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Description

Contents 7

Strategy

‹‹Prelims Countdown: Strategy to prepare in next 90 days

Articles Historical Personality ‹‹Dr

Inspiration

‹‹Topper’s Interview : Aman Mittal (IAS,

UPSC CSE 2014)

Prelims Section ‹‹PT

Ambedkar : A Critical Review

149 153

Express : Quick GS Recap Work

‹‹Map

Political / Constitutional Issues ‹‹The

Reservation Conundrum ‹‹Rajya Sabha : Indispensable Institution of Indian Democracy and Federalism

Social Issues ‹‹Ugliest

To the Point

‹‹What,

When of Important GS Topics

face of gender based violence : Acid Attacks

Economic Issues ‹‹Aviation

Industry : Adding Wings to Inclusive Growth ‹‹Exit Policy in India : Welcome,

But No Goodbye

! ‹‹Fourth Industrial Revolution : The Next Big Thing

Mains Section

‹‹Potential

Q & As : Based on Current Affairs ‹‹Academic Vitamins : Gist of EPW,

Yojana,

Kurukshetra ‹‹Emotional Intelligence: Moving beyond IQ (Ethics Paper)

International / Global Issues ‹‹Understanding

Presidential Elections

Science and Tech Articles ‹‹Genetically Modified Crops : Gene Revolution and Beyond ‹‹Anti-Microbial

Resistance : A New Challenge

‹‹The

paths to glory lead but to the grave Corporations: Savior or Saboteur ‹‹Announcement of Essay Competition ‹‹Multinational

Environment and Ecology ‹‹The

Green Tribunal : Watchdog for Environment

Current Affairs ‹‹Most

Important News Events ‹‹Constitutional & Administrative Updates ‹‹Economic Scenario ‹‹International News Events ‹‹India-World Relations ‹‹Science & Technology ‹‹Environment & Ecology ‹‹Social Issues ‹‹Other National News ‹‹States Scan ‹‹Art & Culture ‹‹Sports News ‹‹In News

Interviews

‹‹Preparing ‹‹Mock

for the Personality Test (Part-1) Interview & its evaluation

‹‹Does

Aadhar Invade Privacy to Achieve Fiscal Consolidation

Superfast Revision Series ‹‹Supplement

: Art & Culture ‹‹100 Practice MCQs on Art & Culture

Team Drishti This magazine is a result of a team collaboration

We express our gratitude to all our team members

Apart from the given names,

several freelance writers have also made important contributions which have been acknowledged alongside their articles

Editor-in-Chief & CMD : Dr

Vikas Divyakirti zz Chief Executive Officer: Shivesh Mishra zz Advisory Board D

Kumar Gaurav,

Akhil Murti,

Rajesh Mishra,

Nishant Shrivastava,

Ritesh Jaiswal,

Sourabh Chaturvedi,

Dwivedi

zz Executive Editor Neel Parmar zz Editorial Team Dr

Vikas (Editor- Views section),

Abhishek Mishra (Editor- News),

Rabmeet Kaur,

Deepshikha,

Abhishek Gautam,

Sarmad Wani,

Chandra Bhan Singh,

Prerna Priya,

Debabrat Gogoi,

Sandeep Verma,

Aniruddha Krishna,

Gaurav Bana,

Neha Saini,

Sonu Bura zz Typesetting and Designing Mohd

Sajid Saifi,

Jitender Ruhela,

Vivek Kumar,

Anil Kumar,

Poonam Saxena,

Pankaj Gupta,

Sachin Pal,

Rajo Kamti,

Shabana Malik zz Web Section Narender Pratap,

Avinash Kumar,

Durgesh,

Geeta Pal,

Abhishek Kumar,

Anu Raj zz Managerial Support Mohd

Aftab Alam,

Ekta Kalia,

Ajay Karakoti,

Gopal Rai,

Ravishankar Shukla,

Rajesh Dhasmana,

Ajay Sharma,

Arun Singh,

Pooja Sharma,

Mohit Walia,

Abhishek Singh,

Nitesh Kumar Jha,

Mohit Mishra zz Day-to-day Support Mohit Pandey,

Kundan Kumar,

Gajender,

Ravi Kumar,

Bhavesh Giri,

Mahesh Kumar,

Dilip Tiwari,

Vijay Kumar,

Amit Kumar,

Vikesh Kumar,

Raju Bera,

Vijay Kumar,

Panchanan Mishra,

Ankit Yadav,

Punit Kangda,

Rahul Kumar,

Manoj Kumar,

Avinish Srivastava,

Salman,

Bhanu Pratap,

Shakeel,

Surender Rai,

Naveen Kr

Shukla,

Anshul Tiwari,

Amit Kr

Ruhela,

Ankur Dwivedi,

Deepak Pal,

Rishabh Kumar,

Subhash Kumar,

Ram Surat Yadav,

Raju Verma,

Manish Kumar,

Deepak Kamti,

Kishan Kanojia,

Gyan Prakash Maurya zz

Contact us For suggestions/feedback,

ContactExecutive Editor Drishti Current Affairs Today Drishti Publications,

First Floor,

Mukherjee Nagar,

Delhi-110009 Phone: 87501 87501,

Whatsapp: 8130392355 Email: [email protected]

June 2016

Monthly

Issue 1

Disclaimer  The views expressed in the articles in

this magazine are of the individual writers

It is not necessary that the editor or publisher shares the same viewpoint

It is our endeavor to include articles from writers believing in diverse ideologies so that our readers can benefit from the diversity of views on any subject

published in this magazine have been duly verified and cross-checked

Even then,

if any information or fact is found to have been published incorrectly,

editor or printer cannot be held responsible for any loss or damages accruing to any specific person or institution

 We believe that the articles published

in this magazine have been written originally by the writers to whom they have been attributed

If any matter of copyright violation comes up then the writer would be responsible

 All disputes would be subject to Delhi

Jurisdiction only

  Copyright: Drishti Publications,

No part of this magazine may be reproduced,

stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form by any means,

without the prior written permission of the publisher

Contact for Advt

& Business: Ajay Karakoti (Business Head) (0-8130392355) Contact for Subscription: Narender Pratap (0-8130392351)

Printed by M

Printers,

Phase-2,

Uttar Pradesh and Published for Owner,

Printer & Publisher Vikas Divyakirti,

First Floor,

Mukherjee Nagar,

Delhi-110009

Editor-in-Chief: Vikas Divyakirti

Editorial Dear Aspirants,

Of the many questions posed by life,

the central one continues to be about the aim of our life

To a certain age,

this question may remain unimportant for all of us

it never becomes a question at all

But anyone with a reflective and curious mind is bound to be confronted by this question at a certain stage of life,

especially when his/ her basic needs have been fulfilled

I guess many among you have also faced this question in one form or other

Many philosophers have tried to grasp the essence of life

A few have approached this question quite nihilistically

They say that life is nothing but the result of a momentary accident and will simply cease to exist one day

German critic and poet Heinrich Heine is believed to have said that “Sleep is lovely,

not to have been born is of course the miracle”

Even our own beloved poet Mirza Ghalib has written “Duboyaa mujhko hone ne,

naa hota mai to kya hota” (My being defeated me/Had I not been,

On the other hand,

many thinkers have propagated the idea of hedonism which means the purpose of life is to enjoy maximum possible pleasures

A few philosophers (like Charvaka and Bentham) have even said that all pleasures are of equal importance

It means that if someone seeks to satisfy oneself with material pleasures like tasty food,

or a lavish life style and someone else seeks satisfaction from social service and helping others,

then we can not claim that the one is better or worse than the other

Both are seen as seeking pleasure as per their nature and this only is the essence of life

However,

the truth is that self-centred pursuit of pleasure can never help in grasping the meaning and essence of life

So the question which continues to stare us in face is that then,

? We know that all of us have different capabilities

Modern Psychology refers to it as ‘aptitude’

One way to come closer to understanding one’s aim of life is developing one’s capabilities to the maximum and using them for betterment of self as well as the society which we live in

I assure you,

the pleasure which one feels after contributing selflessly to society cannot be equalled by any other,

especially when our efforts contribute towards bringing a smile on the faces of those who,

caught between the brute forces of history,

have been oppressed and downtrodden for centuries

Even if we become capable of changing even ten such lives in our lifetime,

it will bring so much satisfaction that even the most sought after pleasures of the world will seem insignificant before it

the opportunity to live such a golden life is most easily available to those who are successful in civil services or politics

Their each and every decision has the capacity to positively affect millions of lives

It has so many times been witnessed that a transfer of or mistreatment with an officer is followed by strong protests from civil society and becomes a sensitive media issue

It is only because people still look at them as their saviour

So come on,

concentrate all your energies and direct them towards fulfilling your dream

And your dream should not merely be a quest for a post or position,

but must also include the belief in the idea of change you can bring about while being on that post

Finally,

all our endeavors should be directed towards leaving this world a bit more beautiful than it was at the beginning of our journey called life

Look at your next three crucial months of preparation as a journey towards that dream

And we,

the team of Drishti Current Affairs Today shall always be there,

striving hard at our own level,

to help make your preparation a little less hectic,

much more organized and a bit easier

With Best Wishes

Vikas Divyakirti)

ust studying for hours and hours for days,

months and years is not enough

That is only hard work

You need ‘strategy’ to prepare for the examination to do ‘smart work’

Strategy is the guiding light of your preparation

it is the software driving your hardware (read hard work)

Your strategy will define the direction of the volume of work you do to prepare for the exam

Lack of strategy or wrong strategy or unclear strategy will cost you big in the UPSC CSE

the examination is already the greatest (read toughest) in India,

don’t complicate it by assuming that only hard work will see you conquer it

You need strategy for all verticals: Preliminary,

Mains and Personality Test

How to prepare for each of the three connected-yet-separate levels and how to change gears as the next level of exam is near

? How to study a material so as to optimize it for all the three stages as far as possible

? How to prepare in the first few months preceding the Preliminary exam

? How to study (and what not to study) when you have just fifteen days to appear for the Personality test

? You also need strategy as a horizontal input that will inform your preparation style,

how you spend your time with hobbies and interests,

what company you live in and so on

Remember,

You should know where your ship is going or you will reach nowhere

You should know if there is an iceberg coming your way to sink your Titanic

You should know the wind and weather as far as possible

UPSC is an ocean and you are competing with half a million other candidates who are charting their path in the ocean cutting the waterways with sheer hard,

What will differentiate you from others

? How do you learn from your experiences (hint: experience is the name we give to our mistakes)

? How clearly you see your goal

? Are you relying blindly on formulistic coachings,

? How well you know yourself and how have you tuned your preparation to optimize your strengths and build on your weak points

? You see there are so many angles to your preparation

You should bind all the exam necessities within a strategy

Remember,

the UPSC is following a strategy to choose a civil servant that the Government of India thinks is fit for the services

You should have a strategy to meet the expectation

We hope we have been able to hammer the importance of strategy in your head

In every issue of the magazine,

we aim to cover various strategic dimensions for the UPSC CSE to fortify your preparation

Arguably,

this is the most important part of the magazine

It is a do-or-die situation for you: UPSC CSE examination

That is how you should think

“It is our attitude more than our aptitude that determines our altitude

” And it is our ‘strategy’ that determines the tone and tenor of our attitude

WE SEE A CIVIL SERVANT IN YOU

To begin with,

All the best

Strategy

Prelims Countdown:

Strategy to prepare in next 90 days The Preliminary Exam (PT) is a rejection process

Lakhs of aspirants appear every year and only few thousand clear it

It is easy to get rejected here unless you are truly prepared

Team Drishti Dear Aspirants,

There are hardly 90 days left for Civil Services (Prelims) Examination,

As the clock is ticking,

your anxiety and nervousness regarding your Prelims preparation must be on the rise as well

Questions like what to read,

how to revise such a vast syllabus etc

Surely,

you might be preparing from past one year

still you may not be confident enough for the upcoming exam

Many aspirants might be in a state of confusion at this stage

Not being able to complete the whole General studies syllabus,

failing to recall the learnt facts,

not being able to revise properly,

ultimately leads to irritation and negative thoughts disturbing an aspirant’s mind

This is the time when you should be positive and confident but the maze of General Studies takes you to the path of negativity and confusion

Therefore,

at this point of time you need a special kind of strategy to prepare General Studies which can help you clear the Preliminary Examination

Every serious CSE aspirant has her own strategy according to which she prepares

It is also rather inevitable to have an individualistic strategy because there cannot be one fit-for-all approach in CSE

This is because of the diverse nature,

Different individual may have

different approach towards this exam

A student with humanities background may be uncomfortable attempting science questions

On the other hand,

aspirants with engineering background might be weak in economics or find difficulty learning factual information

Therefore,

the purpose of this article is not to give you any quick pill

It is to help you prioritize your preparation better and hence improve your chances for a better score that will help you clear the exam

Structure of Preliminary Examination It is desirable to first understand the structure and syllabus of the preliminary examination as organized by Union Public Service Commission

As you know,

Prelims exam comprises of two objective papers of 200 marks each

Paper-1 is of General Studies and Paper-2 is of what is commonly known as CSAT (Civil Services Aptitude test)

Further,

the merit of the exam is decided by the marks secured in General Studies paper only and does

not takes into account the marks secured in CSAT paper

This is because,

CSAT has been made qualifying in nature i

one has to secure minimum of 33% marks in Paper-2 to get their Paper-1 evaluated

General Studies Paper-1 (Syllabus) „„Current

events of national and international importance

„„History of India and Indian National Movement

„„Indian and World Geography – Physical,

Social,

Economic „„Geography of India and the World

„„Indian Polity and Governance – Constitution,

Political System,

Panchayati Raj,

Public Policy,

Rights Issues etc

„„Economic and Social Development Sustainable Development,

Poverty,

Inclusion,

Demographics,

Social Sector initiatives,

„„General issues on Environmental Ecology,

Bio-diversity and Climate Change – that do not require subject specialization

„„ General Science

Therefore,

your success in the preliminary exam depends upon your performance in Paper-1 i

General studies but one also cannot afford to completely ignore Paper-2

Needless to say that more importance should be given to General studies in comparison to CSAT

Strategy After going through the Prelims syllabus,

the basic feeling that every aspirant might have is what needs to be done to qualify this crucial stage of exam,

how much to study and how to study

? Which section of General Studies should be focused more and which section less

? What should be the average number of questions that one should attempt in both the papers

? What is the effect of negative marking on the result and how to avoid negative marking

? If we closely look at the cut-off trends in recent years,

particularly after CSAT was made qualifying,

we find that if in Paper-1 60-65 (net) questions are correctly attempted and if Paper-2 is qualified,

then it is not difficult for anyone to clear the Preliminary examination

Civil Services Preliminary Examination Cut-off (2011-2014) Category 2011

2013 2014

General

the official cut-off for 2015 Preliminary exam is not known yet,

experts believe it to be in between the range of 110-120 for the general candidates

On this basis we can expect that the cut-off for 2016 exam might lie in the range of 110-120

one should also remember that CSAT is now just qualifying and the level of GS preparation of candidates will be more rigorous in the changed scenario

Therefore,

the cut-off of 2016 is more likely to rise,

anywhere in the range of 120-125

It must also be taken into consideration that cut off depends on the level of toughness of the paper

So if the paper is easy,

cut-off might rise and vice versa

However,

if you’re able to score anywhere between 125-130,

if you’re able to correctly attempt 60-65 questions,

you can consider yourself safe to clear the first hurdle of CSE

What to read and how much to read

? Now the question is what needs to be done to be able to correct these 60-65 questions

what should be read and what can be left

For this,

you need to first understand that preparation is not about reading all the topics mentioned in the syllabus but also analyzing the previous years’ papers to determine which section has more

likelihood to be asked and which has less

If the preparation is channelized according to this,

Although,

one must not solely depend upon this approach since every year the number of questions asked from a particular section also differ

For example,

if we talk about the Current affairs section,

from 2011 to 2014 on an average 5 questions were asked

But 2015 paper saw a quantum shift where 16 questions were asked from this particular section

Therefore,

it is difficult to predict how many questions can be asked from any section but going by the trends and the nature of questions asked,

a rough strategy can be devised

2011 2012

Average number of questions asked

History of India and Indian National Movement

Indian Polity and Governance

Indian and World Geography

Environment,

Biodiversity and Sustainable development

Indian Economy,

economic and social development

General Science

Current events of national and international importance

When we micro-analyze the previous years’ papers,

we find that every section has some special subsections as well from where the likelihood of questions being asked is more

For example,

maximum number of questions are generally asked from Modern India and Art & Culture part

if you wish to leave the Ancient and Medieval

History part,

Similarly,

from General Science section maximum questions are asked from Biology and new technological innovations part and less number of questions come from Chemistry or Physics part,

which again you can afford to skip

Likewise we can deduce for other sections as well

However,

it is important here to state that this

Drishti Current Afffairs Today

ARTICLES Historical Personality l'

Ambedkar : A Critical Review

Political / Constitutional Issues l'

The Reservation Conundrum

Rajya Sabha : Indispensable Institution of Indian Democracy and Federalism

Social Issues l'

Aviation Industry : Adding Wings to Inclusive Growth

Exit Policy in India : Welcome,

But No Goodbye

Fourth Industrial Revolution : The Next Big Thing

International / Global Issues

Understanding the U

Presidential Elections

Science and Technology Articles l'

Genetically Modified Crops : Gene Revolution and Beyond

Anti-Microbial Resistance : A New Challenge

Environment and Ecology l'

Ugliest face of gender based violence : Acid Attacks

Economic Issues

The Green Tribunal : Watchdog for Environment

AMBEDKAR – A Critical Review Sa rma d'Wa n i

Born in a class considered low and outcaste,

the boy who suffered bitter humiliation became the first Minister of Law in free India,

and shaped the country’s Constitution

A determined fighter,

Background Dr

Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (14 April 1891 – 6 December 1956) was born in the military cantonment town of Mhow in the Central Provinces (now in Madhya Pradesh)

He was the 14th and last child of Ramji Maloji Sakpal,

a ranked army officer at the post of Subedar and Bhimabai Murbadkar Sakpal

Ambedkar was born into a poor,

who were treated as untouchables and subjected to socio-economic discrimination

He completed his graduation from Bombay University ,

A in Economics and other subjects from Columbia University,

doctorate from London School of Economics

("The problem of the rupee: Its origin and its solution”,

his doctoral thesis was one of the first critical analysis of impact of colonial policies in India)

Inspirations „„Buddha was Ambedkar’s foremost

He was also inspired by the writings of Kabir

„„He was influenced by the ideas of John Dewey,

(the pragmatic American and his teacher) on democracy

The Fabian Edwin R

Seligman had considerable impact on his thought

He often quoted Edmund Burke,

the conservative thinker of Britian and was inspired by his ideas on constitutionalism

Ambedkar’s notion of liberty also comes close to that of T

Timeline

Personality Fondly called as Babasaheb,

Ambedkar was a multidimensional personality– a suave politician,

a deep thinker and an energetic activist

„„The

methodology he used is very scientific and rational rather than speculative

„„Ambedkar

associates as well as disassociates himself from the grand political streams such as liberal,

was influenced by the ideas of modernity such as urbanisation,

and also by values of tradition like Buddhism

Historical Personality „„Ambedkar

was a radical in his philosophy of the annihilation of caste and a liberal in philosophy of individualism

Ambedkar’s views on Hinduism Ambedkar was one of the severest critics of Hinduism (which he equated to Brahmanism) of his time He said that Hindu is not a community,

it is a gamut of castes competing with each other without a binding collective conscience

Contrarily,

there are strong bonds of unity within a caste which permeate everyday life of an individual such as food habits,

And this was the reason why India was not yet a nation

Ambedkar’s views on Caste Babasaheb's analysis of the origin of untouchability and his action plans for its eradication were different from the approach and practice of the caste Hindu social reformers

What distinguished Babasaheb from the other social reformers was that he looked at the problems of the Dalits from below,

from the vantage point of the deprived and oppressed

Ambedkar mentions in his book

Articles ‘Annihilition of caste’,

“The outcaste is a bye-product of the Caste system

There will be outcastes as long as there are Castes

Nothing can emancipate the outcaste except the destruction of Caste system

Origin of Caste according to Ambedkar He smashed the mythological basis of untouchability and laid bare its socio-economic roots

Caste system came into existence as a result of the rivalry among the Aryan tribes at a stage when they were starting to settle down for a stable life

The settled tribes employed the defeated tribesmen in war as guards against the marauding bands

These broken tribesmen employed as guards became untouchables later on

He opined that there were four classes in Aryan tribal society– Brahmins,

Khatriyas,

Vaishyas,

Shudras as can be seen in Rig Vedic text (Note: Aryans were the indigenous people of India according to Ambedkar refuting the Aryan invasion theory)

It was essentially an open class system,

and therefore classes did change their personnel

At some time in the history of the Hindus,

Ambedkar explains in his research paper “The Castes in India: Mechanism,

Genesis and Development” presented at the Columbia University in 1916 that the practice of endogamy was sustained within a caste using strict customs by regulating the number of men and women in a group through practices like widow burning,

and provisions like celibacy in case of widower men

His works such as: Castes in India: Their Mechanism,

Genesis and Development

Annihilation of Caste

Who Were the Shudras

The Untouchables: Who Were They and Why They Became Untouchables

? are testimonies to his independent and original thinking

Ambedkar as a Politician „„He

took part in all three Round Table Conferences held in England

„„He was one of the biggest critics of

FAMOUS QUOTES „„“Though,

the priestly class socially detached itself from the rest of the body of people using endogamy,

and through a closed door policy became a caste by itself

Likewise,

the other castes imitated them because of psychological insecurity and divine promises made by Brahmins to them

I was born as a Hindu,

I solemnly assure you that I won’t die as a Hindu

” „„“Hindus claim to be a very tolerant people

In my opinion this is a mistake

On many occasions they can be intolerant and if on some occasions they are tolerant this is because they are too weak to oppose or too indifferent to oppose

This indifference of the Hindus has become so much a part of their nature that a Hindu will quite meekly tolerate an insult as well as a wrong

With the Hindu Gods all forbearing,

it is not difficult to imagine the pitiable condition of the wronged and the oppressed among the Hindus

” „„“Make every man and woman free from the thraldom of the Shastras,

cleanse their minds of the pernicious notions founded on the Shastras,

and he or she will inter-dine and inter-marry,

without your telling him or her to do so

” (Annihilation of Caste) „„“I thereby reject my old religion,

Hinduism,

which is detrimental to the prosperity of humankind and which discriminates between man and man and which treats me as inferior

Congress as he saw it representing only upper caste,

„„He gave representation before Simon

Commission demanding separate electorate for Dalits

But he had to finally agree to a compromise with Gandhiji under Poona Pact whereby he gave up his demand of separate electorate and agreed for a higher share of seats in legislature for Dalits (from 72 to 147)

„„ In

Ambedkar founded the Independent Labour Party

In the 1937 elections to the Central Legislative Assembly,

Drishti Current Afffairs Today

The Reservation Conundrum C h a n d'ra Bh a n Si n g h

The recurring demands by Jats (Haryana),

Patels (Gujarat) and Kapus (Andhra Pradesh) for Other Backward Class status has again brought to the fore,

the debate on Reservation and its various manifestations “So long you do not achieve social liberty,

whatever freedom is provided by the law is of no avail to you” –Dr

Ambedkar Reservation as policy of affirmative action intends to achieve the goals of political,

social and economic justice for all as enshrined in the preamble to the Indian constitution

It is also in practice in other countries like Sweden,

Britain and United States under the policy of Affirmative action

Affirmative action seeks to correct inequities prevalent in society due to discrimination within a culture

certain sections of people are disadvantaged for historical reasons,

such as oppression or slavery or due to abstract ideas of purity and pollution

Historically and internationally,

support for affirmative action has sought to achieve goals such as bridging inequalities in employment and pay and increasing access to education

In India groups that have suffered from social disabilities related to their birth have been brought under the ambit of the reservation policy that seeks to mitigate if not eradicate the effects of such injustice

The article is an attempt to develop an understanding of reservation,

achievements and lacunas in policy making

The inequalities associated with birth have origins in the evolution of the present day Indian society

differentiation and segregation of society,

into exclusive groups based on birth which have maintained their identity based on distinctive characteristics such as occupation,

The Varna system developed in the later Vedic age and by the age of Buddha these varna distinctions became rigid maintaining laws of exclusivity in terms of marriage and dinning

Later castes and jatis developed out of occupational groups and their exact relationship with the brahmanical Varna system is not clear

The development of Varna,

caste and jati led to vertical stratification of the society and consequently the subjugation of those placed in the

lower strata by the higher strata occupants began and continued for ages

Reservation seeks to correct this historical injustice by trying to bring the disadvantaged and backward sections of the society on an equal pedestal with the other sections

It would also be relevant to discuss the genesis of present crisis with respect to reservation generated by demands from various group (Jats in Haryana and Rajasthan,

Patels in Gujarat and Kapus in Andhra Pradesh)(refer Box1 for details)

Reservation as a Principle Affirmative action is based on three principles: compensation or reparation for historic injustice,

Social Stratification in Indian Society: Evolution The evolution of Indian society over ages has resulted in functional

Drishti Current Afffairs Today

The ugliest face of gender based violence

A deliberated assault on woman reflecting the horrid face of patriarchy

! “There is one universal truth,

cultures and communities: violence against women is never acceptable,

day in vast numbers due to acid attacks

While some struggle with wounds inflicted on them by the corrosive acid,

few unfortunate ones sadly succumb to it

Laxmi’s life overturned at the tender age of 15 when Nahim Khan (brother of her friend) caused havoc by attacking her with the so called ‘modern’ weapon of revenge – Acid

along with hundreds of other victims has witnessed the magnitude with which this form of attack affects one’s life

In recent times,

we are witnessing a considerable rise in victimization of women,

violence against them is aimed at silencing and controlling them

According to Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW),

gender basedviolence is directed towards a woman only because of the fact that she is a Woman

Of the various forms of violence,

acid attack is one of the most gruesome

Acid throwing,

also termed as Vitriolage is defined as the act of throwing acid onto the body of another with the intention to disfigure,

According to researchers and activists instances of acid attacks have been reported all over the world,

but particularly endemic to South Asian countries with Bangladesh,

Pakistan,

Cambodia having the distinction of highest number of cases

In India,

acid attack is not restricted to a particular race,

religion or geographical location but it does have a gender dimension

A person’s face may not be critical to survival but it is an essential element of social survival,

this is what is targeted in acid attacks

These attacks are the result of a deeply inculcated discriminatory attitude

Girls are dying or being disfigured almost every

Reasons for Acid Attacks

Acid attack brings to surface the underlying misogyny (hatred of women or girls) a result of the patriarchal mindset

Women in contemporary society are valued on the basis of their physical appearance

Acid attack specifically targets the visual aspect of their being and leaves them with the trauma of social exclusion for eternity

The consequence of an acid attack is not something which one can physically move on from or efficaciously hide

Acid attack is a mirror of gender discrimination and inequality faced by women

Let us now delve into the varying underlying causes behind this horrendous form of crime

Unrequited Love Women in India are subscribed to a patriarchal mindset where they are expected to smile demurely and passively accept the declarations of (unwanted) love

The most common cause behind attacking women is their explicit disapproval of marriage or love proposals and at times even sexual advances

Some men,

enraged over their ‘unrequited love’ (one sided affair,

after taking offence at being spurned,

resort to acid as a retributive weapon only to teach the girl a lesson

Low levels of education,

misguided portrayal of men and women by media where the girl always gives in to her resistance after persistent efforts by the boy to woo her,

nests the idea that woman are to be acquired

A girl’s refusal to an advance is taken to be superficial,

only to reach this horrific end

Cultural Causes Such attacks stem from not just a patriarchal mindset,

but also from class inequalities,

The ‘Objectification’ of women is an attitude which mirrors the idea of women as ‘possessions’

Victims often narrate as how right before the attack,

the attacker said that if he cannot ‘possess’ them,

Traditionally in India,

men have the decision-making power and women are bound to obey their decision

The feeling of dishonour which a man feels

Aviation Industry : Adding Wings to Inclusive Growth Ami t ku ma r Si n g h

Connectivity has been a vehicle of prosperity since time immemorial

Initiatives like Silk Route in the ancient times and more recent ones such as One Belt One Road have been at the centrestage for almost all human civilizations aspiring prosperity through connectivity

However with changing times,

mode of connectivity too has rapidly changed giving way to aviation which has emerged as the most efficient mode connecting economies and cultures

In Indian context,

major thrust and our understanding of connectivity has been limited to road and rail with the aviation sector being largely ignored

However,

with Prime Minister's ambitious 'Make In India' initiative with aviation as one of the sectors,

Why Aviation Industry across the globe is eyeing India

? (a) India has an ideal geographic location between Eastern and Western hemisphere which can provide break journeys to long route operations

(b) 300 million strong middle class and hence a potential market to their services

For Instance: The total number of domestic tickets sold in 2014-15 were 70 million

If 300 million strong middle class flies even once,

the annual sale of tickets will surge from 70 million to 300 million

Why we need a strong Aviation Industry

? (a) The development of this sector has multiplier effect that positively impacts output and employment of other sectors to a very impressive scale

(b) If airfare on regional routes

affordable flying by masses will lead to productivity enhancement,

spending lesser time in travelling and more on skill development

(c) Incidents such as Border Security Force aircraft crash last December in Dwarka (Delhi),

which claimed ten lives of BSF Jawans merely for the reason of engine failure which could have been curbed,

if we have Maintenance Repair and Overhaul (henceforth,

MRO) facilities in place,

which is a critical component of aviation industry

(d) Growth of aviation industry accompanies investments in form of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI),

in various sectors of the economy,

This will also increase employment for semi-skilled and unskilled labour due to positive spillover effect

It is to be noted that semi-skilled and unskilled labour is a cause of concern due to dwindling viability of agriculture as a sustained source of livehood and inability of manufacturing sector to absorb such a workforce

However for aviation industry to play its due role in the ambitious Make In India initiative,

we need to have a closer look at the sector with some structural interventions awaiting attention

Maintenance,

Repair & Overhaul (MRO) Facilities „„India's airlines spend approx ` 5000

However,

almost 90% of this amount goes to MRO units in countries like Sri Lanka,

Singapore,

Malaysia,

United Arab Emirates and Indonesia

This is due to the fact that MRO facilities

in these countries offer services at lower cost with higher technical expertise and take comparatively less time

„„Presently commercial airlines in India operate more than 400 planes

the number of privately owned planes is even higher

Time bound MRO facilities is necessary to ensure safety of these aircrafts

„„According to a report by Global Consulting firm,

(March 2014) by 2020 India's fleet size would double and hence domestic MRO industry will become more critical in terms of security of aircrafts and as a source of earning foreign reserves

„„Union Budget (2016),

proposes easing tariff barriers (custom duty,

countervailing duty) on tools,

service parts involved in maintenance,

repair and overhaul as a positive policy intervention

„„However one of the major bone of contention is high service tax on heavy maintenance visit,

that makes Indian vision of becoming an MRO hub unviable

Service tax on heavy maintenance visit includes locally-sourced parts,

equipments and spares plus the additional charging of nearly 15% tax on top of final bill

Such application of tax makes maintenance,

comparatively expensive in India

Policy makers need to critically examine the cost-benefit ratio of easing service tax norms

As reducing service tax may deplete revenues for the public exchequer but at the same time has potential to attract foreign exchange that presently falls in the hands of countries like Sri lanka,

Malaysia,

Singapore

Investor lobby also believes that

Drishti Current Afffairs Today

Exit Policy: Welcome,

But No Goodbye

The Indian economy,

over the course of six decades,

has moved from ‘socialism with limited entry to “marketism” without exit’

The article takes a look at how the absence of an exit policy impacts the economy

Since the early 1980s,

the Indian economy has made remarkable progress in increasing entry: dismantling of industrial licensing,

dilution of public sector monopolies,

privatization of few public sector assets,

considerable liberalisation of foreign direct investment as well as reduction in trade barriers

However,

while liberalisation of the economy has given freedom of entry,

a liberal policy towards the entry and expansion of firms can be beneficial only if it is accompanied with a rational policy towards the exit of unviable firms

An exit policy is regarded as a quintessential cog in the wheels of liberalization

An Exit Policy provides a business unit the right or ability to withdraw from or leave an industry

It facilitates com-panies to close down their business,

and restructure their operations with the least restric-tions and in quick time frame

This enables the removal of resources away from inefficient and unsustainable uses

For example,

it allows employers to shift workers from one unit to another and/or also retrench excess labour

The need for such a policy arises as a result of modernisation,

restructuring as well as closure of business units

It is a necessary condition for inducing competition and enhancing the efficiency of resource use

The legend of the Chakravyuha from the Mahabharata,

describing the ability to enter but not exit,

perfectly illustrates the workings of the 21st century Indian economy

The presence

of disproportionately large share of inefficient firms with extremely low productivity in India is directly related to an exit problem in Indian industry

This is because a majority of these large numbers of small and inefficient firms should not survive

An effective insolvency regime saves struggling firms when possible,

or reallocates assets of failing firms more productively

NO EXIT

ENTRANCE ONLY Current Framework in India At present,

India lacks a single,

comprehensive law to address the several aspects related to insolvency of an enterprise

Corporate bankruptcy and insolvency is covered in a complex of multiple laws,

some for collective action and some for debt recovery

These are: (a) Companies Act,

or reorganisation of entities registered under the Act

„„Adjudication

is by the National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT)

National Company Law Tribunal NCLT,

would encompass the power and jurisdiction of the Company Law Board,

the Board for Industrial and Financial Reconstruction (BIFR),

the Appellate Authority for Industrial and Financial Reconstruction and of the High Court relating to company law matters

The NCLT has not,

been put into operation as yet

„„N o s'e p a r a t e p r o v i s'i o n s'f o r restructuring except through Mergers & Acquisitions (M&A) and voluntary compromise

„„Adjudication is under the jurisdiction of the High Court

(c) Sick Industrial Companies (Special Provisions) Act (SICA),

„„Under this Act,

the Board of Industrial and Financial Reconstruction (BIFR) assesses the viability of the industrial company,

and refers an unviable company to the High Court for liquidation

„„Judicial oversight over the proceedings before the BIFR was limited by giving appellate jurisdiction to the Appellate Authority for Industrial and Financial Reconstruction (“AAIFR”)

Drishti Current Afffairs Today

Fourth Industrial Revolution: The Next Big Thing

Fourth Industrial Revolution led by technological fusion is the emerging paradigm in industrial evolution

The article throws a searchlight on what it means and how it will impact the world community

I mean everybody

The Industrial Revolution kicked in,

and a lot of countries benefited,

The big buzz at the World Economic Forum (WEF) in Davos this year was about the ‘Fourth Industrial Revolution’,

described by the founder and executive chairman of WEF,

Klaus Schwab,

as a “technological revolution that will fundamentally alter the way we live,

work and relate to one another”

Earlier Industrial Revolutions advanced human progress through new forms of power generation,

mass production and information processing

The First Industrial Revolution began in Britain in the last

quarter of the 18th century with the mechanization of the textile industry,

and birth of the modern factory

The Second Industrial Revolution,

from the middle of the nineteenth century to the outbreak of World War I,

was powered by developments in electricity,

and mass production and consumption

Industrialization spread even further to Japan after the Meiji Restoration and deep into Russia,

which was booming at the outset of World War I

During this era,

factories could produce countless numbers of identical products quickly and cheaply

The Third Industrial Revolution,

was digital and applied electronics and information technology to processes of production

Mass customization and additive manufacturing

What is Fourth Industrial Revolution

? The soon-to-happen and highly awaited Fourth Industrial Revolution combines digital,

biological and physical systems and will propagate a new interaction between humans and machines

Built upon the previous three Industrial Revolutions,

this will prove the rapid speed of technological progress by fusing their boundaries

„„The

First Industrial Revolution started in the 18th century with the use of water and steam power to mechanize production

„„The Second in 19th century used electric power to create mass production

„„The Third began in the 1960s and used electronics and information technology to automate production

„„N o w a F o u r t h I n d'u s't r i a l'Revolution is building on the third,

In a paper on “The Fourth Industrial Revolution: What it means,

Schwab says that three things about the ongoing transformation mark it out as a new phase rather than a prolongation of the current revolution — velocity,

The speed of current breakthroughs has no historical precedent

When compared

Drishti Current Afffairs Today

Understanding the US Presidential Elections Te a m D'ri sh ti

A breakdown of the long and complex process involving Primaries,

National Conventions and Electoral College The US presidential election is easily one of the most talked about developments in the world this year

The multi-stage election jamboree lasts for a long time spread over almost a year which can be very confusing for outsiders

Particularly,

this year it has been hogging more limelight as the process has been vitiated by the advances made by a controversial Donald Trump who is not bound by propriety and political correctness

Trump has been blunt,

extreme at times and yet he has been gaining ground

That is something that surprises election analysts and presents added charm to US elections for that reason

Once every four years (first Tuesday after the first Monday in November),

the US citizens votes to decide their next president

Here is the process of this political marathon

TIMELINE OF US ELECTIONS 2016 „„PRIMARIES

and CAUCUSES: Public voting to select presidential nominees for major parties starting 1 Feb 2016 (Iowa caucus) to 7 June 2016 (final 6 State Primaries) „„NATIONAL CONVENTION of Parties to finalise nominee : Republicans 18-21 July

Democrats 25-28 July 2016 „„ELECTION DAY: Americans vote,

„„PRESIDENT’S INAUGURATION: 20 January 2017 More than half the battle for a candidate is about winning enough

support to gain a Party’s nomination

the election day may be the 8th of November 2016 but to be declared a candidate for that fateful day,

one has to go through a long-winding process of winning the primaries and caucuses in various US states

The Primaries and Caucuses: Fight to Secure Delegates We keep hearing of primaries and caucuses and how Hillary,

Bernie or Trump make advances in various US states where they are being held

It is the starting step for selection of a party’s presidential candidate where the general public vote for their favourite in the party they support

There are many presidential hopefuls who belong to one of the two main political parties,

Democrats or Republican,

depending on their views and ideas about how the government should work

In most other countries including India,

it is the party that decides on the candidate

But in the United States,

it is the people who declare support for one of the parties and choose a party candidate from a list of candidates competing for the position of POTUS (President of the United States)

This is where primaries and caucuses have a role

candidates from each party campaign throughout the length and breadth of US to win the support of party members

In each such contest,

a candidate has to secure majority of his or her party’s delegates or individuals who represent their states at national party conventions

The candidate accumulating a majority

of party’s delegates (threshold delegate count in 2016 is 1237 for Republicans and 2382 for Democrats) in this long process lasting over many months wins the nomination of his or her party

Primaries (vote by secret ballot by people appearing at the regular polling station

it is paid for by the state and conducted by state election officials) or Caucuses (active debate and discussion for hours by the community followed by voting in evening

school gyms and other public venues) are the two ways in which states collect party members’ votes

Primaries could be closed (only registered voters of the party can participate) or open (no voter registration with party is needed but voter can vote only in primary of one party

a controversial aspect of elections)

Before the 1970s,

most states chose delegates using caucuses but post-1972 reforms,

most states adopted primaries for a more inclusive and transparent process

In 2016,

just fourteen states hold caucuses

People vote for delegates who are the representatives who will choose presidential and vice-presidential nominees at the national convention of parties (in late July 2016)

Delegates are generally party activists,

early supporters of candidates

presidential campaigns court such people as they bring with them a certain political backing for the candidature

Democrats award delegates on a proportional basis: onethird of votes results in one-third of delegates and so on

Drishti Current Afffairs Today

Genetically Modified Crops : Gene Revolution and Beyond D'r

D'e e p sh i kh a

“The resilience we need for the future will be delivered by smart plant breeding- and that’s all GM is

” –George Freeman “It is better to die eating GM food instead of dying of hunger”

This statement by Dr

Norman Borlaug,

sums up the difficult choices that India is being confronted with

In the present scenario where on one hand it needs to ensure food to its 1

on the other hand our agricultural

land availability are fast deteriorating and depleting

The mounted pressures on two fronts is forcing our scientists to look beyond traditional methods of agriculture and one hopeful beacon seems to be the ‘’GM crop’’

Since 2002,

when GM crops were first introduced in India as Bt cotton (which still remains the only GM crop being commercially produced),

there have been a series of events in support of and against the GM crops

From PILs being filed by activists in Supreme Court against GM food crops to the parliamentary standing committee reports that have shown apprehensions to the use of GM crops,

moratoriums against the field trials to the recent thumbs up being given by the Central Government,

India is yet to come out decisively on the issue of field trials,

commercialization and cropping despite emerging as the fourth largest country to grow GM crops in 2013

The issue evokes concerns and hopes because after Green Revolution we haven’t come across any promising innovation that will salvage the situation in agricultural sector and guarantee food security sustainably without any additional costs

But the environmental impact it may create is a worrisome fact

As is the case with every scientific blessing,

this one too is a mixed bag of potential benefits and unknown dangers that may arise later

What are genetically modified crops

? To understand the issues surrounding it we need to have clarity on what GM crop actually means

GM crops are basically the plants used in agriculture,

the DNA of which has been modified using genetic engineering techniques with the aim to introduce a new desired trait to the plant which doesn’t occur naturally like resistance to pests,

diseases or environmental conditions,

or improving the nutrient profile of the crop

Since we are genetically modifying the plant,

we are able to address a host of problems that

Anti-Microbial Resistance : A New Challenge Te a m D'ri sh ti

AMR threatens our ability to effectively prevent and treat an ever-increasing range of infections caused by micro organisms

Let’s take a look at how this happens and what can be done to minimize its emergence

Antibiotics have been used for the last 70 years to fight infections caused by bacteria in both humans and animals

Antibiotics either kill the bacteria or make it difficult for the bacteria to grow and multiply

The first commercialized antibiotic,

Penicillin,

was discovered by Alexander Fleming in 1928

But the prolonged and widespread use of antibiotics has made the infectious organisms (bacteria,

viruses and parasites) no longer responsive to the drug,

The threat of antibiotic resistance,

when bacteria change and become resistant to the antibiotics used to treat the infections they cause,

dates back to the time when Fleming won the Nobel Prize for his discovery and in his acceptance speech warned of bacteria becoming resistant to penicillin

But according to a new report of the WHO,

“this serious threat is no longer a prediction for the future,

Antimicrobial resistance is now a major threat to public health across the globe

It can affect anyone,

Resistance to treatment of last resort (carbapenem antibiotics) for life threatening diseases has spread across the world,

though the extent of resistance varies

It causes prolonged sickness and increases the risk of death

The problem is so severe that it threatens the achievements of modern medicine

New resistance mechanisms emerge and spread globally every day,

threatening our ability to treat common diseases

A post-antibiotic era— in which common infections and minor injuries

can kill— no longer seems to be an apocalyptic fantasy,

rather a very real possibility for the 21st century

What is the difference between antibiotic and antimicrobial resistance

? „„Antibiotic resistance refers specifically to the resistance to antibiotics that occurs in common bacteria that cause infections

„„Antimicrobial resistance is a broader term,

encompassing resistance to drugs to treat infections caused by other microbes as well,

tuberculosis and HIV) and fungi (e

Candida)

How It Happens Bacteria can become resistant to antibiotics through several ways

Some bacteria due to the presence of resistance genes are intrinsically resistant and therefore survive on being exposed to antibiotics

Due to a life-cycle and generation time spanning

these survivors replicate and form a dominant type resulting in the development of an antibiotic resistant strain

Bacteria can also acquire resistance

This can happen in two ways: by sharing and transferring resistance genes present in the rest of the population or by genetic mutations that help the bacteria survive antibiotic exposure

Once the resistance has been acquired,

it can spread in the rest of the population of bacteria through reproduction or gene transfer

How It Spreads Though antibiotic resistance occurs naturally,

its development and spread is accelerated by the misuse and overuse of antibiotics in humans and animals

When antibiotics are taken,

bacteria sensitive to it get killed,

but the resistant strain survives,

Poor prescribing practices like prescribing antibiotic when not required,

selfmedication in countries where

The Green Tribunal: Watchdog for Environment N e h a Sa i n i

NGT has finally started giving environment its due in India

The article takes a look at its evoluti