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CABLE STAY BRIDGE DESIGN

UNIQUE cable-stay system creates landmark bridge

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k in India is one of the most widespread activities,

involving a range of people from the small builder

Description

A PROJECT REPORT

PARAMETRIC STUDY OF CABLE STAYED BRIDGE SUBMITTED BY

KOYANI UMANG A

In fulfilment for the award of the degree Of

MASTERS OF STURUCTURAL ENGINEERING IN CIVIL ENGINEERING

2015-2016

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING DARSHAN INSTITUTE OF ENGGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY,RAJKOT

GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY- AHMEDABAD

CERTIFICATE This is to certify that preliminary draft report entitled Submitted by

“PARAMETRIC STUDY OF CABLE STAYED BRIDGE” 1

KOYANI UMANG A

In partial fulfilment for the award of the Master Degree in Structural engineering of the Gujarat Technological University-Ahmedabad is a record of their own work carried out under our supervision and guidance

Co Guide:

Head of Department:

KORADIA

BARASARA

Civil Engineering Dept

Civil Engg

DIET-RAJKOT

Darshan Institute of Engg

DIET-RAJKOT

(Principal) Darshan institute of Engineering and Technology

Seal Of Institute

EXAMINER’S CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL This is to certify that draft report entitled submitted by

“PARAMETRIC STUDY OF CABLE STAYED BRIDGE ”

KOYANI UMANG A

In partial fulfilment for the award of the Master Degree in “Structural Engineering” of the Gujarat Technological University- Ahmedabad is hereby approved

Examiners: 1

____________________________________ 2

____________________________________ 3

____________________________________

2015-2016

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING DARSHAN INSTITUTE OF ENGGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY RAJKOT-MORBI HIGHWAY,

RAJKOT,

GUJARAT

PREFACE It gives us great pleasure in placing this teamwork report,

in the hands of our esteemed faculties

it will go through the documentation of the study work done by our team

The objective of this report is to provide both a conceptual understanding of the system as well as working guide

As the students of ME (Structure) when we acquire all the theoretical knowledge,

it is both necessary and advisable to acquaint the students with the real situation through,

well-planned study in relevant fields

Using all the theoretical knowledge and applying into the real application the student learns to develop efficient real world application at the time of project training

the project training is very important for the student for self-development and self-confident

Also student learns organizational structure,

rules and regulations and management in a real sense,

which helps student to get discipline in life

Aimed for providing the reader with easier and in-depth knowledge of all the basic as well as important aspects related to the systems having the functionality's of their respective fields in form of report

The report contains the literature of almost all the things,

which we have gone through from the point of view of any system development life cycle

I did a project on “PARAMETRIC STUDY OF CABLE STAYED BRIDGE” for optimization of cable cross section of BANDRA WORLI SEA LINK MUMBAI

An effort has been made to exhaustively deal with every part of designing and analysis cable stayed bridge and they are compared with real life problem which stand alone as tall in the Mumbai named as BANDRA WORLI SEA LINK

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

No work is possible without blessings of god,

first of all we would like to heartily thanks to god,

who gave a moment in our life to write the acknowledgement letter for our bachelor degree

Our sincere thank goes to MIDAS TEAM for their valuable guidance and supporting us during the entire project work for MIDAS CIVIL software related knowledge

We are also thankful to MIDAS TEAM for their warm cooperation and also for their support in completing the project

We would like to express our most sincere gratitude to our academic advisor Prof

KORADIA,

Lecturer Civil Engineering Department,

DIET and Prof

Barasara –Head Civil Engg

Department,

for their extremely important encouragement given to us to get our project work up to this point

We would also like to thank Civil Engineering Department-Darshan Institute of Engg

Finally and most importantly,

we record our permanent gratitude for the faith and support of the people with whom we really worked and lived –our parents and our family

Koyani Umang A

ABSTRACT Construction work in India is one of the most widespread activities,

involving a range of people from the small builder in villages and towns to large private companies,

public undertakings and various state agencies

At present civil engineering has suffered from a drastic evolvement over last decades there has been a large amount of improvement in civil works management done by many leading company by hiring structural engineers as a result there is a many structure design and analysis related software’s are also used by structure engineers,

which simplify the design problems and gives the idea about actual structure how looks and works

The construction industry requires high degree management of men & material to complete the project successfully at an optimum cost

Hence a special branch of structural engineering has been developed to accommodate the designs and analysis of structures which are adopted to improve the performance of various aspects of an engineering project and optimize the cost

Government has Expertise in providing modern infrastructure to public and also dealing with numbers of big projects to secure a good position of India in Global Developed Market in Infrastructure

The projects focus on parametric study of cable stayed bridge

Different parameters like side span,

affects on the bridge designing specially

Using the different software’s available in the market for bridge designing it is possible

We were been going to use MIDAS CIVIL software for our designing and analysis purpose

LIST OF FIGURES FIG

Bandra Worli Sea Link Connection of Deck & Pylon Bending Moments At Last Construction Stage As Per Software Technical Manual Bending moments as per MIDAS civil analysis

LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1

Acceleration In longitudinal Direction

TABLE 2 TABLE 3 TABLE 4 TABLE 5 TABLE 6 TABLE 7 TABLE 8

Tower Displacement In Lateral Direction Max

Moment In lateral Direction Loads Material property Loading Data Material data of the example model Section data of the example model

TABLE 9

Loading data of the example model

TABLE OF CONTENTS Acknowledgment

CONTENTS CHAPTER 1 1

INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………………

STUDY AREA…………………

CHAPTER 2 2

LITERATURE REVIEW………………………………………………………………………

REFFERED JOURNALS………………………………………………………………………

CHAPTER 3 OBJECTIVES OF PROJECT………………

…………………………

NEED OF STUDY…………………………………………………………………………………………

CHAPTER 4 4

WORK PLAN

DATA COLLECTION…………………………………………………………………………

TOOLS AND TACKELS……………………

…………………………………………………………

PROGRAM VALIDATION……………………………………………………………………………

CHAPTER 5 5

EXPECTED PROJECT OUTCOME

CHAPTER 6 6

FUTURE SCHEDULE

REFERENCES……………………………………………………………………

……………………………

CHAPTER

food and clothing call for civil engineering construction works and their subsequent maintenanace

Ordinarily construction activity accounts for 15% of all the jobs

The construction industry requires high degree management of men & material to complete the project successfully at an optimum cost

Hence a special branch of building construction has been developed to accommodate the techniques which are adopted to improve the performance of various aspects of an engineering project

The branch of structural engineering aims to design and analyse the structure as per the requirement of site conditions

This branch is of immense importance because if design is wrong or if any factors which will affect the structure would be not considered then it will be cost to the whole project

At present construction work in India is one of the most widespread activities,

involving a range of people from the small builder in villages and towns to large private companies ,

public undertakings and various state agencies

Now a days structure designing becomes prime requirement for that purpose many software’s are available i

MIDAS,STADD,ETAB etc

The construction industry is a major economic activity in India

Construction activities contribute annually about 10% to the Gross National Product (GDP),

Thus Playing a major Role in the development of the national economy

The need for professionalism in designing and analysis of structure assumes special significance in order to ensure that the huge resources invested in the construction industry are deployed efficiently for the benefit of society and structure operates efficiently

“A bridge is a structure built to span physical obstacles such as a body of water,

for the purpose of providing passage over the obstacle

There are many different designs that all serve unique purposes and apply to different situations

Designs of bridges vary depending on the function of the bridge,

the nature of the terrain where the bridge is constructed and anchored,

and the funds available to build it

Bridges can be categorized in several different ways

Common categories include the type of structural elements used,

whether they are fixed or movable,

 Based On Structure Type •

Beam Bridge

Truss Bridge

Cantilever Bridge

Arch Bridge

Tied Arch ridge

Suspension Bridge

Cable-Stayed Bridge

?  In city like Mumbai where trains also travels full of the people then no concern to talk about traffic problem

 In Mumbai to travel from Bandra To Worli it takes 60-90 minutes

 To reduce this travel time one of the alternative is to construct the over bridge but due to nearby two airports in the Bandra there is a no option to construct over bridge so that government carried out steps to construct the bridge through the sea to connect Bandra and Worli

 Bandra Worli Sea Link reduces the road length and hence time travel between Bandra and Worli

: 8 lanes of traffic with 2 lanes for buses

Maharashtra,

India : 5

CHAPTER

Portal Frame,

Spread Pylon & Pyramid Shapes)  The Pylon Shape Has great influence in the mitigation of SSI effects the result showed that in comparison to rotational A or H shape of pylon diamond shape of pylon is giving less response

Hence if it is used practically will be proved less economical

 The Inverted Y design of the pylon is a solution that uses the tensioning mechanism and it provides compromise between deck sizing and costly strengthening methods

in the deck using the fan system are higher than that in harp system

 So for Large-span Bridges Fan system is appears to be less suitable

((1)) International journal of civil and structural engineering Vol

Desai J

Solanki C

Abstract : Bridge is designed as per below data only the pylon shape is varied viz

A type,h type,

spread pylon and pyramid shapes

 The height of pylon is kept constant for all the shapes for comparison purpose

 3D bridge model is analyzed for SSI through soil spring provide at base by taking Bhuj 2001 time history data

 The bridge response in terms of Pylon Displacement,

Pylon Acceleration and Pylon Base moment is obtained

 Different Properties including lateral and rocking stiffness coefficients for three types of soil Hard,Medium & Soft Soil is considered

Conclusion: The analysis is carried out for Four different shapes of pylons on SAP2000 software by time history method

Table 1 Max

Acceleration in Longitudinal Direction H pylon

A Pylon

Y Pylon

Pyramid Pylon

SOFT SOIL

MEDIUM SOIL

HARD SOIL

Table 2 Tower Displacement in Lateral Direction H pylon

A Pylon

Y Pylon

Pyramid Pylon

SOFT SOIL

MEDIUM SOIL

HARD SOIL

Table 3 Max

Moment in lateral Direction H pylon

A Pylon

Y Pylon

Pyramid Pylon

SOFT SOIL

MEDIUM SOIL

HARD SOIL

 A,B,C,D is in Descending order shows  The pylon shape has great influence in mitigation of SSI effects the result showed that in comparison to rational A or H shape of Pylon Diamond shape of pylon is giving less response

Hence if it is used practically will be proved economical

((2)) Proceedings of bridge engineering 2nd conference April 2009 Aim : A critical Analysis of Bandra-worli Cable stayed bridge,

Mumbai Author : C

DAVIS Abstract :The span of main cable stayed bridge 600m ,

consisting of two 250m cable supported spans and two 50m conventional approach spans

 The shafts vary considerably in size,

depending on the bedrock “Rock encountered at the site included highly weathered,

fractured and oxidized volcanic material with RQD’s of less than 25 percent and unconfined compressive strengths of 1 MPa”

 Foundations for the towers comprised of 52 2m diameter piles arranged in a H shape to capably support the legs of the pylon,

each tower is inclined towards the other by 10°,

eventually merging at 98m above deck to become a single tower

they form a semi-fan arrangement

Cable spacing is 6

the dimensions of the deck varies throughout the length of the bridge

 The pre-cast segments vary in length from 1

5m to 3

Each section of bridge deck will be post tensioned following installation

5) LOADING

Table 4 Loads

FACTORS

Super-imposed load

45 units,

Conclusion:  The optimized execution of the inverted Y design of the pylon is a solution that is both aesthetically and technically successful

 The use of tensioning mechanisms has provided an efficient compromise between deck sizing and costly strengthening methods

((3)) Tailor Made Concrete Structures journal – Walraven & Stoelhorst (eds) Vol

Issue 2 (Apr

-June 2015) Aim : Behavior of a multiple spans cable-stayed bridge Author : S

Arnaud,

Matsunaga,

Nagano & J

Ragaru Abstract : We got the opportunity to participate in the design check of a five towers cable-stayed bridge with 300 meters spans and we examined the configuration between type of connection,

stiffness of piers and pylons,

in order to confirm the minimal structural cost

 One of the main problems of bridges with multiple cable-stayed spans is the behavior under live loads,as the deflections and bending moments in the deck are more influenced by the stiffness of the pylons and by the connection between deck and pylon than for a standard cable-stayed bridge

 The second problem is the effect of deck length variation due to temperature and concrete creep and shrinkage

 further calculations about the relationship between stiffness of deck,

 Results are presented with particular focus about the impacts of asymmetric loading and thermal expansion of the deck on this multiple spans structure

Fig 2 Connection of Deck & Pylon Conclusion :The main conclusions of this study about behavior of multiple cable-stayed spans bridges under live Loads and thermal variation are:  The connection type c'(tower and deck sliding on pier) is the more effective and economic for the studied load cases

 For the connection type c,

it is efficient to reduce the deck rigidity and to increase the pylon rigidity

 The connection type b (deck embedded in the pylon) can be more efficient,

but we shall solve the problem of the extension under long time variations

 The type a and d'structures (deck simply supported on pylon or fully suspended) are less efficient under live loads and thermal variation,

with more forces on the foundations and more force in the deck

Volume-4 Issue-4,

September 2015 Aim : Analytical Investigation of Cable Stayed Bridge Using Various Parameters Author : Parag R

Nadkarni,

Padmakar J

Salunke,

Trupti Narkhede Abstract : In this paper,

analysis of 240 m long fan type cable stayed bridge having single plane of cables is carried out with the help of software facilities

 Effects of various parameters such as stiffness of deck and pylon and number of cables on the behavior of cable stayed bridge were observed

 Number of models of cable-stayed bridge generated in software SAP-2000

 From the analysis of number of models,

The effect of parameters is studied through comparison of bending moments at following critical locations

Increase Height Of Pylon

Increasing Depth Of Box Girder Deck

Increase In Pylon Cross Sectional Properties

Increasing Number Of Cables

Moment In Pylon

DECREASES

DECREASES

INCREASE

DECREASES

Sagging Moment In Deck

DECREASES

DECREASES

Hogging Moment In Deck

INCREASE

INCREASE

Moment In Box Girder Deck

INCREASE

 From all these observations,

it is seen that stiffer sections of deck and pylon will produce more bending moments in the corresponding bending moments

 It is preferable that slender sections should be used for deck and pylon so as to achieve economical solution

Further,

use of more number of cables reduces bending moments in overall structure

PAGE 10

((5)) The IUP Journal Of Structural Engineering (Vol

VII ,No

Atul K Desai,

Sandeep A Vasanwala  Conclusion: From the analysis carried out on hybrid cable-stayed suspension bridge,

the following Observations are made: 1)With decrease in length of side span from 490m to 210m,the axial force in deck at side span is reduced to 76

90% and 95

PAGE 11

CHAPTER

DIRECT IMPACT OF PROJECT :  Savings in vehicle operating cost due to reduction in rush in the existing roads and lower vehicle operating cost on the bridge

 Considerable savings in travel time due to increased speed and reduced delays at intersections at existing roads

The sea-link reduces travel time between Bandra and Worli during peak hours from 60–90 minutes to 20–30 minutes

 Ease in driving with reduced mental tension and overall improvement in the quality of life

 Improvement in environment especially in terms of reduction in carbon monoxide,

oxides of nitrogen and reduction in noise pollution in areas of Mahim,

Prabhadevi and Worli

PAGE 12

 Considerable savings in travel time due to increased speed and reduced delays at intersections at existing roads

The sea-link reduces travel time between Bandra and Worli during peak hours from 60–90 minutes to 20–30 minutes

 Ease in driving with reduced mental tension and overall improvement in the quality of life

Pylon Tower Stay Cables Road Way Piers Foundation

PAGE 13

CHAPTER

M60 Fe500

 Loading Data : Table 6 DL LL WIND EQ

Self Weight Surface Finish Service Loads HA & HB

PAGE 14

PAGE 15

ANGLE OF CABLE STAY

CABLE SYSTEM

 The Main span bridge has 2 pylons,

Each tower is inclined towards the other by 10’,evaentually merging at 98 m above the deck to become a single tower  Beneath the superstructure of the Bridge the 4 legs merge to the to 2 points which are carried into the ground through the pile caps

CABLE ARRANGEMENTS The arrangements of the cable is 4 Planes of Semi Fan Arrangement

Cable stay system comprises high strength galvanized steel wires Each deck section has 2 planes of inclined cables which are attached to the tower in one plane

CABLE SPACING Cable spacing is 6 m along the bridge deck

DECK Deck of bridge consists of a hollow concrete box section with three cores,

the dimensions of the deck varies throughout the length of the bridge

 The Pre-cast segments vary in length from 1

5m to 3

 The shafts vary considerably in size,

depending on the bedrock “rock encountered at site includes Highly Weathered,

Fractured and Oxidized Volcanic Material

 Foundations for the towers comprised of 52 nos

Known as the balanced cantilever Method

 The span by span method was used for the construction of the approach sections of the bridge

 It features a distinctively user friendly interface and optimal design solution functions that can account for construction stages and time dependent properties

 Its highly developed modeling and analysis functions enable engineers to overcome common challenges and inefficiencies of finite element analysis

you will be able to create high quality Bridge designs with unprecedented levels of efficiency and accuracy

PAGE 17

PAGE 18

Stay Cables

BRIDGE MODEL

we will find pretension loads for each construction stage by using the Unknown Load Factors feature,

reflecting Forward Construction Stage Analysis

Configuration at the final stage of an asymmetrical cable-stayed bridge Table 7

Material data of the example model Classification

Modulus of Elasticity

Poisson’s Ratio

0000e+006

0000e+006

5750e+007

Table 8

Section data of the example model Classification

Cross-sectional Area

Moment of Inertia

PAGE 19 P

Table 9

Loading data of the example model Classification

Load Type

Load Value

Dead load

Self weight

Cable pretension load

Pretension Loads

Derick Crane

Nodal Loads

80 tonf

Segment

Nodal loads

Gravity load: A x ϒx L

Superimposed (2nd) dead load

Element Beam Loads

1 tonf/m

Support movement

Specified displacement

PAGE 20

PAGE 21

CHAPTER

 We will Try to find variation in (A) Tensile Force in Cables,

& Axial Force in pylon (C) Variation of stresses in deck element By varying below parameter : 1) Pylon type 2) Cable system 3) Cable angle & 4) Ratio of side span to main span  Same will be represented in graphical form

PAGE 22

CHAPTER

Fan Type Cable system

1 2 3 4 5

Generation of Deck Generation of Pylon Generation of Cable Profile Generation of Load & Load Combination Analysis

1st week

Harp Type Cable system

1 2 3 4 5

Generation of Deck Generation of Pylon Generation of Cable Profile Generation of Load & Load Combination Analysis

3rd week

Fan Type Cable system

1 2 3 4 5

Generation of Deck Generation of Pylon Generation of Cable Profile Generation of Load & Load Combination Analysis

1 2 3 4 5

Generation of Deck Generation of Pylon Generation of Cable Profile Generation of Load & Load Combination Analysis

3rd week

Fan Type Cable system

1 2 3 4 5

Generation of Deck Generation of Pylon Generation of Cable Profile Generation of Load & Load Combination Analysis

2nd week

Harp Type Cable system

1 2 3 4 5

Generation of Deck Generation of Pylon Generation of Cable Profile Generation of Load & Load Combination Analysis

1st week

Harp Type Cable system

ANALYSIS OF RESULTS

May 2nd week to May 4th week

 Modelling and design the Cable stayed Bridge and find out the suitable combination is best for the conditions of Worli Sea Link

PAGE 23

REFERENCES

VII ,No

Mumbai 4) IJMER(International Journal Of Modern Engineering Research) Advanced Cable Stayed Bridge Construction Process Analysis With ANSYS 5) Journal Of Engineerig Sciences,Assuit University,Vol

PAGE 24