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LC BS 7671 Reference Manual

Description

CableCALC Pro BS 7671

CableCALC Pro BS 7671 Reference Manual Version 2012   This reference manual contains information on how to use and technical reference material pertaining to CableCALC Pro BS 7671

CableCALC Pro BS 7671 is powerful software used for designing electrical cable installations in accordance with British Standard 7671:2008(2011) (IEE Wiring Regulations 17th Edition)

Table of contents 1 Load

Power/Current

Entering load as a power

Entering load as a current

Efficiency

Power factor

Circuit arrangement

Voltage

Voltage drop (%)

Upstream fault level

Source impedance,

Frequency

System grounding

TN grounding

TT grounding

Correction factors

Ambient temperature,

Depth of burial,

Overload for buried cables,

Type of overcurrent protection,

Grouping,

Thermal insulation,

P0301-DC-01-001_CableCALC BS7671-Reference Manual

CableCALC Pro BS 7671

Thermal resistivity of soil,

Resetting all correction factors

Protection

Protection provided

Type of circuit protective device

Fault clearing times

Installation

Specifying conductor size and no

Phase cable sizes

Earth cable sizes

Calculation checks

Support and technical services

Installation methods reference

CableCALC Pro BS 7671

where the units are in kW or Amperes respectively

This will either be an electrical power or,

be the mechanical output power in which case an efficiency value should also be entered

When a load is entered as a power then the current input field (greyed) will display the equivalent circuit design current Ib which is calculated as follows: DC load:

P *1000 V * ( / 100)

Single-phase load: Ib 

P *1000 V pn * p

Three-phase load:

P *1000 3 * V pp * p

Where: P η V Vpn Vpp p

Power entered by the user (kW) Efficiency (%) D

phase-to-neutral voltage (V) A

phase-to-phase voltage (V) Power factor

Note only calculated circuit design load current will appear in the report

CableCALC Pro BS 7671

Efficiency and power factor values applied will affect the current which is entered in order to reach Ib

This value will scale the design load current for both loads entered as power and loads entered as current

For example,

for a load entered as 100 A with an efficiency of 90 % the design load current is calculated as follows: Ib 

Note an efficiency value of 100 % (default) will not scale the load current

For loads entered as a power the value of power factor changes the value of the circuit design load current Ib

The value of power factor affects the phase angle of the current which affects the voltage drop values calculated for a circuit

The choice of circuit arrangement will affect the calculation methods

Radial Submains Ring

Radial circuit where point is transmitted from point to point by a single length of cable

Main having a number of lesser mains or radial circuits branching from it but being itself subsidiary to a larger main

Ring final circuit acting like two radial circuits proceeding in opposite directions around a ring

Assumes one quarter of the rating of the protective device (usually 32 A) for voltage drop calculation

Sizes the cable between the motor starter and the motor terminals

Motor Star-Delta Sizes the cable between the motor starter and the motor terminals

CableCALC Pro BS 7671

2 Supply 2

A value for voltage can be entered between 1 up to 1000 V

The impedance and the hence voltage drop is less for larger cables

If necessary the program will automatically increase the cable size to satisfy the permissible voltage drop however this is limited up to single circuits

If the permissible voltage drop is not satisfied for single circuits up to the largest possible conductor size the user can manually select the cable size and the number of (parallel) circuits to check if it satisfies the permissible voltage drop

Tips: 1

Right-click Voltage Drop (%) and select Maximum Voltage Drop Information for guidance from the Standards on maximum permissible voltage drops

If the circuit arrangement is a Submain allowance should be given for additional voltage drop in the final subcircuits

For a ring circuit this is the length of the cable up to the furthest point only

This value is used for determining the phase-to-neutral short-circuit current which in turn is used for determining the short-circuit performance of the active conductors

CableCALC Pro BS 7671

the higher the upstream fault level the higher the prospective fault current which will result in a larger conductor size to satisfy the adiabatic equation)

A value of zero assumes an infinite fault current source at the point of supply

Under certain cases (i

short Length (m) with high Upstream Fault Level (kA) the size of the minimum conductor size may be dictated by short-circuit performance

To reduce the influence of short-circuit performance on the size of the cable enter a low value (i

The short-circuit withstand capability of a protective device should exceed the value entered for upstream fault level

Ze This is the estimated or preferably measured impedance of the source of supply as seen at the location of the protective device

The source impedance is independent of the Upstream Fault Level because this value is often supplied separately as an ultimate design figure

In fact the actual prospective Upstream Fault Level can be calculated from Impedance,

Ze using Ohm’s law

The value for source impedance Ze is used for determining the phase-to-earth shortcircuit current which is used for: (a) Determining the short-circuit performance of the earth conductor(s)

(b) Calculating (contributes to) the value of actual earth fault loop impedance Zs

Right-click Impedance,

Ze and select Typical Source Impedance Values for guidance on what to enter for source impedance if it has not been measured

source of supply can be varied between 49 to 61 Hz

Typical values for A

supplies this value does not apply as the frequency is 0 Hz

CableCALC Pro BS 7671

The body of the electrical device is connected with earth via the earth connection made at the supply

Figure 1

TN Grounding

TN-C-S: combined PEN conductor from transformer to building distribution point,

but separate PE and N conductors in fixed indoor wiring and flexible power cords

TN-S: separate protective earth (PE) and neutral (N) conductors from transformer to consuming device,

which are not connected together at any point after the building distribution point

the protective earth connection of the consumer is provided by a local connection to earth,

independent of any earth connection at the generator

CableCALC Pro BS 7671

Figure 2

TT Grounding

Simple wizard programs are provided for certain correction factors whereas for others these are automatically (in accordance with the Standards) determined by the program depending on the user inputs

All correction factors are then combined (multiplied) to achieve an overall correction factor which is used for de-rating of the cable(s)

Only those correction factors which are relevant to the cable type and installation selected are available for the user to change,

otherwise they are set to default (1)

Note: Correction factor values change depending on the installation method

For example,

the ambient temperature correction factor (Ca) for Method C at 40 ˚C is 0

If a correction factor(s) has been calculated for a particular installation method and that method is subsequently changed by the user then the correction factor needs to be recalculated

Ca Both the current-carrying capacity and the voltage drop for cables are affected by the ambient temperature

An ambient air temperature correction factor can be calculated (and are different) depending on the installation method chosen

CableCALC Pro BS 7671

Note the default (Ca = 1) ambient temperature for buried cables (Method D) is 20 ˚C

For all other installation methods the default is 30 ˚C

These are accepted values for the U

however these may not apply for all regions

Figure 3

Correction factor Ca for Installation Method D'(buried cables)

Cb The rating of cables is reduced with increased depth of burial

Depth of burial correction factor Cb applies only for installation Method D'(buried cables)

The cable ratings in BS 7671 for buried cables have been calculated for an assumed depth of burial of 0

8 metres

Correction factor Cb can be calculated for variations in depth of burial from 0

These values are based on IEC 60502

Cc Correction factor,

The overload protection factor of the protective device is equal to the conventional tripping current divided by the nominal tripping current,

Cd If the following conditions occur: 1

Overload and short-circuit protection is provided

Protective device is semi-enclosed fuse to BS 3036

CableCALC Pro BS 7671

Then a correction factor Cd = 0

This allows for the same degree of protection for fuses to BS 3036 which is afforded by other devices

Refer to Section 4 of Appendix 4 in BS 7671:2008(2011)

Cg Where a number of circuits are installed in the same group in free air,

or within the same sheath or wiring enclosure,

in such a way they are not independently cooled by the ambient air or the ground the a correction factor for grouping Cg is applicable

The value for Cg is dependent on (a) the type of cable

and (b) the method of installation

The figure below shows how Cg is calculated for Method C

Figure 4

Correction factor Cg for Installation Method C

Note: Group correction factors are applicable to groups consisting of similar equally loaded cables

Group correction factors Cg has been calculated on the basis of prolonged steady-state operation at a 100 % load factor for all live conductors

Where the loading of adjacent circuits is less than 100 % then Cg may be higher (nearer to 1)

Where cables of different temperature ratings are grouped,

they should be rated at a rating appropriate to the cable with the lowest temperature rating

For mineral insulated cables not exposed to touch then no correction factor for grouping need be applied

CableCALC Pro BS 7671

Ci Covering of cables with thermal insulation should be avoided

Where this is not possible and a cable is totally surrounded by thermal insulation over a short length of the run then the correction factor Ci should be applied

Note Ci is not applicable where the cable is installed in a thermal insulated wall or above a thermally insulated ceiling

There are standard installation methods defined to cover these situations

Cs For buried cables the soil thermal resistivity of the ground affects the current-carrying capacity

Ratings in BS 7671 assume a soil thermal resistivity of 2

m/W where cables are buried ‘in and around buildings’ containing rubble,

clinker and similar materials having poor thermal properties

This is considerably higher than the accepted value of 1

m/W for the natural soil in the U

Soil thermal resistivity varies greatly with soil composition,

moisture retention qualities and seasonal weather patterns as well as the variation in load carried by the cable

Higher current-carrying capacities are obtained in clay or peat soils which may have thermal resistivity as low as 0

Similarly,

m/W may be associated with well drained sands for constantly loaded cables

CableCALC Pro BS 7671

or (b) Short-circuit protection only

The intended function of the over-current protective device determines whether the nominal tripping current In (case (a) above) or the load current Ib (case (b) above) is used for sizing of the cable

Table 1

Protective devices provided within the program

Description

Miniature Circuit Breaker (MCB) Moulded Case Circuit Breaker (MCCB) Air Circuit Breaker (ACB) Residual Current Circuit Breaker (RCBO)

Type(s)

Standard

BS 3871

BS EN 60898

BS EN 60947

BS EN 61009

Cartridge Fuse

Rewireable Fuse

Comments Withdrawn in 1994

Included for the verification of existing circuits and information

Thermal (A) and magnetic settings (multiplier) are changeable

BS 1361 BS 1362 BS 88 BS 3036

Tips: The protective device which is currently chosen may sometimes be hidden within the tree control

Right-click the tree control and select Open All Items

Hold the cursor over the tree control to display information about the protection settings (i

conventional and instantaneous tripping currents) for the device which is currently selected

CableCALC Pro BS 7671

These can be either (a) actual clearing times taken from the manufacturers curves for the level of fault current (refer to calculation results for short-circuit levels)

or (b) maximum clearance times to comply with the standards (conservative)

Fault clearance times are used by the program to check short-circuit performance of active and earth cables using the adiabatic equations

Note the user should check whether the actual disconnection time complies with the maximum allowed under BS 7671

Tip: Right-click Short-circuit clearing time (s) or Earth fault clearing time (s) and select Maximum Disconnection Times Information for compliance guidelines

Cable types include thermoplastic (circular and flat),

thermosetting (including flexible),

flexible cords and mineral insulated cables

Both copper and aluminium conductors,

armoured and nonarmoured cables are included

Refer to Appendix A for a reference list with descriptions of installation methods

Notes: The installation methods displayed will change with changes to parameters such as the cable insulation type and other parameters under the Cable tab

CableCALC Pro BS 7671

of parallel circuits Both the cross-sectional area and the number of parallel circuits for phase and earth conductors can either be calculated automatically or specified manually

Where a single circuit does not provide adequate current-carrying capacity then parallel circuits can be added (by default as multiples of the largest conductor cross-sectional area available) automatically

It is simple for the user to enter and assess compliance for the desired cross-sectional area and the number of parallel circuits

Generally Table 54-7 is very conservative and a more economical design can be achieved (smaller earth cable size) by specifying the conductor size manually and checking compliance

CableCALC Pro BS 7671

These checks (see Table X) help the user to ensure compliance with BS 7671 requirements

Warnings are displayed whenever the calculation checks determine there is an issue

When they arise the user should review the warnings and make appropriate changes to the program inputs to resolve the issues

Table 2

Calculation checks and possible fixes Calculation checks Fail condition Protective device rating (In) ≥ design load In < Ib current (Ib) Protective device rating (In) ≤ effective In > Iz current capacity of cable (Iz) Effective current capacity of cable (Iz) ≥ design load current (Ib) Actual voltage drop (Vda) ≤ permissible voltage drop (Vdp) (Note 1) Actual earth loop impedance (Zs) ≤ device earth loop impedance (Zdev) Short-circuit performance of phase conductor is adequate

Possible fixes

Iz < Ib

Vda > Vdp

Zs > Zdev

Smin < phase conductor size

Short-circuit performance of earth conductor is adequate

Smin < earth conductor size

Reduce In Increase size of phase conductor Increase size of phase conductor Increase size of phase conductor Increase size of earth conductor Reduce In Reduce Short-circuit clearing time Reduce Upstream Fault Level (Note 2) Increase size of phase conductor Reduce Earth fault clearing time Increase Source Impedance,

Ze (Note 3) Increase size of earth conductor

Notes: 1

Applicable when Use VD

This will reduce phase-to-neutral short-circuit level

This will reduce phase-to-earth short-circuit level

CableCALC Pro BS 7671

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CableCALC Pro BS 7671

Appendix A: Installation methods reference No

Examples

Description Method Non-sheathed cables in conduit in a thermally insulated wall with an inner skin having thermal A conductance of not less than 10 W/m2K

Multicore cable in conduit in a thermally insulated wall with an inner skin having a thermal conductance of not less than 10 W/m2K

Multicore cable direct in a thermally insulated wall with an inner skin has a thermal conductance of not less than 10 W/m2K

Non-sheathed cables in conduit on a wooden or masonry wall or spaced less than 0

Multicore cable in conduit on a wooden or masonry wall or spaced less than 0

Non-sheathed cables in cable trunking on a wooden or masonry wall run horizontally

Non-sheathed cables in cable trunking on a wooden or masonry wall run vertically

Multicore cable in cable trunking on a wooden or masonry wall run horizontally

CableCALC Pro BS 7671

Examples

Description Method Multicore cable in cable trunking on a wooden or masonry wall run B vertically

Non-sheathed cables in suspended cable trunking 10

Multicore cables in suspended cable trunking 11

Non-sheathed cables run in mouldings 12

Non-sheathed cables to skirting trunking 13

Multicore cables to skirting trunking 14

Non-sheathed cables in conduit or single-core or multicore cables in architrave

Non-sheathed cables in conduit or single-core or multicore cables in window frames

CableCALC Pro BS 7671

Examples

Description Method Single-core or multicore cables: fixed on (clipped direct),

Single-core or multicore cables: fixed directly under a wooden or masonry ceiling

Single-core or multicore cables: spaced from a ceiling 22

Single-core or multicore cables: spaced from a ceiling 22

Single-core or multicore cables: spaced from a ceiling 22

Single-core or multicore cables: on unperforated tray run horizontally or vertically

Single-core or multicore cables: on perforated tray run horizontally or vertically

CableCALC Pro BS 7671

Examples

Description Method Single-core or multicore cables: on perforated tray run horizontally or vertically

Single-core or multicore cables: on brackets or on a wire mesh tray run horizontally or vertically

Single-core or multicore cables: on brackets or on a wire mesh tray run horizontally or vertically

Single-core or multicore cables: spaced more than 0

Single-core or multicore cables: spaced more than 0

Single-core or multicore cables: spaced more than 0

CableCALC Pro BS 7671

Examples

Description Method Single-core or multicore cables: on a ladder

Single-core or multicore cables: on a ladder

Single-core or multicore cables suspended from or incorporating a support wire or harness

Single-core or multicore cables suspended from or incorporating a support wire or harness

Bare or non-sheathed cables on insulators

Single-core or multicore cable in a building void

Non-sheathed cables in conduit in a building void in masonry having a thermal resistivity not greater than 2 K

Single-core or multicore cable in conduit in a building void in masonry having a thermal resistivity not greater than 2 K

Non-sheathed cables in cable ducting in a building void in masonry having a thermal resistivity not greater than 2

CableCALC Pro BS 7671

Examples

Description K

Single-core or multicore cable in cable ducting in a building void in masonry having a thermal resistivity not greater than 2 K

Non-sheathed cables in cable ducting in masonry having a thermals resistivity not greater than 2 K

Single-core or multicore cable in cable ducting in masonry having a thermal resistivity not greater than 2 K

Single-core or multicore cable: in a ceiling void or in a suspended floor

Non-sheathed cables in flush cable trunking in the floor

Multicore cable in flush cable trunking in the floor

Non-sheathed cables in flush trunking

CableCALC Pro BS 7671

Examples

Description Multicore cable in flush trunking

Non-sheathed cables or single-core cables in conduit in an unventilated cable channel run horizontally or vertically

Non-sheathed cables in conduit in an open or ventilated cable channel in the floor

Sheathed single-core or multicore cable in an open or ventilated cable channel run horizontally or vertically

Single-core or multicore cable direct in masonry having a thermal resistivity not greater than 2 K

m/W without added mechanical protection

Single-core or multicore cable direct in masonry having a thermal resistivity not greater than 2 K

m/W with added mechanical protection (e

Non-sheathed cables or single core cables in conduit in masonry having a thermal resistivity not greater than 2 K

CableCALC Pro BS 7671

Examples

Description Multicore cables in conduit in masonry having a thermal resistivity not greater than 2 K

Multicore unarmoured cable in conduit or in cable ducting in the ground

Single-core unarmoured cable in conduit or in cable ducting in the ground

Sheathed,

armoured or multicore cables direct in the ground without added mechanical protection

Sheathed,

armoured or multicore cables direct in the ground with added mechanical protection (e

Flat twin and earth cable clipped direct to a wooden joist above a plasterboard ceiling with a minimum U value of 0

Flat twin and earth cable clipped direct to a wooden joist above a plasterboard ceiling with a minimum U value of 0

Flat twin and earth cable in a stud wall with thermal insulation with a minimum U value of 0

Flat twin and earth cable in a stud wall with thermal insulation with a minimum U value of 0