number of shortcut methods to fix errors

You will also learn how easy it is to make changes by using the erase,

Includes a number of exercises to illustrate functions

Discusses the use of layers in CADD drawings

This is a commonly used technique that enables you to organize your drawings better by grouping information on specific layers

CADD PRIMER: http://www

Chapter Chapter 7: Introduction to 3D

Chapter 8: Printing and Plotting Chapter 9: Maximizing CADD Chapter 10: CADD Industry Resources

Description Gives an overview of 3D functions of CADD

You will learn basic 3D drawing techniques

Describes how to make isometrics and perspectives,

and display 3D views from different angles

Describes CADDs plotting and printing procedures

You will learn how to print the same drawing with a number of variations

Includes a discussion on plotting and printing machines

Presents an outline of advanced features of CADD,

such as the use of attributes to make project reports,

the use of macros to do automated tasks,

applications of design and database,

and how CADD works in an integrated environment with other programs

Presents an outline of important features offered by leading CADD programs and the guidelines to choose a CADD system

Includes a helpful CADD directory listing the leading CADD programs and important resources on the Internet

CADD PRIMER ordering information: CADD PRIMER is available at 30% off the cover price when you order directly from the publisher at the address listed below or through the web site http://www

MailMax Publishing,

Suite 1R,

Elmhurst,

New York 11373

Voice mail: (212) 894-3748 Ext

E-mail: [email protected] Note: We do not take orders over the phone or by fax

You may place your order directly on-line or send your payment by mail

Softcover: (ISBN: 0-9629165-9-5) List price: US $32

Price after 30% discount: US $23

priority air mail within USA: $4,

Canada: $7,

air mail anywhere: $10 Download: You can download the complete CADD PRIMER at http://www

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CADD Hardware and Software

Contents About this Chapter

Key Terms in this Chapter

Hardware and Software Overview

CADD Hardware

System Unit External Storage Devices The Monitor Printers and Plotters Digitizer,

Puck and Mouse

A Typical CADD Network

CADD Software

Draw Edit Data Output Data Storage and Management System Control Special Features

CADD User Interface Using the Menu Bar Entering commands in the command window Using the tool buttons Using the dialog boxes Working in the drawing area

CADD Hardware and Software

Note: This condensed version of CADD PRIMER is intended to give you an overview of CADD

It includes only important topics from CADD PRIMER

It does not include any diagrams

CADD PRIMER includes more than 100 diagrams that illustrate the working of CADD

For complete understanding of CADD refer to CADD PRIMER

This complete book is available for download for $9

com or you can order printed copies through the publisher listed at the end of this chapter

About this Chapter This chapter provides a general overview of CADD hardware and software

There are three main topics in this chapter:

CADD Hardware CADD Software CADD User Interface

CADD Hardware describes the physical components of a CADD system such as system unit,

It introduces the requirements and specifications necessary for CADD equipment

If you are familiar with computers,

you may want to browse through the CADD Hardware topic to re-familiarize yourself with information referred to in later chapters

If you are unfamiliar with computers,

you should read the entire topic before proceeding

CADD Software describes the main functions of a CADD program,

data storage and management and other special features

CADD User Interface describes how to interact with CADD by various means of data entry

You will learn how commands are entered using the menus,

CADD PRIMER: http://www

Key Terms in this Chapter Term

Definition

gigabyte (GB) Data exchange format (DXF) Digitizer Dots per inch (dpi) Dot-pitch Graphical user interface (GUI) Hardware Mainframe system Megahertz (MHz) Minicomputer PC Resolution Server Software

A bit is the smallest unit of electronic memory

The second smallest unit of memory is a byte,

One megabyte contains one million bytes

A standard format used to exchange electronic drawings between different CADD programs

An electronic data input device

A specification of printers and plotters that determines how accurately they can print

The distance between the picture elements (pixels) on the screen

An environment established by the program that uses graphic clues to help the user communicate with the computer

The physical components of a computer

Large computer that processes data at very fast speeds and has a lot of memory

Used by large organizations

The speed of data processing

The speed of one million cycles per second is called 1 MHz

Smaller version of the mainframe system

Also used by large organizations

Personal computer,

The sharpness of the image on the screen

A computer dedicated to running the network program,

with computers connected via a network

The programs that run on the computer

Hardware and Software Overview There are two parts of a computer system,

and a CADD system is no exception

Computer hardware is the physical components of the computer such as system unit,

Computer software is the program that determines the application of a system

There are three main categories of computers with respect to hardware:

Mainframe Minicomputer Microcomputers,

for example personal computers (PCs)

CADD Hardware and Software

Mainframe computers have a lot of data processing power and their size is quite big

A single mainframe computer performs all the data processing and is accessed via terminals connected to it

Minicomputers are smaller versions of mainframe computers

Microcomputers (PCs) are the desktop or laptop computers of today and are used for individual computing needs

There are two main categories of computer software:

System software Application program

The system software manages the internal operations of the computer

The application programs are tools that help you accomplish your work,

(This topic is further described in CADD PRIMER)

CADD Hardware The following are the main hardware components of CADD:

System unit Ø Central processing unit Ø Memory Ø Hard disk,

CD-ROM External storage devices Monitor Printers and plotters Keyboard Digitizer,

System Unit The system unit is the computer that is used for all data processing

The main components of the system units are the central processing unit (CPU) and memory

In mainframe and minicomputers CPU and memory are usually separate compartments that house thousands of devices

In todays PCs,

they all fit in a small box commonly known as a desktop computer

Most desktop computers today come equipped with a hard disk,

Lets have a look at the components of a system unit: Ø Central processing unit Ø Memory Ø Hard disk,

CD-ROM Note: The above topics are described in detail in CADD PRIMER

CADD PRIMER: http://www

External Storage Devices There are a number of external storage devices available such as magnetic tapes,

zip drives and removable hard disks

They are commonly used to keep backup copies of electronic files for safekeeping

Magnetic tapes are quite common for storing large volumes of data

A magnetic tape that looks like a small videocassette can store thousands of megabytes of data

However,

they are quite slow and require a lot of time to store or retrieve data

Zip drives were introduced recently

they use zip disks to store data

A zip disk is like an upgraded version of floppy disk that can store about 100MB of data

They are particularly helpful if you plan to use CADD or other graphic programs that generate quite big data files

You can store an entire project on one zip disk that could take 50 or more floppy disks

Another new option for data storage is the removable hard disk

You can remove the entire hard disk from your computer and use it on another computer

This approach is commonly used when you need to work on different computers and you want the same information to be available instantly

The Monitor The monitor is the computer screen and is used to display information

A good monitor is very important for CADD in order to display fine graphics

A color monitor is essential because many CADD drawing techniques are based on colors

Monitors are available in various sizes ranging from 13" to 30" or more

average monitors have the ability to display millions of colors

The main factor that determines the quality of a monitor is the resolution

The term resolution refers to sharpness of an image displayed on the screen

Resolution is measured by the number of picture elements (pixels) that a screen can display

The more pixels and the closer they are,

The distance between pixels is called the "dot-pitch"

The smaller the dot-pitch,

Printers and Plotters CADD drawings are printed using fine-quality printers and plotters

Drawings are neat and clean and as accurate as the naked eye can see

You can print drawings at as much as 1200-dpi (dots per inch) accuracy

This means 1200 dots are printed in a one-inch-long line

and other graphics are printed highly accurate,

You can print drawings with a lot of variations

drawings can be printed with different sizes,

There are a variety of printers and plotters available in the computer industry

They work on different principles and their prices vary significantly

There are

CADD Hardware and Software

Printers and plotters range in cost from as little as $200 to as much as $20,000

The less expensive ones are not as accurate and are commonly used for rough prints

Professional drawings,

are printed only by using fine printers and plotters

For more information on printers and plotters,

refer to Chapter 8 Printing and Plotting

Digitizer,

Puck and Mouse The digitizer (also known as a graphic tablet) and the puck are the data input devices most commonly used in CADD systems

These devices allow you to enter point locations on the screen and to make selections from the menus

As the puck is moved over the surface of the digitizer,

it moves the indicator (cursor) on the screen relatively

To enter a point,

you need to position the cursor at the appropriate position on the screen and then press the "Enter" button on the puck

Digitizers are available in many sizes and styles

A number of commands are printed on the digitizer surface

To enter a command,

place the puck over the desired command and press the "Enter" button

The selected command is instantly entered

The puck buttons are configured to perform many other tasks

For example,

one button is used to make selections,

another to return to the previous menu and another to cancel the last command

A mouse is another pointing device that can be used with CADD

Like the puck,

the mouse allows you to control the position of the cursor on the screen by rolling it across a flat surface,

but it does not require a digitizer

Some programs support working with a mouse only,

while others support both the mouse and the digitizer

A mouse is much cheaper than a digitizer or puck,

but provides only limited data entry options

A Typical CADD Network A number of CADD workstations can be connected together by using a computer network

A computer network provides the ability to share both equipment and information

A CADD network is not only cost effective but it provides a great convenience in sharing information

All the drawings and data can be stored in a common storage medium,

which is accessible to all users

You can open any drawing from any workstation in the network and share it with others

This is impossible if computers are not connected in a network

Note: This topic is further described in CADD PRIMER

CADD PRIMER: http://www

CADD Software A CADD program contains hundreds of functions that enable you to accomplish specific drawing tasks

A task may involve drawing an object,

displaying a view of the drawing,

or controlling any other operation of the computer

The functions contain a number of commands that enable you to specify exactly what you want to do and how you want to do it

The functions are organized into modules that provide easy access to all the commands

The program is divided into modules such as draw,

A program may also have a number of specialized functions such as layers,

Lets have a look at the CADD modules:

Draw Edit Data output System control Data storage and management Special features

Draw The draw module provides access to all the drawing functions of CADD

Whenever you need to draw something this group of functions is used

The draw module enables you to draw lines,

borders and many other drawing components

Draw is CADDs most frequently used module because all drawing work is accomplished using it

Edit The edit module lets you change existing drawing elements and manipulate them in a number of ways

You can move,

copy or erase drawing components

You can enlarge or reduce the sizes of diagrams or change the color and line type of drawing components

You can also change the size and style of text and dimensions,

as well as edit a dimension to show different units of measurement

A good CADD program is designed to change the appearance of all drawing elements created with CADD

The edit functions also act as convenient drawing-aid tools

They enable you to join missing corners of lines,

trim drawing components along a line,

stretch them to fit a new shape,

The list of editing capabilities goes on and on

The edit functions make CADD a dynamic drawing tool

CADD Hardware and Software

Data Output The data output module enables you to display drawings on the screen and then print them on paper

There are two separate sets of functions that help accomplish this:

View-display functions Print/plot functions

The view-display functions allow you to display different views of a drawing on the screen

These functions are used quite often,

because every time you need to draw something or edit something,

you need to focus on that portion of the drawing

With the help of view-display functions,

you can zoom in on a specific portion of the drawing

The print and plot functions allow you to print drawings using a printer or a plotter

You can control many aspects of printing and plotting

You can print the same drawing in different sizes by applying the appropriate scale factor

You can plot the drawings with specific colors,

Data Storage and Management The data storage and management module allows you to store and manage drawing data

Through the use of the functions in this module,

you can store drawings as files on the hard disk

You can manage the files in directories and sub-directories,

CADD data management functions also let you translate drawings created by other CADD programs

These functions convert drawing data to a generic format that can be read by any CADD program

Data exchange format (DXF) is one of the common data translation formats used by CADD programs

There are a number of data exchange formats available

System Control The system control module (also known as system defaults) allows you to control how CADD works

CADD programs are designed for a broad range of professionals,

With the help of system control functions,

you can set the working environment of CADD to suit your needs

Example: You can set the type of units that you will be using,

a style for dimensions and text,

Additionally,

you can customize screen menus,

the display of colors on the screen,

You can also specify whether the selected defaults should apply to a single drawing,

or to all the projects in a specific category

The defaults can be set on a temporary or permanent basis

CADD PRIMER: http://www

Special Features CADD programs usually offer a number of special features that make working with CADD easier and allow you to automate many drawing tasks

For example,

you can create layers in a drawing that allow you to segregate drawing components

You can develop spreadsheets and databases that can be used to create many types of project reports

You can create threedimensional (3D) drawings,

such as isometrics and perspectives,

You can also accomplish many other automated tasks with the help of macros

The number of special features a CADD program has or how elaborate they are varies from one program to another

Some vendors sell specialized features as separate packages,

while others include them in a single package

It all depends how a program is written,

CADD User Interface CADD user interface provides the environment and the tools that allow you and the computer to communicate

Each CADD program establishes an environment that best suits its purpose

The goal is to make working with CADD efficient

Most programs use a Graphic User Interface (GUI) to communicate with the user

The GUI provides visual aids for quick data entry

You are given tools to select functions,

enter textual or mathematical data,

locate points in the drawing window,

select objects in the drawing window,

The following are the most common ways to communicate with CADD

Refer to CADD PRIMER for details

Using the Menu Bar Entering commands in the command window Using the tool buttons Using the dialog boxes Working in the drawing area

CADD Hardware and Software

CADD PRIMER ordering information: CADD PRIMER is available at 30% off the cover price when you order directly from the publisher at the address listed below or through the web site http://www

MailMax Publishing,

Suite 1R,

Elmhurst,

New York 11373

Voice mail: (212) 894-3748 Ext

E-mail: [email protected] Note: We do not take orders over the phone or by fax

You may place your order directly on-line or send your payment by mail

Softcover: (ISBN: 0-9629165-9-5) List price: US $32

Price after 30% discount: US $23

priority air mail within USA: $4,

Canada: $7,

air mail anywhere: $10 Download: You can download the complete CADD PRIMER at http://www

Credit cards are accepted on this secured web site

Please include your Email address

Please let your fellow students,

professionals and the library know about the availability of this book

Join our affiliate program and earn 50% commission from the sale of this book: http://www

The CADD Basics

Contents About this Chapter

Key Terms in this Chapter

Components of a CADD Drawing

Beginning to Draw

The Coordinate System

Cartesian Coordinates Polar Coordinates

2-3 2-3

The Formats to Enter Coordinates

User-Defined Coordinate System

A Prototype CADD Drawing

What if You Made a Mistake

When to Save the Drawing or Quit

Automatic Data Saving Features

CADD Filing System

A Word about Data Security

Getting Help

AutoCAD,

MicroStation and Cadkey Terms

The CADD Basics

Note: This condensed version of CADD PRIMER is intended to give you an overview of CADD

It includes only important topics from CADD PRIMER

It does not include any diagrams

CADD PRIMER includes more than 100 diagrams that illustrate the working of CADD

For complete understanding of CADD refer to CADD PRIMER

This complete book is available for download for $9

com or you can order printed copies through the publisher listed at the end of this chapter

About this Chapter This chapter provides an overview of CADD functions

It describes what various functions will accomplish,

how they are organized into CADD menus and how to use them

You will learn to use basic functions to draw lines or circles,

A brief exercise walks you through the use of these functions

You will also learn how to measure distances and how to locate exact points

This chapter illustrates how to use coordinate methods,

relative coordinates and polar coordinates to measure distances

In addition,

this chapter highlights important principles in setting up CADD drafting standards

It demonstrates how to set up a prototype CADD drawing for a quick start

Finally,

this chapter shows you how to save drawings and where to store them

In this section,

you will learn about data saving functions and safety measures to prevent data loss

CADD PRIMER: http://www

Key Terms in this Chapter Term

Description

Absolute coordinates Aperture Cartesian coordinates Object snaps Origin point Polar coordinates Prototype drawing Relative coordinates User-defined coordinate system

Distances measured from a fixed reference point

Effective diameter of the cursor on the screen

A rectangular system of measurement to locate points in the drawing area

A method for indicating point locations using existing drawing objects as a reference

The 0,0 location of the coordinate system

A system to locate the points using an angle and distance

A template drawing that has a number of preset defaults

Distances measured from the last location of the cursor

A mode of measurement that allows the user to set up a customized coordinate system

Components of a CADD Drawing CADD drawings are created by drawing individual components (also called drawing objects or entities) of the drawing such as lines,

On a drawing board,

you may not notice how many lines and arcs you need to complete a diagram,

but with CADD you need to be specific

You need to specify exactly what you want to draw and how you want to draw it

Consider this scenario: drawing a square with rounded edges

Using a drawing board,

you would quickly draw four lines and round off the edges with a template

Using CADD to draw the similar square,

you will have to draw four lines and four arcs separately

You must specify where each line and arc starts,

In CADD PRIMER) CADDs drawing functions are used to create each component of a drawing such as lines,

You can complete most of the drawings by using these components of CADD

To draw any component of the drawing,

you need to access a particular function from the Draw menu

There are separate functions to draw text,

and other elements of a drawing

To draw a symbol,

you don’t need to draw each side one by one

The Symbol function allows you to instantly insert a symbol into the drawing

Similarly,

when you need to draw hatch patterns,

separate CADD functions enable you to do that

Drawing a component is quite straightforward

When you enter a command,

the corresponding menu displays a prompt that guides you through steps to take

To complete a task,

you will need to enter data using the keyboard,

make selections from sub-menus,

and enter points with the help of a pointing device to indicate where you want to position a drawing component

For more information e-mail [email protected] or fax (914) 614-3269

Beginning to Draw Refer to CADD PRIMER for a basic drawing exercise

The Coordinate System The coordinate system is another method of locating points in the drawing area

It enables you to locate points by specifying distances from a fixed reference point

You can locate a point by giving its distance in the horizontal direction,

In CADD PRIMER) The coordinate system is available when a function requires data input in the form of point locations

You may use it while drawing,

editing or any time you need to locate a point

The most common coordinate systems are as follows:

Cartesian coordinates Polar coordinates

Note: The method of entering coordinates varies from one program to another

For example,

the coordinates can be entered directly in the command window with the keyboard

In MicroStation and Cadkey,

special dialog boxes let you enter the coordinates

Cartesian Coordinates Cartesian coordinates is a rectangular system of measurement that enables you to locate points with the help of horizontal and vertical coordinates

The horizontal values,

The vertical values,

The intersection of the X- and Y-axes is called the origin point,

which represents the 0,0 location of the coordinate system