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running of an automotive vehicle under any variable load conditions,

one of the major systems necessary

Description

International Journal of Engineering Research and Development e-ISSN: 2278-067X,

Issue 01 (January 2015),

CFD Simulation and Heat Transfer Analysis of Automobile Radiator using Helical Tubes Krunal Suryakant Kayastha Parul Institute Engineering & Technology Asst

Professor,

Mechanical Engineering Department Abstract:- To ensure smooth running of an automotive vehicle under any variable load conditions,

one of the major systems necessary is the cooling system

Automobile radiators are becoming highly power-packed with increasing power to weight or volume ratio

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is one of the important software tools to access preliminary design and the performance of the radiator

In this paper,

a 55 hp engine radiator data is taken for analysis in CFD

The model is done Pro-E software and imported in ANSYS-12

Helical tubes are considered for the radiator with two different pitches like 15mm & 20mm

The comparison is done for different mass flow rates like 2

It is found that there is more heat dissipation rate in 15mm pitch helical tubes compared to 20mm pitch helical tubes

Maximum temperature drop & minimum pressure drop occurs in case of 0

It is observed that with increased mass flow rate,

there is decrease in temperature drop & increase in pressure drop

Keywords:- CFD,

Radiator Simulations

Helical tubes,

Mass flow rate,

Coolant,

Numerical

INTRODUCTION

Internal combustion engines are cooled by passing a liquid called as engine coolant through the engine block

The coolant gets heated as it absorbs the heat produced in the engine

It then passes through the radiator where it loses heat to the atmosphere

It is then circulated back to the engine in a closed loop

The engine’s life,

performance and overall safety are ensured due to effective engine cooling

Automobile manufacturers try to ensure that the engines are compact and energy efficient by thorough optimization process in the design of all engine components,

Radiators are used for cooling internal combustion engines,

Hilde Van Der Vyer et al

(2003) simulated a 3-D tube-in-tube heat exchanger using Star-CD CFD software and validated the test results with the experimental work

Witry et

The variations in overall heat transfer coefficients across the radiator ranged from 75 to 560 W/m2-K

Chen et al,

coolant pressure drop and air pressure drop to numerically study influence of various parameters affecting the performance

Sridhar Maddipatla,

The automated mesh generated using Gambit,

CFD analysis using Fluent with a k-ε turbulent model and an in-house C-code implementing a numerical shape optimization algorithm is discussed

Yiding Cao et al

(1992) introduced heat pipe in radiator including two-phase closed thermosyphons having an effective thermal conductance much higher than that of copper

Seth Daniel Oduro (2009) looked at the effect of sand blocking the heat transfer area of the radiator and its effect on the engine coolant through the conduct of experiments and a mathematical model developed

The results were generated using regression analysis for clay and silt soil showed that the proportional increase of temperatures at inlet and outlet due to percentage blocked area

ANALYSIS OF RADIATOR USING HELICAL TUBES

Analysis is done in ANSYS-12 software with using CFX for radiator model having helical tube

Assumptions In order to solve the analytical model,

the following assumptions are made: Coolant flow rate is constant with no phase change

Heat conduction through the walls of the coolant tube is negligible

Heat loss by coolant was only transferred to the cooling air,

thus no other heat transfer mode such as radiation was considered

Coolant fluid flow is in a fully developed condition in each tube

CFD Simulation and Heat Transfer Analysis of Automobile Radiator using Helical Tubes dimensions are uniform throughout the radiator and the heat transfer surface area is consistent and distributed uniformly

The thermal conductivity of the radiator material is considered to be constant

There are no heat sources and sinks within the radiator

There is no fluid stratification,

losses and flow misdistribution

Momentum condition: Tube wall is stationary

Radiator Specification for Helical type tubes: Number of tubes : 29 Helical type tube mean diameter : 30mm Pitch : 15mm & 20mm Inner diameter of tube : 2 mm Outer diameter of tube : 4 mm Input Data Air inlet velocity : 4

3 kg/s,

0 kg/sec,

5 kg/sec

Coolant inlet temp : 98

Figure 1: Helical tube radiator model making in Pro-E The cases considered for the analysis of radiator using helical tubes are for 15mm and 20 mm pitch using ethylene glycol

CFD Simulation and Heat Transfer Analysis of Automobile Radiator using Helical Tubes Case-1: Analysis of Helical Tube Type Radiator (Pitch-15mm) Case 1(a): Using Ethylene Glycol Coolant (Mass Flow rate=2

3 kg/sec)

Figure 2: Flow diagram of different tubes related to the pressure & temperature In Helical type Tube (15mm pitch-Ethylene Glycol)

Figure 3: Inlet & Outlet Temperature VS Inlet & Outlet Pressure of Helical Tube (Ethylene Glycol) From figure 2 & 3,

it is observed that the ∆T is 2

Figure 4: Temperature diagram of helical tubes used in Radiator

(Ethylene Glycol) In figure 4 temperature range in radiator indicated with different colour

Inlet has 371

CFD Simulation and Heat Transfer Analysis of Automobile Radiator using Helical Tubes Case 1(b): Using Ethylene Glycol Coolant (Mass Flow rate= 2 kg/sec)

Figure 5: Flow diagram of different tubes related to the pressure & temperature in Helical type Tube (15mm pitch-Ethylene Glycol)

Figure 6: Inlet & Outlet Temperature Vs Inlet & Outlet Pressure of Helical Tube (Ethylene Glycol) From figure 5 & 6,

it is observed that the ∆T is 2

Case-1 (c): Using Ethylene Glycol Coolant (Mass Flow rate = 1 kg/sec)

Figure 7: Flow diagram of different tubes related to the pressure & temperature In Helical type Tube (15mm pitch-Ethylene Glycol)

CFD Simulation and Heat Transfer Analysis of Automobile Radiator using Helical Tubes

Figure 8: Inlet & Outlet Temperature VS Inlet & Outlet Pressure of Helical Tube (Ethylene Glycol) From figure 8 & 9,

it is observed that the ∆T is 5

Case 1(d): Using Ethylene Glycol Coolant (Mass Flow Rate = 0

5 kg/sec)

Figure 9: Flow diagram of different tubes related to the pressure & temperature In Helical type Tube (15mm pitch-Ethylene Glycol)

Figure 10: Inlet & Outlet Temperature VS Inlet & Outlet Pressure of Helical Tube (Ethylene Glycol)

CFD Simulation and Heat Transfer Analysis of Automobile Radiator using Helical Tubes From figure 9 & 10,

it is observed that the ∆T is 9

49 bars

Figure 11: Pressure diagram of Helical Tubes

(Ethylene Glycol) From above fig

Case 2: Analysis of Helical Tube type Radiator (Pitch: 20mm) Case 2(a): Using Ethylene Glycol Coolant (Mass Flow rate = 2

3 kg/sec)

Figure 12: Flow diagram of different tubes related to the pressure & temperature in Helical type Tube (20mm pitch-Ethylene Glycol)

Figure 13: Inlet & Outlet Temperature VS Inlet & Outlet Pressure of Helical Tube (Ethylene Glycol)

CFD Simulation and Heat Transfer Analysis of Automobile Radiator using Helical Tubes From figure 12 & 13,

it is observed that the ∆T is 1

Figure 14: Temperature diagram of helical tubes used in Radiator

(Ethylene Glycol) Figure 14 shows that temperature range in radiator indicated with different colours

Inlet has 371

Case 2(b): Using Ethylene Glycol Coolant (Mass Flow Rate = 2 kg/sec)

Figure 15: Flow diagram of different tubes related to the pressure & temperature In Helical type Tube (20mm pitch-Ethylene Glycol)

Figure 16: Inlet & Outlet Temperature VS Inlet & Outlet Pressure of Helical Tube (Ethylene Glycol) From figure 15 & 16,

it is observed that the ∆T is 1

CFD Simulation and Heat Transfer Analysis of Automobile Radiator using Helical Tubes Case 2(c): Using Ethylene Glycol Coolant (Mass Flow rate = 1

0 kg/sec)

Figure 17: Flow diagram of different tubes related to the pressure & temperature In Helical type Tube (20mm pitch-Ethylene Glycol)

Figure 18: Inlet & Outlet Temperature VS Inlet & Outlet Pressure of Helical Tube (Ethylene Glycol) From figure 17 & 18,

it is observed that the ∆T is 3

Case 2(d): Using Ethylene Glycol Coolant (Mass Flow rate= 0

5 kg/sec)

Figure 19: Flow diagram of different tubes related to the pressure & temperature In Helical type Tube (20mm pitch-Ethylene Glycol)

CFD Simulation and Heat Transfer Analysis of Automobile Radiator using Helical Tubes

Figure 20: Inlet & Outlet Temperature VS Inlet & Outlet Pressure of Helical Tube (Ethylene Glycol) From figure 19 & 20,

it is observed that the ∆T is 6

48 bars

The results of Case 1 are summarized in table 1

It is found that with increased mass flow rate,

there is decrease in temperature drop & increase in pressure drop

Table1: Helical Tube Radiator

Drop (K) (K) (K) (bar) (bar) 371

65 11 1

Drop (bar) 10 7

The results of Case 2 are summarized in table 2

It is found that with increased mass flow rate,

there is decrease in temperature drop & increase in pressure drop

Table2: Helical Tube Radiator

Drop (K) (K) (K) (bar) (bar) 371

10 11 1

Drop (bar) 10 7

Case-3: Comparison between Helical tubes used in radiator with Pitch 15mm & 20mm using Ethylene Glycol as Coolant Case-3(a): Comparison at Mass Flow Rate = 2

3 kg/sec

Figure 21: Comparison between helical pitch 15mm &20mm

CFD Simulation and Heat Transfer Analysis of Automobile Radiator using Helical Tubes Case-3(b): Comparison of helical at pitch 15 and 20 at m=2

0 kg/sec

Figure 22: Comparison between helical pitch 15mm &20mm Case-3(b): Comparison at Mass Flow Rate =1

0 kg/sec

Figure 22: Comparison between helical pitch 15 &20(Ethylene Glycol) Case-3(c): Comparison at Mass Flow Rate = 0

5 kg/sec

Figure 23: Comparison between helical pitch 15 &20 From the above cases of Case-3,

(b) and (c) it is found that compared to 20mm pitch helical tubes,

Case 4: Comparison of different Mass Flow Rate Case- 4(a): Comparison between different Mass Flow Rate in Helical tubes used in Radiator Considering Ethylene Glycol as Coolant and at 15mm Pitch

CFD Simulation and Heat Transfer Analysis of Automobile Radiator using Helical Tubes

Figure 24: Comparison between different Mass Flow rate in Helical tubes Radiator (Ethylene Glycol – Pitch 15) Case- 4(b): Comparison between different Mass Flow Rate in Helical tubes used in Radiator Considering Ethylene Glycol as Coolant and at 20mm Pitch

Figure 25: Comparison between different Mass Flow rate in Helical tubes Radiator (Ethylene Glycol – Pitch 20) From the above cases of Case-4,

(b) it is found that for different mass flow rate like 2

maximum temperature drop & minimum pressure drop is observed for the case of 0

The figure 24 and 25 shows that temperature drop decrease with increased mass flow rate & pressure drop increased with increased mass flow rate

CONCLUSION

From the result obtained for different cases it can be concluded that:  For different pitch used in radiator like 15mm pitch & 20mm pitch in helical type tubes,

 Comparison between different mass flow rate like 2

indicate that maximum temperature drop & minimum pressure drop occur in case of 0

This document is a template

An electronic copy can be downloaded from the conference website

For questions on paper guidelines,

please contact the publications committee as indicated on the website

Information about final paper submission is available from the website

CFD Simulation and Heat Transfer Analysis of Automobile Radiator using Helical Tubes

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Witry M

Al-Hajeri and Ali A

Bondac,

“CFD analysis of fluid flow and heat transfer in patterned roll bonded aluminium radiator”,

Melborne,

Australia,

Hilde Van Der Vyer,

Jaco Dirker and Jousoa P Meyer,

“Validation of a CFD model of a three dimensional tube-in-tube heat exchanger”,

Third International Conference on CFD in the Minerals and Process Industry,

Melborne,

Australia

J A Chen,

D F Wang and L'Z Zheng,

“Experimental study of operating performance of a tube-and-fin radiator for vehicles”,

Proceedings of Institution of Mechanical Engineers,

Republic of China,

215: pp

Changhua Lin and Jeffrey Saunders,

“The Effect of Changes in Ambient and Coolant Radiator Inlet Temperatures and Coolant Flowrate on Specific Dissipation”,

SAE Technical Papers,

Sridhar Maddipatla,

“Coupling of CFD and shape optimization for radiator design”,

Oakland University

Holman,

Heat transfer,

Tata-McGraw-Hill Publications,

Seth Daniel Oduro,

“Assessing the effect of dirt on the performance of an engine cooling system”,

Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology,

PG thesis,

"A Method of Calculating the Heat Dissipation from Radiators to Cool Vehicle Engines",

SAE Technical Paper 710208,

Salvio Chacko,

“Numerical Simulation for Improving Radiator Efficiency by Air Flow Optimization” Engineering Automation Group,

Tata Technologies Limited,

Technical paper,

N Sridhara,

Shankapal and V Umesh Babu,

Bangladesh,

Conference Paper,

Yiding Cao and Khokiat Kengskool,

“An Automotive Radiator Employing Wickless Heat Pipes” Florida International University,

Miami,Conference Paper,1992