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Training organizations prepare for future aviators - Regional Airline

The Advanced Flight Training Phase is conducted at CAE OAA (Oxford), and lasts 13 weeks and comprises 22 8 hours of flight and 30 hours of FNPT2 training  people at more than 100 sites and training locations in approximately 30 countries called the Helicopter Academy

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Introduction © CAE Oxford Aviation Academy (UK) Limited 2014

I All Rights Reserved Introduction

This text book is to be used only for the purpose of private study by individuals and may not be reproduced in any form or medium,

transmitted or adapted in whole or in part without the prior written consent of CAE Oxford Aviation Academy

Copyright in all documents and materials bound within these covers or attached hereto,

excluding that material which is reproduced by the kind permission of third parties and acknowledged as such,

belongs exclusively to CAE Oxford Aviation Academy

Certain copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the International Civil Aviation Organisation,

the United Kingdom Civil Aviation Authority and the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA)

This text book has been written and published as a reference work to assist students enrolled on an approved EASA Air Transport Pilot Licence (ATPL) course to prepare themselves for the EASA ATPL theoretical knowledge examinations

Nothing in the content of this book is to be interpreted as constituting instruction or advice relating to practical flying

Whilst every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the information contained within this book,

neither CAE Oxford Aviation Academy nor the distributor gives any warranty as to its accuracy or otherwise

Students preparing for the EASA ATPL (A) theoretical knowledge examinations should not regard this book as a substitute for the EASA ATPL (A) theoretical knowledge training syllabus published in the current edition of ‘Part-FCL 1’ (the Syllabus)

The Syllabus constitutes the sole authoritative definition of the subject matter to be studied in an EASA ATPL (A) theoretical knowledge training programme

No student should prepare for,

or is currently entitled to enter himself/herself for the EASA ATPL (A) theoretical knowledge examinations without first being enrolled in a training school which has been granted approval by an EASA authorised national aviation authority to deliver EASA ATPL (A) training

CAE Oxford Aviation Academy excludes all liability for any loss or damage incurred or suffered as a result of any reliance on all or part of this book except for any liability for death or personal injury resulting from CAE Oxford Aviation Academy’s negligence or any other liability which may not legally be excluded

Printed in Singapore by KHL Printing Co

Pte Ltd



Textbook Series Subject

Airframes & Systems Fuselage,

Wings & Stabilising Surfaces Landing Gear Flight Controls Hydraulics Air Systems & Air Conditioning Anti-icing & De-icing Fuel Systems Emergency Equipment

Electrics – Electronics Direct Current Alternating Current

Powerplant Piston Engines Gas Turbines

Instrumentation Flight Instruments Warning & Recording Automatic Flight Control Power Plant & System Monitoring Instruments

Mass & Balance Performance

Flight Planning & Monitoring

General Navigation

Radio Navigation

VFR Communications IFR Communications


I Introduction




ATPL Book 7 Flight Planning and Monitoring

Air Information Publications

Fuel Policy and Fuel Monitoring

Nautical Air Miles

Single-engine Piston Aeroplane (SEP)

Multi-engine Piston Aeroplane (MEP)

Medium Range Jet Transport (MRJT) Simplified Flight Planning

Medium Range Jet Transport (MRJT) Detailed Flight Planning

MRJT Additional Procedures

Topographical Chart



ATC Flight Plan

Point of Equal Time (PET)

Point of Safe Return (PSR)

Revision Questions


I Introduction


Air Information Publications Introduction

4 AIP Gen









19 Answers

Air Information Publications

Air Information Publications

Air Information Publications

Introduction As part of basic preparation before any flight,

pilots need to be able to brief themselves about: • Air Traffic Control procedures regarding departure,

destination and alternate airfields

• Frequencies of communication and navigation aids (navaids) en route and at airfields

• Radio navigation and approach aids

• A  erodrome Flight Information Service (AFIS),

Automatic Terminal Information Service (ATIS) and in-flight weather services

Restricted and Prohibited Areas

Military training areas,

Air Navigation Obstacles and Aerial Sporting and Recreational Activities

In many operations offices and flight planning rooms a lot of this information is available on wall boards,

much of it will be available on printed maps and charts,

such as those produced by Jeppesen and AERAD,


Jeppesen and AERAD (and others) are not the authority on airspace,

They merely print and reproduce,

information extracted from documents produced by the national aviation authority of that country (CAA,

It is this national aviation authority which is the primary source

These primary source documents are: Air Information Publication (AIP)

A publication issued by or with the authority of a State and containing aeronautical information of a lasting character essential to air navigation

The United Kingdom Air Information Publication is an example

AIP Supplements

Temporary changes to the information contained in the AIP which are published by means of special pages

In the UK these are printed on yellow paper and filed in the AIP SUPPLEMENT SECTION of the UK AIP,

GENERAL (GEN) volume

A notice distributed by means of telecommunications containing information concerning the establishment,

condition or change in any aeronautical facility,

the timely knowledge of which is essential to personnel concerned with flight operations

A NOTAM is originated and issued promptly whenever information to be distributed is of a temporary nature and short duration or when operationally significant permanent changes of long duration are made at short notice

They are displayed in,

operations and flight planning centres

Air Information Publications

Format of an AIP

Air Information Publications

The format of an AIP produced by an ICAO contracting state conforms to a common standard in accordance with the Standards and Recommended Practices (SARP) of Annex 15 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation and with the Aeronautical Information Services Manual (ICAO Doc 8126)

Thus the Air Information Publication United Kingdom is a typical reference document

It is divided into: • VOLUME I

















EGJA Figure 1

Location Indicators are allocated mainly to licensed aerodromes,

Air Control Centres and Flight Information Centres

An indicator comprises four letters

the first two denote the country and the last two the airfield or centre


London/Heathrow EGTT ,,








KA to KZ


CY and CZ

Air Information Publications

Air Information Publications

Agency Designator,

may be added after the Location Indicator

This allows messages to be directed to an agency and/or an office at a particular location

For example the Agency Designators for an Air Traffic Control Unit and a Flight Information Centre,

the Office Designators at any location for Freight and Cargo and Passenger Handling are F and P


pilots need to be aware only of the significance of the Location Indicator,

particularly when filing a Flight Plan (CA48),

where the entries for departure,

destination and diversion airfields,

are represented by a particular four-letter code



All operationally significant information not covered by AIP Amendment or AIP Supplement will be issued as a NOTAM

All operationally significant changes issued as Aeronautical Regulation and Control (AIRAC) AIP Amendments,

AIP Supplements or Aviation Information Circulars (AIC) will be additionally announced by “Trigger” NOTAMS,

which remain valid for 15 days after a permanent change and for the complete duration of any temporary change or condition

Three categories of NOTAMS are disseminated by the Aeronautical Fixed Service (AFS): • NOTAMN,

which contains new information

UK NOTAMS are divided into two categories: • T  hose containing information on UK International Airports and en route information of interest to both international and domestic recipients

J and exceptionally X)

• T hose containing information on domestic aerodromes and information to domestic recipients only

R and exceptionally X)

Edited Example NOTAMS: • Series A (A0012/99 NOTAMN) E) MIDHURST DVOR ‘MID’ 114

Air Information Publications

Air Information Publications


) (A decode of the series lettering is at table 3

UK AIP GEN 3-1-5)


Automatic Terminal Information Service (ATIS) (Ref


OXFORD KIDLINGTON Sevice Designation

Call Sign

Oxford Information

Oxford Departure Information

Frequency (MHz)

Hours of Operation

Sun & PH 0830

Sun & PH 0730-1600 (Summer)


Sun & PH 0830

750 Sat,

Sun & PH 0730-1600 (Summer) Figure 1

The Flight Information Service (FIS) (Figure 1

From the information received pilots will be able to decide the appropriate course of action to be taken to ensure the safety of the flight

FIS is available during the aerodrome’s operation hours

The Flight Information Service officer is responsible for: • Issuing information to aircraft in the ATZ to assist pilots in preventing collisions

• Issuing information to aircraft on the manoeuvring area to assist pilots in preventing collisions between aircraft and vehicles/obstructions on the manoeuvring area,

or between aircraft moving on the apron

• Informing aircraft of essential aerodrome information (i

the state of the aerodrome and its facilities)

• Alerting the safety services

Air Information Publications

Air Information Publications

At busy airfields to alleviate Radio-telephony (RTF) loading on the operational channels,

Automatic Terminal Information Service (ATIS) (Figure 1

Pilots of aircraft inbound to these airports are required on first contact with the aerodrome ATS Unit to acknowledge receipt of current information by quoting the code letter of the broadcast

Pilots of outbound aircraft are not normally required to acknowledge receipt of departure ATIS but are requested to ensure that they are in possession of up-to-date information

(See ICAO Doc 7030 for further information on ATIS)


Helicopter Area 1 Left

Surface W/V 330/10


QFE 1008



Contact tower on 121



National Meteorological Offices routinely issue written forecasts of selected areas at fixed times daily

For the UK,

these are on Forms F214 and F215

The UK Met Office also issues European and North Atlantic forecasts

Details of areas of coverage and times of issue and the periods of validity are given in the UK AIP


Aerodrome Forecasts-TAF,

information concerning en route weather phenomena which may affect the safety of aircraft operationsSIGMET (including volcanic activity),

and selected special weather reports- SPECI,

are broadcast by teleprinter and/or radio throughout the UK and internationally in text form

The Meteorological Watch Offices (MWOs) are responsible for preparing and disseminating SIGMETS to the appropriate ACC/FIC within their own and agreed adjacent FIRs

Aircraft in flight should be warned of the occurrence or expected occurrence of a SIGMET phenomenon for the route ahead for up to 500 NM or 2 hours flying time

SIGMET examples are: • At subsonic levels • Freezing Rain • Severe Mountain Wave • Volcanic Ash Cloud • At transonic and supersonic levels (FL250-600) • Hail • Volcanic Ash Cloud • Moderate or Severe Turbulence Information to aircraft in flight is usually supplied in accordance with area Meteorological Watch procedures,

supplemented when necessary by an En Route Forecast Service

Information is also available from the appropriate ATS Unit at the commander’s request,

or from meteorological broadcasts

Air Information Publications

Aircraft can obtain aerodrome weather information from any of the following:

Air Information Publications

• B  y request to an ATS Unit but whenever possible only if the information required is not available from a broadcast

Air Information Publications

Call Sign/ID

Frequency MHz

Operating Hours




London VOLMET (Main)

Amsterdam Brussels Dublin Glasgow London Gatwick London Heathrow London Stansted Manchester Paris/CDG

The spoken word ‘SNOCLO’ will be added to the end of the aerodrome report when that aerodrome is unusable for take-offs and landings due to heavy snow on runways or runway snow clearance

H24 continuous

London VOLMET (South)

H24 continuous

Birmingham Bournemouth Bristol Cardiff Jersey London Luton Norwich Southampton Southend

London VOLMET (North) (Note 1)

H24 continuous

Scottish VOLMET

H24 continuous

Blackpool East Midlands Isle of Man Leeds Bradford Liverpool London Gatwick Manchester Newcastle Teesside 3 Non-essential words such as Aberdeen/Dyce ‘surface wind’,

Belfast/Aldergrove ’visibility’ etc are Edinburgh Glasgow not spoken

Inverness London/Heathrow 4 Except for ‘SNOCLO’ The Prestwick Runway State Stornoway Group is not Sumburgh broadcast

Air Information Publications


Note 1: Broadcasting range extended to cover Southeast England and English Channel Note 2: An HF VOLMET broadcast for North Atlantic flights (Shannon VOLMET) is operated by the Republic of Ireland Figure 1

Air Information Publications


Air Information Publications



Name of Station (VOR set Variation) 1 Saint Abbs VOR/DME (5

Seaford VOR/DME (5

Frequency (Channel)

Hours of Operation (Winter/ Summer)


DME Aerial Elevation

DOC 50 NM/50 000 ft (200 NM/50 000 ft in Sector 054°

- 144°(M)

Range 80 NM (25 NM in Sector 180° to 335° MAG )


DOC120 NM/50 000 ft 260°-290°(M),

Figure 1

Questions may be asked on the frequencies and call signs of particular navigation aids

As an example,

ENR4 of the UK AIP lists the en route radio navigation aids alphabetically,

together with their individual identifying morse call signs,

DME aerial elevation,

Thus: • A  VHF Omni-range (VOR) and a Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) are situated at Saint Abbs Head where in 1995 the magnetic variation was 5

the VOR beacon is aligned with magnetic north

• The morse call sign is Sierra Alpha Bravo

• T  he VOR frequency to be selected by a civil operator is 112

military aircraft select channel 72X to obtain range from the DME

• The station operates continuously 24 hours a day at,

• The published latitude and longitude in degrees minutes and seconds

• The DME antenna is 760 ft above mean sea level

• N  either the VOR nor the DME should be used beyond 50 NM and above 50 000 ft or 200 NM and 50 000 ft in the sector between 054°(M) and 144°(M)

Air Information Publications


Air Information Publications


Name Code


Purpose (ATS Route or Other Route)

Definition (°MAG/ NM)

Cotswold CTA

Cardiff & Filton

CPT VOR/DME fix 268°/24 NM

- IN866

VES VOR/DME fix 249°/148 NM

London TMA

BIG VOR/DME fix 133°/8 NM DET VOR/DME fix 261°/15 NM LAM VOR/DME fix 179°/24 NM

- UB317

BKY VOR/DME fix 088°/4 NM CLN VOR/DME fix 287°/37 NM

SAM VOR/DME fix 285°/35 NM

Channel Islands CTR

JSY VOR/DME fix 008°/27 NM GUR VOR/DME fix 064°/67 NM

Figure 1

Navigation positions not marked by radio navigation aids are given a coded designator of up to five characters and are also defined by a radial and bearing from a co-located VOR/DME,

5 above

Air Information Publications


Air Information Publications


For safety reasons,

when planning a VFR or IFR flight at low or high Flight Levels,

the pilot must take into account the following: • Prohibited,

Restricted and Danger Areas (Figure 1

such as High Intensity Radio Transmissions (Figure 1

• Air Navigation Obstacles En Route,

• Aerial Sporting and Recreational Activities

RESTRICTED AND DANGER AREAS Identification and Name Lateral Limits

Upper Limit (ft) Lower Limit (ft)

Activity Details,

Remarks and Byelaw Reference (One hour earlier during summer period)

EG D001 Trevose Head 501918N 0053042W

Hours: Mon to Thu 0800-2359,

Fri 0800-1800


Service: DACS: St Mawgan APP on 126

Other times DAAIS: London Information on 124

750 MHz

Remarks: Nil

Activity: Ship Exercises / Target Towing/Firing/ Pilotless Target Aircraft (Navy Dept)

Up to ALT 55 000 SFC Subject to co-ordination procedures above ALT 22 000

Hours:Mon to Thu 0800-2359,

Fri 0800

other times London Mil via London Information on 124

750 MHz

Remarks: Pre-flight information may be obtained from Plymouth Operations,

Tel: 01752-557550

Figure 1

Air Information Publications

Name Lateral Limits

Systems/means of activation announcement/ information for Civil Flights

Remarks and Activity Times (One hour earlier during summer period)

Air Information Publications

Areas of Intense Air Activity (AIAA) Oxford (h) 515600N 0014900W

Radar services are available within this area from Brize Radar on 134

300 MHz

The attention of pilots is also drawn to the Brize Norton Control Zone

Hours: Permanently active

Vertical Limits: SFC to 5000 ft ALT

Remarks: There is intense air activity associated with closely woven civil and military climb out and approach procedures for the many airfields in this vicinity

Pilots flying in this area are advised to keep a constant vigilance particularly during weekdays when military activity is at its peak,

Figure 1

Air Information Publications

Air Information Publications

Name Lateral Limits

Vertical Limits

Advisory Measures

Authority Responsible for Information

Remarks Activity Times (One hour earlier during summer period) 5

High Intensity Radio Transmission Areas (HIRTA) Barford St John Radius 0

ALT 850 ft

Boulmer Radius 0

ALT 1600 ft

Buchan Radiius 0

ALT 4000 ft

Figure 1


In the UK there are two types of civil aerodrome licence namely,


Aerodromes or heliports operated in accordance with a PUBLIC USE LICENCE must have their hours of availability notified in the UK AIP and the aerodrome/heliport must be available to all operators on certain equal terms and conditions


this does not necessarily mean that the aerodrome is available to all flights without limitation

Aircraft operators must check and comply with the requirements and conditions of use indicated at AD 2 or 3

Aerodromes or heliports operated in accordance with an ORDINARY LICENCE may accept flights operated by the holder of the licence or by those specifically authorized by that licence holder

This normally means that prior permission is required for most flights but it does not exclude the possibility of scheduled or non-scheduled public transport flights being arranged after the formal agreement of the licence holder

Air Information Publications

Aerodrome Communication Facilities

Air Information Publications



Call Sign

Frequency (MHz)

Hours of Operation


Oxford Approach

Mon-Fri 0830-1730 and by arrangement (Winter) Mon-Fri 0730-1630 and by arrangement (Summer)

Oxford Tower Oxford Ground

Mon-Fri 0830-1730 and by arrangement (Winter) Mon-Fri 0730-1630 and by arrangement (Summer)

Oxford Information

Sun & PH0830-1700 (Winter) Sat,

Sun & PH 0730-1600 (Summer)

Oxford departure Information

Sun & PH0830-1700 (Winter) Sat,

Sun & PH 0730-1600 (Summer)

Figure 1

Air Information Publications

Aerodrome Radio Navigation and Landing Aids

Air Information Publications


Type Category (Variation)


Hours of Operation Winter Summer # and by arrangement

Antenna Site co-ordinates

Elevation of DME transmitting antenna



3° ILS Ref Datum Hgt 53 ft

Localizer range is limited to 18 NM+/- at 10° and 8 NM at+- 35° of the localizer centre line

339 kHz

On AD Range 20 NM


3° ILS Ref Datum Hgt 50 ft

The quality of guidance provided does not permit use of the facility for coupled approaches below 350 ft

I BMH (RWY 08) I BH (RWY 26)

44 ft AMSL

Figure 1

On AD Freq

Paired with ILS I BH and I BMH

Zero range is indicated at the threshold of Runway 26 and 160 m before crossing threshold of runway 08

Air Information Publications

From the table opposite:

Air Information Publications

• B  ournemouth has a Category I Instrument Landing System (ILS) for runways 08 (call sign I BMH) and 26 (call sign I BH)

The Localizer (LLZ) frequency for either runway system is 110

the paired glide path (GP) frequency for each is 329

The ILS hours of operation are denoted as HO,

which means that the service is available to meet operational requirements

The antenna co-ordinates,

published in the remarks column,

seconds and hundredths of latitude and longitude

The remarks column also states that the glide slope for each ILS is 3°,

and that the ILS Ref Datum Hgt (Reference Datum Height ) for runway 08 and 26 is 53 ft and 50 ft

“The ILS reference datum point is a point at a specified height (around 50 ft) located vertically above the intersection of the runway centre line and threshold,

through which the downward extended portion of the ILS glide path extends

” The remarks column for the ILS also publishes the localizer limitations for runway 08 and states,

that ”The quality of guidance provided does not permit use of the facility for coupled approaches below 350 ft

” • L in the Type Column indicates that the airfield has a low powered Non-directional Beacon (NDB),

sited on the aerodrome (AD) at the published latitude and longitude

frequency 339 kHz and operational hours H24 (continuous service)

Range 20 NM in the remarks column is the promulgated range or Designated Operational coverage (DOC): “The range promulgated for UK NDBs is based upon a daytime signal protection ratio between wanted and unwanted signals that limits bearing errors at that distance to +/- 5°

At ranges greater than those promulgated bearing errors will increase

Adverse propagation conditions particularly at night will also increase bearing errors

This protection takes into account average atmospheric noise but not night-time sky waves

” See the latest AIC on Radio Navigation Aids

• The DME (Distance Measuring Equipment) is frequency paired with ILS I BMH (RWY 08) and I BH (RWY 26)

Ch (channel number) 42X is the selection for military TACAN (TACtical Air Navigation) equipped aircraft

The operational hours are HO and the aerial elevation is 44 ft AMSL

With reference to the Remarks column,

Zero range is indicated at the threshold of runway 26 and 160 m before crossing the threshold of runway 08

Other Sources Publications such as Aerad and Jeppesen Flight Guides,

Low and High Level Airways Charts,

Arrival and Departure Charts and Airfield Approach Charts all,

provide information on airfield opening hours,

communication and radio navigation and landing aids etc

Air Information Publications

Search and Rescue

Air Information Publications

There may on occasions be a question relating to Search and Rescue (SAR)

SAR is covered in Air Law

References for this topic are: • 010 Air Law • UK AIP Document GEN 3

Annex 12


Where would you find information regarding Customs and Health facilities


Questions a

ATCC broadcasts b


NAV/RAD supplements d

Where would you find information regarding Search and Rescue procedures

ATCC broadcasts b



In which document would you find information on known short-term unserviceability of VOR,


Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP) c


Where may details of temporary Danger and Restricted Airspace be found


Aeronautical Information Circulars (AIC) c

NOTAM and Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP) d

Details of temporary danger areas are published: a

in AICs on the appropriate chart by VOLMET in NOTAMs

What are the types of NOTAM









Fuel Policy and Fuel Monitoring Universal Application of Fuel Policy

38 Answers

Fuel Policy and Fuel Monitoring

Fuel Policy and Fuel Monitoring Universal Application of Fuel Policy

Fuel Policy and Fuel Monitoring

You are shortly about to start practical planning examples on the Single-engine Piston,

the Multi-engine Piston and the Medium Range Jet Transport aircraft

As you will find out,

we enter various tables and graphs for these aircraft types and,

we are able to work out how much fuel will be used for a particular length of flight under different conditions of aircraft weight,

air temperature and wind component

In general,

these predictions are quite accurate as long as the meteorological conditions experienced are close to the forecast values used to produce the plan

We call this the Trip Fuel

On its own,

If we had just the trip fuel on board at the moment of take-off,

the engine would stop because of fuel starvation the moment we arrived at the destination,

which is obviously not an acceptable way to operate


we need some fuel other than the minimum to just do the trip

After all,

we start using fuel before take-off

We have to consider start-up and taxi

We also need reserve fuel,

firstly in case the trip does not go as planned,

and secondly in order to taxi in and shut down

The principles which establish how much fuel should be carried on an air transport flight have been internationally agreed and are laid down in CS-OPS 1

Whilst the actual amounts vary from aircraft type to type,

because different aircraft have different fuel consumptions,

the rules by which the minima for each flight are calculated are universal

This is known as EASA Fuel Policy

Realistic Trip Fuel Whatever the commercial pressures to carry minimum fuel,

there is no point in coming up with an unrealistically low figure for trip fuel

It has to be based on what you actually expect to happen

This means taking into account,

rather than a straight line route from departure to destination

If the departure airport insists on Standard Instrument Departures (SIDs) or the destination airport insists on Standard Instrument Arrivals (STARs),

then the SIDs and STARs may add tens of miles of track distance to the en route portion of the trip

These should be included in calculating the trip fuel

In particular,

the following points should be noted: The operator shall ensure that the planning of flights is based only upon: • P  rocedures and data derived from the Operations Manual or current aeroplane specific data

• The conditions under which the flight is to be conducted,

Realistic fuel flows expressed as kg/h,

The aircraft’s anticipated weights (masses) Expected meteorological conditions

and Air Traffic Service procedures and restrictions

Departure Airfield

NB: Taxi fuel NOT included in Total Endurance calculations Contingency can be assumed to be unused

+ Contingency (5% of Trip Fuel or 5 minutes of destination fuel flow at 1500 ft whichever is the greater)


Destination Airfield


Alternate Airfield


Fuel Policy and Fuel Monitoring



Fuel Policy and Fuel Monitoring EASA Fuel Policy

Fuel Policy and Fuel Monitoring

Under EASA fuel policy,

fuel is considered under the following breakdown: Taxi Trip Contingency Reserves which are further broken down into:

Alternate Final Reserve Additional

Taxi Fuel The amount required to start up,

and hold (if necessary) before take-off

It will also include any fuel required to operate pre-flight services,

and may include use of the APU

In the Boeing 737,

This is over a quarter of a tonne of fuel before take-off

Trip Fuel This should include fuel: • F or the take-off from the airfield elevation,

the departure procedure (SID) and thence to the top of climb (TOC) at the initial cruising level/altitude

• From the TOC to top of descent (TOD),

including any step climbs or descents

• F rom TOD to the point where the approach is initiated

account is taken of expected arrival procedures (STARs)

Reserve Fuel Reserve Fuel is further subdivided into: • • • •

Contingency Fuel Alternate Fuel Final Reserve Additional Fuel

Each of these will be dealt with separately shortly

Extra Fuel Extra Fuel is any fuel above the minima required by Taxi,

Trip and Reserve Fuel

It can simply be because more has been uplifted than is required for the trip,

so the surplus is defined as Extra Fuel or,

even when all the minima required by EASA fuel policy are carried,

the aircraft commander decides that more is needed because of particular circumstances

Fuel Policy and Fuel Monitoring Reserve Fuel

Contingency Fuel

Fuel Policy and Fuel Monitoring

An operator must ensure that every flight carries sufficient fuel for the planned operation,

and reserves to cover any replanning necessary for in-flight contingencies

A contingency is a chance occurrence or unforeseen event

Contingency Fuel is carried to compensate for deviations: • Of an individual aircraft from the expected fuel consumption data • From the forecast meteorological conditions • From the planned routing and/or cruising levels/altitudes

Alternate Fuel Alternate Fuel is simply the fuel required to fly from missed approach at the destination to the planned alternate

It should take into account probable routing and expected wind component,

but it does not have its own allowance of contingency fuel

Contingency allowance is applied only to the trip fuel

Final Reserve Fuel If you fly from departure to destination,

use the contingency fuel en route,

and then have a missed approach at the destination and fly to the alternate,

you will have no fuel left on arrival

We therefore have a minimum landing fuel,

and you should normally never land with less than the Final Reserve Fuel

It consists of 30 min (jet/turboprop) at 1500’ above AAL in ISA conditions,

or 45 min (piston engine aircraft) fuel consumption at endurance speed

Additional Fuel Contingency,

Alternate and Final Reserve fuel cover most cases,

and provided that suitable diversions are available en route and near the destination,

this is all that is required for Reserve Fuel

There are two cases,

where Additional Fuel may be needed:

No Alternate This is also known as the “Island Holding” situation

If there is no alternate available at some isolated aerodrome,

then you need to be able to cope with the aircraft landing two minutes ahead of you bursting a tyre on the runway,

or possibly a short duration tropical squall going through

No En Route Alternate and Inability to Hold Height If you are a long way from an alternate and you suffer some malfunction which requires you to reduce to a lower altitude (engine failure or pressurization failure or both),

you may have to fly a long portion of the flight at a higher fuel consumption than planned

In this case you may need Additional Fuel

EU-OPS policy states minimum Additional Fuel should be sufficient to permit: a

I f an engine fails or the pressurization is lost at the most critical point,

the aircraft to descend as necessary and proceed to an adequate alternate aerodrome and hold at 1500 ft for 15 minutes above the aerodrome elevation in ISA conditions except that this additional fuel is not required if adequate basic trip,

alternate and final reserve is sufficient to complete the above profile and

Fuel Policy and Fuel Monitoring

H  olding for 15 minutes at 1500 ft above the destination aerodrome in ISA conditions when a flight is operated without a destination alternate aerodrome Fuel Policy and Fuel Monitoring

On most flights Additional Fuel is not required but in either of the above cases,

Calculation of Contingency Fuel Numerical calculation of taxi,

alternate and final reserve fuels is fairly straightforward

Taxi fuel is usually a standard allowance

Trip fuel and alternate fuel are extracted from graphs or tables from the appropriate Operational Flight Manual

We will practise this process in Chapters 3,

4 and 5

Final reserve fuel is a simple calculation based on 30 (jet/turboprop) or 45 (piston) minutes hold at endurance speed


contingency fuel can vary depending on the type of operation

Contingency Fuel is the higher of A and B below: A As agreed with the appropriate national aviation authority: • 5  % of the planned trip fuel,

in the event of in-flight replanning,

No en route alternative is needed in this case

• If the operator has a fuel monitoring programme and agrees a particular method of statistical analysis which includes standard deviations (the details need not concern us for the purposes of the ATPL),

this can be reduced yet further by agreement with the authority

B An amount to fly for 5 minutes at holding speed at 1500 ft (450 m) above the destination aerodrome in standard conditions

For the most part the contingency Fuel will be based on 5% of trip fuel but be aware of the alternate B because questions do occur when holding for 5 minutes at 1500 ft will be a HIGHER figure

Fuel Policy and Fuel Monitoring Fuel Policy

Example 1

Fuel Policy and Fuel Monitoring

Jet aircraft

Taxi fuel is 60 kg

Cruise fuel flow is 5000 kg/h

Hold fuel flow is 3000 kg/h

Flight time is 2 h 30 min

Contingency is 5% of trip fuel

Alternate fuel is 900 kg

What is the required ramp fuel

Total ramp fuel

Example 2 Jet aircraft

Taxi fuel is 100 kg

Trip fuel is 5325 kg

Hold fuel is 6000 kg/h

Alternate fuel is 4380 kg

Contingency is the higher of 5% trip fuel or 5 minutes of holding at 1500 ft

What is minimum required take-off fuel

Example 3 Piston aircraft

Taxi fuel 20 lb

Cruise fuel flow 150 lb/h

Hold fuel flow 60 lb/h

Flight time 1 hour 20 min

Alternate fuel 40 lb

Assuming minimum fuel uplift,

normal en route diversions available and that contingency fuel is not used en route,

what will be your fuel on arrival at the alternate

Fuel Policy and Fuel Monitoring Example 4

Fuel Policy and Fuel Monitoring

Piston aircraft

Taxi fuel 20 lb

Cruise fuel flow 150 lb/h

Hold fuel flow 60 lb/h

Flight time 1 hour 20 min

Alternate fuel 40 lb

Assuming minimum fuel uplift,

normal en route diversions available and that contingency fuel is not used en route,

what will be your fuel on arrival at the destination after a 20 minute hold

Fuel Policy and Fuel Monitoring Fuel Monitoring

Having planned the expected fuel consumption,

we now have to ensure that the aircraft is performing closely to the plan,

and take appropriate action if it does not

Fuel Policy and Fuel Monitoring

A commander must ensure that fuel checks are carried out in flight at regular intervals

The fuel remaining must be recorded and evaluated to: • Compare actual consumption with planned consumption • Check that the remaining fuel is sufficient to complete the flight • Determine the expected fuel remaining on arrival at the destination The relevant fuel data must be recorded

as a result of an in-flight fuel check,

the expected fuel remaining on arrival at the destination is less than the required alternate fuel plus final reserve fuel,

the commander must take into account the traffic and the operational conditions prevailing at the destination airfield,

along the diversion route to an alternate aerodrome and at the destination alternate aerodrome,

when deciding to proceed to the destination aerodrome or to divert,

so as to land with not less than final reserve fuel

Modern major carriers use computer flight planning

Either they install their own dedicated ground flight planning computer,

such as BA’s CIRRUS system or Lufthansa’s LIDO system,

or they subscribe to a commercially available system such as JETPLAN

The computer output is usually in the form of large sheets of fanfold paper and a typical print-out is shown on the next page

Line 18 in this example is a list of the titles of each column and the last entry is “REM”

This means “Fuel Remaining”

Look down the columns and you will see that for each waypoint (KONAN,

etc) there is a REM value (0045,

This is the minimum fuel that should remain (in hundreds of kilogrammes) overhead the waypoint (i

4500 kg,

4300 kg,

3800 kg,

All that the pilot has to do is check as he passes over each waypoint that the fuel remaining is not less than the flight plan fuel and he then knows that he has sufficient to complete the trip and arrive with appropriate reserves

Fuel Policy and Fuel Monitoring

Fuel Policy and Fuel Monitoring

Line 1 PLAN 6340 EGKK TO EDDF 757B M80/F 09/30/92 2 NONSTOP COMPUTED 1145Z FOR ETD 1830Z PROGS 30000Z KGS 3 FUEL TIME DIST ARRIVE TAKEOFF LAND AVPLD OPNLWT 4 POA EDDF 003091 00/55 0362 1925Z 077390 074299 012500 058638 5 ALT EDDL 001485 00/24 0101 1949Z COMP M015 6 HLD 001521 00/30 7 CON 000155 00/03 8 REQ 006252 01/52 9 XTR 000000 00/00 10 TOT 006252 01/52 11 EGKK DVR6M DVR UG1 NTM NTM1A EDDF 12 WIND P029 MXSH 5/KOK TEMPO P01 NAM 0337 13 FL 370 14 LRC FL370 003091 00/56 15 LRC FL330 003180 00/57 16 LRC FL410 003111 00/55 17 EGKK ELEV 00202FT 18 AWY WPT MTR DFT ZD ZT ETA ATA CT WIND COMP GRS DSTR REM 19 MSA FRQ 20 DVR6M DVR 092

068 0/11

030 0/06

081 0/16

Fuel Policy and Fuel Monitoring

For longer flights,

it is also necessary to keep a track on the fuel consumption trend

We may have adequate reserves at the start of a trip but if the fuel consumption rate is higher than forecast we may go below the minimum requirement at a later stage of the flight

We need to have adequate early warning of the fuel flow as well as the total quantity

Fuel Policy and Fuel Monitoring

On sophisticated modern aircraft this is accomplished by use of the Flight Management System

The fuel contents and the fuel flow-meter readings are passed directly into the Flight Management Computer (FMC)

The FMC also knows the route distance to go,

the current ground speed and the anticipated descent profile

From this it can work out the expected fuel on arrival

This is available for the pilots to check at any time

This expected arrival fuel is also compared with the sum of the alternate fuel and the final reserve fuel

If it goes below this sum,

a warning to the pilots is displayed on the Control and Display Unit (CDU)

For aircraft without an FMS,

the ‘Howgozit’ fuel graph is the usual method

A graph is drawn with ‘Fuel Remaining’ as the ‘y’ axis and ‘Distance to Go’ as the ‘x’ axis

See the example at Figure 2

Note: Questions on the ‘Howgozit’ are not set in the EASA exam

This is simply to help your understanding of fuel monitoring

In this example,

we are assuming that we have a flight of 1000 nautical ground miles

We have to land with 1000 kg (our final reserve fuel) and the fuel required to fly to the alternate is 700 kg

Therefore our minimum on arrival at the destination is 1700 kg

note that the slope changes shortly after the start

This is because aircraft usually climb at a slower speed than cruise,

but the engines are at or near max continuous power in the climb but at cruise power when level)

We are expecting to use 5000 kg en route,

Our contingency will be 5% of the remaining trip fuel,

so this will be 250 kg at the start of the trip,

Our minimum take-off fuel is therefore 6950 kg

although we must have our contingency fuel on board,

After all,

the trip fuel is supposed to be based on a realistic figure

Therefore the contingency is only to cover unforeseen fuel consumption deviations,

incorrect met forecasts and unexpected ATC re-routing

On the majority of trips,

In these cases,

the fuel will track down the ‘probable fuel consumption’ line and we will arrive with the contingency fuel unused

During the flight we take fuel checks every half hour (or other interval,

as specified in the company’s Flight Operations Manual)

From these we build up the history of the fuel consumption and establish a trend

Extrapolating the slope will indicate to us the expected arrival fuel if the trend continues

In Figure 2

we are going to arrive with sufficient fuel

In Figure 2

In this case,

appropriate action would have to be considered,

such as returning to the departure airfield or diverting to a suitable en route airfield to up-lift fuel

Fuel Policy and Fuel Monitoring

Figure 2

Fuel Policy and Fuel Monitoring

Insufficient Fuel

Figure 2

A check of the aircraft’s fuel system may be required if it was thought that the excess consumption was caused by a fuel leak or a fuel-gauge fault

An error in computation at flight planning or in the actual fuel amount up-lifted at departure may have been the cause of the short- fall

Aircraft have run short of fuel

Very strong un-forecast headwinds have been encountered

Pounds to kilograms,

have been erroneously converted and specific gravities applied incorrectly

Special Cases 1 – Decision Point Procedure There is a special case when we may get airborne without sufficient contingency fuel for the planned trip to the destination

This is called decision point procedure

Decision Point Procedure

A flight from Oxford to Faro,

There are alternates near Faro

The total of the final reserve fuel and the alternate fuel is 3000 kg

The trip fuel is exactly 10 000 kg

There is a suitable en route diversion at Lisbon,

This means that we need 13 300 kg at take-off


the maximum capacity of our fuel tanks means that we can get in only 13 150 kg at take-off

This is 150 kg short of the minimum requirement

Does this mean that we cannot do this flight

if there is a suitable en route alternate

We define the top of descent for going into Lisbon,

We have plenty of fuel to proceed to Lisbon,

At this Decision Point,

Unless unforeseen circumstances have arisen,

we will probably not have used the contingency fuel and so will still have 150 kg above the expected consumption line for Faro

Fuel Policy and Fuel Monitoring

Fuel Policy and Fuel Monitoring

The requirement for contingency fuel is 3% above the trip fuel required for the remainder of the flight,

At this stage of the trip,

the required contingency fuel is only 55 kg

If the fuel remaining includes this 55 kg contingency fuel plus the remainder of the trip fuel for Faro (along with the usual alternate fuel and final reserve fuel),

If the fuel remaining comes to less than this figure,

Figure 2

Fuel Policy and Fuel Monitoring

Figure 2

Decision Point Procedure should not be attempted unless the departure fuel is sufficient to guarantee a reasonable expectation of there being enough fuel remaining at the Decision Point to permit continuation to the scheduled destination

The success of a Decision Point Procedure will depend on whether unforeseen events,

such as not being cleared to the optimum cruise level or avoidance of weather,

have caused the contingency fuel allowance to be used

The normal non-consumption of contingency fuel,

which can be a considerable amount (usually 3% at least of the fuel between departure and Decision Point),

permits Decision Point Procedure to be feasible and safe

Departure Airport

Decision Point

Destination Airport

En route Alternate

Destination Alternate

Figure 2

Comparing the Decision Point Procedure fuel requirement with the normal fuel requirements,

the maximum fuel reduction available is the contingency fuel (3% or 5% of trip fuel) between Departure and Decision Point


we can say that contingency fuel can be reduced down to that required between Decision Point and Destination

Fuel Policy and Fuel Monitoring Special Cases 2 – Isolated Aerodrome Procedure

Fuel Policy and Fuel Monitoring

An ‘Isolated’ aerodrome is defined as an aerodrome for which there is no Destination Alternate

An island in an ocean is a good example,

Easter Island in the South Pacific

In this case the aircraft might have to hold for longer than usual (e

in the case of a blocked runway or a tropical storm passing through) with no option of diverting

Reserves normally consist of contingency fuel,

alternate fuel and final reserve fuel

In the case of an Isolated aerodrome there is no alternate,


for a jet or turboprop aircraft,

the combination of final reserve fuel and additional fuel must comprise enough fuel to fly for two hours at normal cruise consumption after arriving at the destination aerodrome

CS-OPS 1 specifies that the fuel must incl