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NALC Shop Steward Delivery Unit Manager RE: July 2014 Edition

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NALC Shop Steward Delivery Unit Manager RE: July 2014 Edition


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Description

Production Planning and Control Introduction to production planning and control

Product Data Management,

Production planning and control deals with preparing plans for manufacturing products,

monitoring progress to achieve these plai and taking corrective action if the original plans need modifications

The important functions of the production planning and control are given below

Forecasting 2

Aggregate Production planning 3

Process planning 4

Estimating 5

Master Production Scheduling 6

Materials Requirements Planning (MRP) 7

Purchasing 8

Machine loading and scheduling 9

Dispatching 10

Expediting 11

Quality Control 12

Shipping and Inventory control The following diagram planning and control system shows the cycle of activities in a computer integrated production

Demand Forecasting: Demand forecasting is used to predict the future sales activity of the firm’s products

Long range fb looks ahead 5 years or more iii advance and it is used to decide about plant constraining and equipment acquisition

Intermediate forecasting books ahead 1 or 2 years in advance and it is used to plan for long lead time materials and components

Short-term forecasting looks ahead 3 to 6 months in advance to decide about hiring of personnel,

purchasing and production schedule Aggregate Production Planning: Once the demand of the products is known,

an aggregate production plan can be prepared

It is based on the ‘Demand forecast’ and i used to increase (or) lower inventories,

stabilize production over the planning horizon and allow for the launching of new products in the company’s product tine

Process Planning: We have already studied about the process planning

Process planning determines the sequence of operations required to produce a certain product

In manual process planning,

The route sheets have a listing of operations and machine tools through which the part should be routed

Estimating: To fix a price of a product,

the manufacturing lead time end production co should b arrived

The manufacturing lead time can be calculated by summing up the total time required to finish the job

The production cost is the sum of material cost,

labor cost and overhead cost to produce the part

The data for arriving manufacturing Lead time and production cost are collected in the operation route sheets,

purchase file and accounting records

Master Production Scheduling: The master production schedule is used to know how many number of units of each product-should be delivered and when should be delivered

The master production schedule is converted from the aggregate production plan

From the master production schedule,

the purchase order for raw materials,

and purchase order for components from outside vendors will be prepared

the production schedule for the parts to be manufactured in the shop will also be prepared

Normally,

the scheduling periods in the master production schedule may be of months,

The quantities in master production schedule should not exceed the capacity of the plant

Based on the Master production schedule,

the raw materials and components used are planned by MRP

The purchase of raw materials and production order of various components are ordered

All materials are planned so that they will be available whenever needed

MRP is an effective tool to minimize unnecessary inventory investment

It is very much useful for production scheduling and purchasing of materials MRP is a computerized method to process massive data required to convert master-production schedule into detailed schedule for raw materials and components

The bill if materials show hat items and how many of new required

To assemble a finished product

The MRP analysis is performed to replenish the material the inventory

The important analysis used in inventory control is Economic Order Quantity (EOQ)

The mathematical equation for calculating EOQ is

where D'= Annual Demand Rate for the part (or) product

S = Setup cost (or) Ordering cost per order H = Annual Holding cost for the part to be carried in inventory

MRP can be calculated by breaking the master production schedule into dependent de minds using bill of materials

These demands Bill of materials is the details giving the components,

sub assemblies and final issue (end products)

The following figure shows the structure of BOM

Are consolidated to get gross requirements

inventory on hand is deducted from the gross requirements

purchased (or) manufacturing orders outstanding will be deducted and some safety stock will be added to arrive the net Requirements

It shows that the components C5 and C6 make the sub assembly S3

The componentsC7 & C8 make the sub assembly S4

The sub assemblies S2,

S3 and S4 are used to make final assembly end product P1

Purchasing: Only some components will be manufactured while others are purchased by using ‘make or buy’ deci some components will be purchased

the raw materials for component to be manufactured will be purthased by the purchasing department

Materials will be ordered and received according to the time table given by MRP

Machine loading and scheduling Allocating the jobs to the individual machine is known as machine loading

Assigning starting dates and due dates for the parts to be manufactured in the factory is known as scheduling

According to Master production schedule,

Since the number of individual parts and orders to be scheduled are more

Each part has to go through different operation routes

Each part has to be processed through so many machines

When the number of machines is limited and the machines have different features and capacities,

loading the machines will be difficult job

Each machine will have a so many job in queue waiting to be processed

With a use of computers,

the machine loading and scheduling will become easy

We will study further about the machine loading and scheduling in shop floor control systems

Dispatching: Dispatching is the function concerned with issuing the individual orders to the machine operators

During this dispatching,

part drawings and job instructions will be given to the operator

The person doing the dispatching function is called dispatcher and some shops it is performed by the shop foreman

Expediting: Follow up is the very important functions for any production systems

Even though we have best plan,

It should be expedited whether the actual progress of tell order is normal when compared with the production schedule

The person expediting these deviations is known as expeditor

The expeditor takes corrective action when any order falls behind the schedule

For this,

Expeditor rearranges the sequence of order on a particular machine,

requests the foreman to change the setup of a particular machine,

and sends a particular part from one department to another to keep productions going without struck up

The machine breakdowns,

non-availability of proper tool,

delay in processing of parts in the previous departments,

workers’ illness and so many reasons for things go wrong during production

So expedite job is very much important to make the corrective actions

Quality Control: The quality control is very much necessary to assure the quality of the product and its components to meet the standards specified by the designer

At each and every level in the manufacturing cycle,

the product quality should be maintained

The materials and parts supplied by the vendors should be inspected to assure the quality

The parts manufactured inside the factory should be inspected at every stage of processing

Final quality inspection of final product should be performed to test its overall functional quality and appearance

Shipping and Inventory Control:

When it’s stocked in inventory,

the financial investment should be carefully dealt with

Apart from the final products,

purchased components and work-in-progress within the factory should be stocked in inventory

Too much inventory will make more expense and too little inventory will make possible stock outs

inventory control is linked with products sales and production department

The purpose of inventory control is to make sure that enough products of each type are available to the customers whenever they demand

Engineering and Manufacturing database: The computerized Engineering and manufacturing database have all the information needed to manufacture the components and assemble the products

The bill of materials,

and other useful data are stored in this database

When there is a hanger in route sheet (or) in design (or) in drawing,

it can be updated in the database

The design engineering and process planning provide information as input data to the engineering and 6 databases

Capacity Planning: MRP is used to plan the materials and components,

while the capacity planning is used to determine the man power and machine capacities required to meet the production schedule

Capacity planning,

often alters the master production schedule so that the master production schedule will not exceed plant capacity

So the master production schedule and plant capacity are adjusted each other to obtain balance

Plant Capacity means the maximum rate of output that the plant can produce under a given pirating conditions

The given cooperating conditions may be number of shifts (one shift,

Number of working days per week,

Normally,

the capacity of the plant is measured as the output units of the plant

For karalla,

number of cement bags produced per day,

can be taken as the plant capacity

labor hours (or) utilized machine hours can be taken

Hence capacity planning is used to determine the man power (lab our) and (plant) machine paucity required to meet the master production schedule as well as long-term future production cads of the firm

The master production schedule is converted into material requirement planning MRR en the master production schedule and MRP are compared with plant capacity and liable man power

If they are not compatible with capacity,

the adjustments are de either in the master production schedule (or)’in the plant capacity and man power sources

Capacity planning is done for short term and long term periods

The following factors are considered for short term planning

Number of shifts per day: It can be increased (or) decreased according to the master production schedule

Number of working days/week: 3

Lab our Overtime: If more work is to be completed,

more overtime work will be done by the available workers

Employment levels: Number of workers can be increased (or) decreased as per the production schedule

But often,

we should not change the number of workers

We should give work to the workers continuously

Inventory stock piling: When we give work continuously to the workers without lay off,

there will be necessity stock the products in the inventory

To maintain steady employment all over the year including temporary slack periods,

Subcontracting: Some jobs can be given to some other shops during busy periods to satisfy the customer’s need

The following decisions are taken during long term planning

New plant construction 2

Buying more machines (or) more automatic machines (or) new types of machines to produce new product designs

Increasing the plant capacity by purchasing running plants from other companies

If the future need of the product is less,

then close the existing plant (or) reduce the plant capacity

Cost plain and Control: Cost planning: Cost planning is used to determine the expected cost of manufacturing

For this,

The standard cost is the sum of lab our cost,

material cost and overhead cost

The following factors are considered to arrive the standard cost

The bill of materials By using this,

one can know the components and materials used in the product 2

Process route Sheets: It gives the various processes performed on the product and the production operations used for each component in the product

Standard time

It gives the time required to complete each operation given in the route sheets

Labour wages and machine rate: By this,

one can translate the standard time into rate in terms of Rupees for each operation

The quotations for raw materials will give the price data and information about material cost from various suppliers,

Overhead cost: Overhead costs are arrived by accounting section

Cost Control: The cost control is used to find the actual cost of manufacturing and control the difference between the actual costs expected costs

There will be always differences between the standard costs calculated in cost planning and the actual costs occurred during productions

There are so many reasons for these differences

The raw material costs may be increased above the quotation rates the machine breakdown may occur,

different lot sizes of :raw materials (or) purchased components may increase the production costs,

the actual process may deviate from the original route sheets which all make the difference between the actual cost and standard cost calculated

The cost control function is to minimize these differences and preparing the report defining the actual costs and the deviation from the standard costs

The cost control collects the data on material costs from the purchasing department

It collects the data on Labour costs from the shop floor control system

Normally the overhead costs are excluded from consideration because they are no the actual expense of the product but they represent general story and corporate expenses

Quotation for raw materials: Master production schedule: The master production schedule gives the details of what are the products to be produced,

how many of each product should be produced and when the products should be delivered

The general format for the master production schedule is given here

Master production schedule

Year 2003

It states that 50 units of Product 1,

should be delivered on date 2/8/03

Sources of Input data to MRP: 1

The master production schedule 3

Bill of materials 2

Requirements of service parts 4

Inventory record

The following figure shows the structure of MRP system

MRP output Reports: For planning and management of plant operations,

the following MRP output reports are prepared

Primary output Reports: I

order release notice which will place the order according to MRP system 2

Reports showing planned orders to release in future periods

Rescheduling notices,

showing the changes in due dates for open orders

Cancellation order notice to cancel the open order due to the changes in the master production schedule

Inventory status report,

Secondary output Reports: These reports include: I

Performance reports of various types,

difference between actual and planned lead times and other performance measures

Exception reports which show the deviations from actual schedule and overdue orders

Forecasting of inventory level for future periods

Benefits of MRP: The following are the benefits of MRP

Customer service is improved

Reduction in sales price

I in inventory level: Well designed,

well managed MRP system influence the raw materials,

purchased components and work in procuress inventories

Reduction in set up costs

Reduction in Changeover costs

Better machine utilization 8

Increased productivity Shop Floor Control System: The production planning and control systems are concerned with planning and controlling of manufacturing operations

The planning function deals with the development of the master

The controlling function deals with the ‘Shop Floor Control (SFC)’

Functions of Shop Floor Control (SFC): 1

Periority control and assignment of shop orders

Maintain information on work-in-progress for MRP (Dispatching) 3

Monitor shop order status information (Follow up (or) Expediting) 4

Reporting production output data for capacity control purposes

Priority control and assignment of shop orders: (Scheduling) Priority control is concerned with time-phased planning of materials,

work-in-progress and assembly of final product

The priorities for the jobs in the factory (shop) are determined on daily basis or weekly basis

This is known as scheduling

When the delivery date for one batch of product is moved forward because of high demand,

the priorities should be given to that product

Priority control is concerned with in creasing priority for the fast moving jobs (high demand job) and decreasing the priority for the low

The priorities for the jobs in the shop are determined as a weekly (or) daily basis

Once these priorities are established,

the work will be assigned to the machines in the factory

Maintain information on work-in-progress: (Dispatching) Shop Floor Control is also called as a method of controlling the work-in-progress in the factory

The main function of the SFC is to manage the parts and assemblies that are processed in the shop at that time

Information about the quantities and completion dates at various stages in the production sequence are compared with the MRP system had corrective actions are taken by adjusting the priority plan

Monitor shop order status: (Follow up (Or) Expediting) a It monitors work order status Ana provides information about the status of the orders in the shop

S1 order status information is checked by naked eyes (or) by using technology based methods

One of the important reporting documents in SFC is the Work Order Status Report

This action is known as Follow up (or) Expediting

This report will be updated every week depending on the nature of the product and the processes in the shop

This report is displayed in the computer monitor (or) print out may be taken

This report indicates the orders that were behind the schedule and significant incidents like machine breakdowns

The accuracy and

latest version of work order status report are depending on the correctness and timeliness of the basic data collected in the shop

Production output data for Capacity Control: There is a difference between capacity planning and capacity control

The capacity planning is used to plan and determine the labour and equipment resources which are required to meet the master production schedule

On the other hand,

the capacity control is a controlling function used to make adjustments in labour and equipment image to meet the production schedule to make these adjustments effectively,

the capacity control function should have current (up to date) information as production rates and order status in the shop

Phases of SFC The following are the important phases of SFC 1

Order release 2

Order scheduling 3 Order progress

The computerized Shop floor system is shown in the following fig

Order release: It is an official document for a job to he processed through the shop

This order release consists of: 1

Route sheet

Material requisitions

Job cards

Move tickets

Part lists

Order Scheduling: Order scheduling will assign the or lets to the various machines in the factory

The data of the order release and priority control are the input to this phase

Order scheduling accomplishes the dispatching function in production planning and control

In dispatching function,

order scheduling phase reports the job that should be done at each machine and certain details about the routing of the part

Order scheduling performs the machine loading and job sequencing functions,

Allocating the orders to the machine is termed as machine loading

Determining the priority in which Jobs should be processed is termed as job sequencing

The jobs are assigned to machines

Since the total number of jobs exceeds the number of machines,

each machine will have job in queue waiting to be processed

In what sequence,

? Answer to this question is job sequencing

For answering this question,

priorities are established among the jobs in queue

The priorities are fixed according to some priority reifies

Highest priority should be given to the jobs with ‘earliest due date’ and” shortest processing time’

Priority can be given as a ‘first come

Higher priority should be given to the job having ‘least slack time’,

Where slack time = (Remaining time until due date)

Order progress: The order progress is used to accomplish the remaining functions of SFC: 1

To provide data for work in-progress status report

Shop order status 3

Capacity control

Order progress collects data from shop floor and generates reports to assist production management

When an operator completes a particular process mentioned in the route sheet,

it should be indicated in the order progress phase along with the data like piece count,

operator identification number,

machine name (or) number and time of completion

The order progress phase maintains a transaction file reported as each of the uncompleted jobs

This file is known as open order file

The open order file contains the latest status of each job in the shop

The following are type of reports generated from open order file

Work order status report: It shows the current stage of each job through the shop

Progress report: It shows the pr of each job through the shop

Exception report: It is designed to pinpoint the deviations from the production schedule,

overdue jobs and other exception information

The above reports prepared daily to have better control over the jobs in the fr%hop floor

Gantt chart: Gantt Charts are used for scheduling

In this Chart,

time is placed in the abscissa (x axis) and the machines are placed on the ordinate (y axis)

Each job is processed through some machines (or) all the machines according to the process route

Aparticular job is processed through particular machine at particular time

The duration for each process can be noted from time axis

The process route for each job is calculated by placing the job in the Gantt chart,

When ‘scheduling the different jobs’ are completed at first attempt,

there will be gap between each jobs

This indicates that particular machine is not utilized during that gap (particular time)

machine 2 is idle up to first 8 minutes

The gaps can be filled up by rearranging the jobs

This procedure is continued until the gap between the various jobs is minimized to achieve acceptable result

Factory Data Collection System: • Factory data collections system (FDC) is used to collect data for monitoring order progress in SEC

It is a computerized system consists of paper documents,

computers and automated devices in which the data collected are sent to the order progress phase to analyze and generate work order status rep and exception reports

The following are important data collected by the FDC system

Number of products (piece counts) completed at a certain machine 2

Number of parts scrapped (or) Number of parts to be reworked Centralized shop terminal: To reduce the clerical work into bare minimum,

a computer (centralized terminal) is introduced in the shop floor

The centralized terminal is located near the centre of the plant

Each employee has to enter the order data

A computer operator is engaged to enter the data

product quality data etc are entered in the centralized computer for each job

Individual work centre terminal: For the convenience of the operator,

individual terminal is located in the immediate work area attached to machine (or) processing equipment

This system is more useful because the operator can report status on the order more frequently

The order progress phase can be programmed to interpret the input data properly entered at each work centre

All individual work centre terminals are connected by LAN and hence the status report can be made more recent,

Voice data Input: This is a new sophisticated technology used to recognize the speech automatically and the speech will be converted into useful data

It is the easiest and quickest method of input

Most of these systems are speaker dependent ie the speech recognition processor recognizes only the unique voice patterns of the individuals who use the system

A reasonable vocabulary is needed to enter data

The employee is required to tell the information to the computer system (or) the computer operator

Then the data will be entered into the computer system

Just In Time Approach (JET approach) Just is a philosophy of manufacture based on planned elimination of all wastes and continuous improvement of productivity

JIT approach involves a continuous commitment to the pursuit of excellence in the manufacturing system design and operation

JJT seeks to manufacture 100% good products

SIT seeks to produce only required items,

at the required time and in the required quantities

let seeks to achieve the following goals

Zero defects 2

Zero setup time 3

Zero inventories 4

Zero handling 5

Zero breakdowns 6

Zero lead time 7

Lot size of one Zero defects: There is a belief that a certain level of defective product is unavoidable

But this is joint radiated by J approach which aims to eliminate,

the causes of defects and Isakson achieve excellence at all stages of the manufacturing process

It tells ‘Do it once and do it right

No excuse

’ Zero inventories: Normally,

inventories are needed when there is uncertainty in supply of raw materials by the outside suppliers

Outside suppliers are not reliable and most of the time,

so inventory is essential to manage the uncertain availability of raw materials and unexpected customer order

But as per SIT approach,

inventory is an evidence of poor design,

poor coordination and operation of the production system

In JIT,

since there is no uncertain her and there are so many facilities to manage unexpected customer order

Zero Setup time and a lot size of one: If there is zero setup time,

then there is no advantage in producing goods in batches

So a single product (a lot size of one) can be produced since setup time is zero

So the zero setup time and a lot size of one are interrelated

In inventory control,

the EOQ (Economic Order Quantity) is as follows:

Where D'= annual demand for the item

S = Setup cost or ordering cost per order H = annual holding cost of stock This EOQ is used to minimize the total cost of inventory by trading

Very large batches need high inventory cost (holding cost)

Very small batches need lower inventory costs (holding costs) but involve a larger setup costs

So very smaller batch i

a lot size of one is economic in JIT approach

Zero lead time: Longer lead times make the manufacturing system to rely on forecasts and anticipation of customer orders

Short lead times make the manufacturing system to be adapted to shot-term fluctuations in market demand

Zero lead time approach makes the manufacturing system to operatic with greater flexibility than its competitors

Zero parts handling:

Manufacturing and assembling operations include a large

Component feeding

Component handling 3

Parts making 4

Part inspection And participation in achieving this high productivity

Kanban system is also used as an information system to monitor and control the production quantities at every stage of the manufacturing ing and assembly process Kanban system is normally used in a repetitive manufacturing environment

Emerging Chalienges in CAD/CAM The computer revolution continues at this moment in the industrial and the people in industries are only just really beginning to understand how to use the computers to the greatest effect

The opportunities of information technology come as a boon for the engineers

The current developments in CAD/CAM and in design and manufacture will become important in the future

The product data management allows all manner of product data to be collected and managed f globally distributed data bases

the developments in product representation allow assembly and tolerance details

The World-Wide-Web (www

com) makes enormous impact so that we can all share and use information

Product Data Management: In a modern manufacturing system,

market Management Information Systems (MIS) and accounting use data to describe the products from their point of view 1-lence,

the product data management (PDM) is used to manage all of this product

For example,

an Engineering Change Order (ECO) in the design department will he requested by the Quality department which in turn,

motivated by a complaint from a customer in the sales and marketing department

This ECO in turn makes changes in the manufacturing process parameters (or) changes in the purchasing department in terms of the specification of a buying component

The PDM system manages the product data to ensure that the implementation of ECO is performed correctly and that the data remains consist accurate and up to date using various computer applications

PDM is an extension of the Engineering Data Management Systems (EDMS) and is concerned with all of the documentation and data relating to a company’s products

PDM is a subject of Electronic Data Management (EDM)

It is a general form for the computerized management of data of all sorts

PDM systems have two groups of functions

They are user Functions and Utility Functions

Data vault (Information vault) and Document Management: The core of a PIJM system is the Data vault (or) information vault which is used for the storage and retrieval of the product defining information

This function manages the storage,

version control etc of all product related data

This function of PDM system can integrate data from many different CAD/CAM systems and they can also reference data that is not computer based

Process and Work Flow Management: This function manages and controls the business processes and workflows associated with definition,

sign-off and scheduling of documents

The process management captures the process sequences undertaken by different group within an organization and within its suppliers

It manages the flow of work between them

It uses this information to manage and direct the diverse tasks and the movement of data between the tasks

Product Structure Management: This function provides complete bills of materials and bills of process data including planning bills

The configuration of a product describes the parts used in the product and their relationships to each other in the product structure

It controls the information relating to a product structure and its documentation over the life of the product from design to disposal

This function allows identification of different versions of a product and different issues of engineering data

It performs version control and variant control

The version control is used to control the variations in the product over time

For example,

a manufacturer will replace an old model with a new version on the other hand,

the variant control is used to control the variations of a product offered simultaneously

Data search and Retrieval: This function provides software utilities to search for and retrieve data

It has search tools for locating and funding information based on values of attributes

This function facilitates to browse through graphical displays of the hierarchical structure of products such as the bill of material which shows the decomposition of the product into assemblies and subassemblies in the form of a hierarchical tree

The nodes of this tree are linked to the models describing individual parts (or) assemblies

Project Management: PDM User functions include This function provides facilities for definition of breakdown,

scheduling etc PDM Utility functions include 1

Data Communication and Notification: This functioning is used to handle all data communication between the various applications subsystems and also to external systems

Data Transport: This function facilitates to move data between various applications,

Data transport and Data communication between them are used to cover Electronic mail (E-mail) and File transfer

Data Translation: This function is used to allow translation of data among applications

For example,

the CAD/CAM data may be translated into an appropriate format for a CNC programming application using IGES

Image Services: This function is used to provide a viewing capability to review graphical images (CAD images) 5

System Administration: This function is used to system administration to set up and run the PDM system like access,

The back up features are most important in situations that are most sensitive to system faults

By using this feature,

the data may be copied in real time to alternative disk systems

Product Modelling: PDM (Product Data Management) integrates the geometric modeling,

engineering data management systems

It allows the integration of diverse data structures into a common framework

The CAD/CAM is developed by the integration of the Ota generated

throughout the product life cycle from specification to manufacture into a common logical framework

This is termed a product modelling

The product modelling has the aim of developing an integrated model to support all of the product life cycle aims

The following figure shows the range of product life cycle dealt with by a product modelling system

The process of developing the product is important in product modelling

Product modelling should be able to support product development process changes throughout the product life,

cycle and store all necessary information as product include data

The process information is used not only to guide the product development processes,

but also to record the history of the product developer

it is used to provide a means to reconstruct the rationale behind design decisions

Linear storage of the’ data model is necessary to allow manufacture

of spare parts and to allow data to be reused in the development of new products

In traditional CAD/CAM approach to product modelling,

there are number of limitations as given below

It is difficult to integrate specially manufacturing process with geometric models

Various representations used in design,

in production control and so on have been developed independently and lack a common framework

A number of life cycle issues are supported by little in the way of formal representations

To tackle above limitations,

a formal approach to product modelling,

based on the EXPRESS information modelling language,

And this is the basis of the STEP standard for the representation and exchange of product model data

Assembly and Tolerance Modelling: In EDMS and PDM systems,

the bill of materials 4BOM) describes the main product structure

A ‘Bill of materials’ describes the product structure with a hierarchical assembly,

subassembly and parts breakdown

The bill of materials describes the product with the parts which form the assembly

It also describes the spatial position of the parts to get final assembly

In tolerance modelling system,

the structure of the ‘bill of materials’ combined with geometric models of the individual parts,

we can explore the visual appearance and mass properties of assemblies and interference between parts

In assembly modelling system,

we can explore how the assembly should be put together,

how parts mate and move relative to other parts kinematically and dynamically

we can explore how changes in one part affects others by using assembly modelling since it is I a richer model of relationships between the parts in the assembly

t The relationships in the assembly modelling system can be between subassemblies,

parts (or) even elements of parts such as features (or) faces

The relationships describe ‘assembly constraints’ (also known as assembly relationships (or) mating relationships) between parts,

mating relationships and other factors relating to how parts interact

It also describes the relationships between cylinders and holes sharing a common axis,

degrees of fit (tight (or) loose),

cylindrical face against a plane face),

rack and pinion etc) and fastener constraints (e

screw threads) Relationships between elements are shown the following fig

In this figure at subassembly level,

one of the subassemblies (chassis) is fixed in world co and other subassemblies are located with respect to it

At part level,

one of the parts is fixed (grounded) with respect to the subassembly coordinate system Also one feature face is fixed as base feature in each part

Tolerance modelling: Tolerances are used to specify the allowed variations in dimensions and position of parts

The tolerance modelling is closely related to the assembly modelling

The tolerances are functions of manufacturing process used to make the parts

There are two types of tolerances namely dimensional tolerances and geometric tolerances

The dimensional tolerances specify allowable deviations from an actual dimension

The geometric tolerances specify how far a part may deviate from a nominal position,

Geometric tolerances are widely used in industries,

since they do not have ambiguities in their application and interpretation as in the case of dimensional tolerances

Tolerances are usually specified as Engineering Drawing using BSI,’ANSI (or) ISO standards