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C4 - Sieve Analysis (Aggregate Grading) for Fine and Coarse Aggregate

Aggregates - 2016 (68) PROFICIENCY TESTING PROGRAM REPORT

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eve Analysis (Aggregate Grading) for Fine and Coarse Aggregate

Description

Aggregates are natural or artificial mineral particles that act as a filler,

usually constituting about 75 per cent of the volume of the concrete

Although they are essentially inert,

aggregates have definite effects on the properties of concrete and their selection is important to the effective use of concrete

One of the physical properties of aggregate that influence the property of concrete is the grading of aggregate

The grading of aggregate defines the proportions of particles of different size in the aggregate

The grading of fine (size 5mm) aggregates are generally required to be within the limits specified in BS 882: 1992

THEORY Gradation or particle-size distribution refers to the proportions by mass of aggregate particle distributed in specified particle size ranges

It is important properties that will affect several characteristics of concrete such as mix proportioning,

Gradation of aggregates is determined from sieve analysis,

in which a representative sample of the aggregate is passed through a series of sieves,

and the weight retained in each sieve (expressed as a percentage of the sample weight) is compared with the grading limits specified

The results of a sieve analysis are often plotted on graph with sieve sizes on the horizontal axis and percentage of fine and coarse passing aggregate on the vertical axis

and gradation can be identified on a graph

Limit is usually specified for the percentage of material passing each sieve,

the limits being indicated in Figure C4-1

A plot of the upper and lower specified limits is called an envelope,

which shows them for type M fine aggregate and one designated size 20 mm of coarse aggregate

Notice that most of the fine aggregate pass through a No

but a very large percentage of the coarse aggregates are retained on a No

Aggregate size and gradation are often specified by listing sieve sizes and a range of “percent passing” for each size

The sample being tested sieved with the specified sieves and is acceptable if,

the sample’s percentage falls within the limit specified ranges

OBJECTIVES The objective of this experiment is to obtain the grading curve for both fine and coarse aggregate

APPARATUS 1

Balance – balance or scale used in testing fine and coarse aggregates shall have readability and accuracy as follow: For fine aggregate,

1g or 0

5g or 0

complying with BS 410: For fine aggregate,

600µm,

300µm,

For coarse aggregate,

Mechanical Sieve Shaker – a mechanical sieving device,

used to create vibration of the sieve to cause all particles to bounce

Oven – an oven of appropriate size capable of maintaining a uniform temperature of 105 ± 5°C

PROCEDURES Fine Aggregate 1

A representative sample was chosen by quartering (according to BS 812: Part 102: 1984) or by using a sample splitter (Fig

The sample to be tested should be the approximate weight desired when dry

For this experiment,

about 500g of fine aggregate was weighted

The samples were dried to a constant weight in the furnace at a temperature of 105 ± 5°C

The samples were cooled down

The desired sieves were nested to decrease aperture size from top to bottom

The sample was placed on the top sieve and was agitated by mechanical sieve shaker for 2 minutes for a sufficient period so that not more than 1 percent by weight of the residue on any individual sieve will pass that sieve after completion

The weight of each size increment was determined by weighing the residue contained on each sieve

This may be done in a cumulative fashion by starting with the smallest particles in the bottom pan

After this weight has been determined,

the next larger particles were added into the same pan and the cumulative weight was determined

Coarse Aggregate 1

A representative sample was choosing by quartering (according to BS 812: Part 102: 1984) or by use of a sample splitter (Fig

The sample to be tested should be the approximate weight desired when dry

For this experiment,

Procedure no 2-5 was repeated using appropriate sieve size

DATA & CALCULATION Sample Calculation: For Fine Aggregate with BS Sieve Size No

= total retained weight – cumulative retained weight = 500 – ( 5 + 31 + 73 ) = 391 g

Retained Percentage =

retained weight x 100 % total retained weight 73 x100% = 500 = 14

Passed Percentage

passed weight x 100 % total passed weight 391 x100% = 500 = 78

For Coarse Aggregate with BS Sieve Size 14

= total retained weight – cumulative retained weight = 2000 – ( 0 + 282 + 844 ) = 874 g

Retained Percentage =

retained weight x 100 % total retained weight 844 x100% = 2000 = 42

Passed Percentage

passed weight x 100 % total passed weight 874 x100% = 2000 = 43

DISCUSSION Aggregate is a rock like material of various sizes and shapes that is used in concrete mix

According to ASTM,

it can be defines as a granular material such as sand,

or iron-blast slag used with cementing medium to form mortar or concrete

Aggregates contribute 65 to 85 per cent of a concrete mix,

accounting for more than 30 per cent of the total cost

According to 3

MS 523: PART 1: 1993,

If there is no restriction to the flow of concrete into section,

For fine aggregate: From the gradation curve that plotted,

almost all the passed percentage of sample of fine aggregate falls within the specified range for type M fine aggregate except for the BS Sieve Size No

Therefore,

the fine aggregate being tested can be considered as well-graded aggregate

From the data and calculation,

the total weight of fine aggregate calculated was 493g which was less than the actual weight 500g with 7g loss

There are some factors that might affect the accuracy of the experiment: i

The sample was not dried to a constant weight in the furnace at a temperature of 105 ± 5oC

Some particles that left in sieve apparatus for previous experiment may drop into our sample during shaking

The aggregate that used is not really pure and may contain others material such as dried leave or dust

Some dust or other material that contained in aggregate had lost when the sieves were shaken and hence affect the accuracy of the experiment

For coarse aggregate: From the gradation curve we plotted,

the passed percentage of sample of 20 mm coarse aggregate falls out of the specified range

From the shape of the curve,

a line nearly horizontal line at the bottom of the graph shows that there was some small change in passed percentage through several successive sieves

Therefore,

very little material was passed through these sieves

This indicates that there was a gap in the gradation

the sample of coarse aggregate did not give a well-graded aggregate

From our analysis,

there are some factors that might affect the accuracy and quality of the experiment: i

The sample was not dried to constant weight in the furnace at a temperature of 105 ± 5oC

The sample of coarse aggregate was too coarse and errors will occur when producing concrete

COMMENTS In order to minimize the possible errors and hence improve the quality and accuracy of the experiment,

The sample has to be dried to constant weight in the furnace at a temperature of 105 ± 5oC

The sample has to be cooled down after drying

The sample must be make sure free from any other materials such as dried leave or dust

The sieves have to be taken out one by one very cautiously using strip before weighing to avoid losing aggregate weight

CONCLUSION By conducting this experiment,

the grading curve for both fine and coarse aggregate had been obtained and the aggregate that we tested can be graded

By referring to the grading curve for fine aggregate,

the grading curve was almost plotted inside the typical grading envelope

Therefore,

the fine aggregate in the experiment can be considered as well-graded aggregate

While base on the grading curve for coarse aggregate,

the properties of the coarse aggregate,

the graph plotted was out of the range of the typical grading envelope

Therefore,

the sample for coarse aggregate cannot be considered as poor-graded aggregate

The sample cannot provide a desired quality,

so it is not recommended to be used in concrete mixes

The aggregates particles should retain their strength,

and texture when used with materials such as cement

The combination of fine and course aggregates of proper or acceptable shape will have effect on the workability,

and characteristic strength to meet the quality of cement needed and economy of concrete or other products

REFERENCES 1

SAM 4062 CIVIL ENGINEERING LABORATORY II,

Faculty of Civil Engineering,

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

CIVIL ENGINEERING MATERIALS Second Edition,

Shan Somayaji,

PrenticeHall Inc,

New Jersey

CIVIL ENGINEERING MATERIALS,

Abdul Rahman Mohd Sam,

Fakulti Kejuruteraan Awam,

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia