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ll (1924-2008) was a Combat Cargo Crew Chief onboard a C-46 during WWII

This is the Curtis Wright pilot

Description

PILOT 'RAINING 'MANUAL FOR IHE

COMMANDO

paEPARED FOR "HEADQUARTERS AAF OFFICE OF ASSISTANT,

CHIEF OF AIR STAFF TRAINING ,",

HEADQUARTERS AAF,

OFFICE OF FLYING SAFETY

CONFEDERATE AIR C·46 F

INSTRUMENT ~)

Tachometer-RPM Maximum Limit Takeoff or Precautionary-Range Normal Range Manifold Pressure-in Hg

Maximum L'imi t Takeoff or Precautionary-Range Normal Range Cylinder Head Temperature-·C Maximum Limit Precautionary Range Normal Range Minimum Limit Oil Inlet Temperature-OC Maximum Limit Precautionary Range Normal Range Miniinum Limit Oil Pressure-PSI Maximum L'imi t Precautionary Range Normal Range Minimum Limit Fuel Pressure-PSI Maximum Limit Normal Range Minimum Limit Carburetor Air Temp-·C Maximum L'imi t Precautionary Range Hydraulic Pressure-PSI Maximum L'imi t Normal Range I Suction Inches Ma

imum Limit Normal Ranqe De-icer Pressure Maximum Limit Normal Range Airspeed

CONDITION

FORGE N53594 MARKING

READING

Red Radial Line Yellow Arc Green Arc

2700 2550

Red Radial Line Yellow Arc Green Arc

Red Radial Line Yellow Arc Green Arc Red Radial Line

Red Radial Line Yellow Arc Green Arc Red Radial Line

Red Radial Line Yellow Arc Green Arc Red Radial Line

Red Radial Line Green Arc Red Radial Line

Red Radial Line Yellow Arc

Red Radial Line Green Arc

Red Radial Line Green Arc

Red Radial Line Green Arc Red Radial Line Yellow Arc Green Arc Wh·ite Arc

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IITRODUCTION This book has one purpose: to help you fly the C-46-fly it safely,

and ma manner that results in a minimum of maintenance on

You learn to fly any airplane only by flying it,

However,when you use this book in connection with your actual flying of the airplane you'll find that it greatly simplifies your job of getting acquainted with the ship and its peculiarities

Further,

it gives you the information you need for getting the optimum performance out of the airplane under all conditions

Your Airplone

The Commando is a big airplane

It is the largest 2-engine transport airplane mthe world

But it is not a difficult ship to fly once you· get _the hang of it

The C-46 had a pretty rough time mthe early ,days of the war

Military necessity put it to

work in a faraway theater before all the bup were out of it,

with service facilities sketchy and spare parts almost nil

But this school of hard knocks did a lot for the Commando

Its modifications and improvements came not from the drawing board,

but from actual experience in the theater of operations

As a result,

today's C-46 is built specifically for the job it has to do if ever an airplane was

This new C-46 has proven itself in the battle of military supply lines around the world

Commandos are delivering the goods over the Hump-the roughest,

toughest 600 miles of airway in the world

In other major theaters they are giving the same sturdy,

Its huge cargo capacity,

and its dependability all add up to make the C-46 one of the best transport airplanes in the sky,

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Wben you fly a C-46

you are Dore than just a pilot-you are the commander of your air-

Under some circumstances your crew may

Or Iru1ybe just you and a copilot will have to handle t

Regardless of the size of your crew,

you have certain duties and responsibilities as airplane commander

rs1 of these is to understand your crew,

both as individuals and as members of the team flying your airplane

Your copilot is your right arm,

in a literal sense as well as a figurative one

Never forget that he is a trained rated pilot

In normal flight,

your copilot performs many necessary and important jobs for you,

such as handling the checklist,

operating controls at your command,

Under certain condItions you may have to call upon him to take over all the duties and

responsibilities of first pilot and fly you,

How well he performs those duties then will depend on how much training you have given him

Ordinarily you do not have a navigator in your crew except on long-rangt" flights

If you do have a navigator aboard,

remember that he is a specialist

He has spent long months studying his job,

Navigating is his full-time business

There are certain things you must do to help your navigator perform his work efficiently: Work out your flight plan with your navigator-the altitudes and airspeeds at which you wish to fly,

location of alternate airports,

During flight,

stick to your proposed course and airspeed as closely as possible

It is difficult for your navigator to make his computations unless you do

Notify him immt>diately of any changes you make

Call on him for position reports frequently,

and get together with him if there is any doubt about your location

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There i

E a lot of radio equipment in your airplane

The one man who is supposed to know all about all of it is your radio operator

In adilltion to knowing how to operate radio eqillpme:1L he should be familiar with all codes tbat are used,

and should be able to do in-flight maintena

"'Jce and servicing of the equipment

Like other members of your crew,

your radio operator has had extensive training in his specialty

But the more practice he has in his various duties,

the more dependable he becomes

See that he gets it

Blessed is the pilot who has a good aerial engineer: Your engineer is the one man aboard who is supposed to know more about your airplane than you do

Take a real interest in his work

You can find out a lot about your ship,

and equally important you build up his pride in his job

Talk over the condition of your airplane with the engineer before takeoff

have him accompany you on your outside and inside inspections of the ship

He's the boy who knows the answers when the nuts and bolts start pulling out

Work with him

Air Discipline

Regardless of how good a crew you have,

getting your airplane to its destination s

Without being dictatorial abou: it,

make it clear that you are the boss

Train your crew in thE" priTJciplE" that no man is to move any control L~at affects the operation of the airplane except at your command

This is important

A mad scramble in the cockpit during an emergency is disastrous

Also insist that as soon as any crew member perforrm,

any duty which affects the operation of the airplane,

For example,

when the radio operator lets out the trailing wire antenna,

it is important that he report it to you

Don't keep

Crew training

As airplane commander,

it is your responsibility to see that every man on your crew knows his duties and how to perform them

Brief them on your missions,

and how each man's job fits into getting the airplane there

Deyelop tea

In addition,

see that the crew is trained in the prop~r procedures for bailout,

and any other emergencies that may be encuuntered

Work out a bailout plan and practice it on the ~c

und until every man knows exactly what he is to do and is proficient in doing it

Conduct ditching drill in the same manner if you make over-water fl

Brief your crew on sun'ival procf'dures

See that every man understar

ds the use of the oxygen equipment on your airplane

Other Responsibilities

Always make sure that your men have parachutes,

and other equipment that they need before every flight

they're grown men and should look out for themselves

Take care of the enlisted men in your crew when you are away from your base

See that they get a place to sleep and eat before you start worrying about your own comfort

Always remember that once you leave the ground,

you are commander-in-chief of your little unit of the army

You have the authority,

and you have the responsibility and obligations

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GENERAL DESCRIPTION

The C-46 Commando is a cargo and transport airplane

Its principal use is to transpo

rt military equipment and supplies

It may also be used as a troop carrier,

Manufactured by Curtiss-Wright Corporation,

FU5eloge

The fuselage is of conventional construction,

except that the cross-section is in the shape of two intersecting circles which are divided by

the floor of the main cargo compartment

This design provides two additional compartments in the belly of the plane,

suitable for the stowage of small cargo

The total cargo capacity is 2640 cubic feet-greater than that of a standard 36-£00t freight car

Power 'lfint

The airplane has two I8-cylinder Pratt & Whitney Model R-2800-51 double-row,

air-cooled engines developing 2000 Hp each for takeoff

A 2-speed supercharger is built inte-

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grally into each engine with speed ratios of 7

60:1 and 9

Propellers

Present production models have Curtiss electric controllable 4-bladed propellers

Earlier model~ have Hamilton hycirQrnatic controllable,

Both types of propellers have constant-speed and full-feathering features

Landing Gear

The landing gear is of conventional tn)e,

consisting of two main wheels and a tailwheel

The gear retracts hydraulically

The main wheels retract into the nacelles,

the tail wheel into the fuselage

Wben retracted,

the gear is completely enclosed by fairing doors

Rearward

- moving,

slotted-type flaps are installed in each wing

These may be extended to any angle up to 35°

•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

Surface Control System

The control systems are of the direct-connE>cted cable type,

with trim tabs on all control surfaces

A hydraulic booster system provides easy h

Operating controls are conventional wheel,

Fuel System

There is a separate fuel system for each engine,

with crossfeed between the two sy£ tems

There are three fuel tanks in each wing,

with a total capacity of 1400 gallons

Provision is made for extra fuel tanks to be mounted in the fuselage for long-range flights

Oil System

Each engine has a separate and complete oil system,

with a hopper type tank holding 39

8 gallons

Hydraulic Systems There are two hydraulic systems in the plane,

the main system and the booster system

These are connected by a cross-over valve

The main system has a normal pressure of 1050 to 1350 pounds per square inch (psi),

which is maintained by two engine-driven pumps

This system operates landing gear,

wing flaps and the automatic pilot

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The auxiliary system has a working pressure of 750 to 1050 psi,

furnished by an auxiliary pump on the left engine

The auxiliary system operates the surface control boosters only

EIEtCtrical System

The airplane has a 24-volt electricaJ system with two storage batteries and two 200-ampere generators,

Heating System

Three hot-air combu

which take fuel from the main fuel system,

NormalJy one small unit heats t

he cockpit and two larger units heat the main cargo compartment

Ice Elimination Systems The follov

ing equipment provides protection against icing

and mechanical wipers for the windshleld

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A carbon dioxide (C0 2 ) fire ex1:inguishing system is installed in each nacelle and is operated from the pilot's compartment

There is a hand type fire extinguisher in the cockpit,

two in the main cargo compartment

For troop carrier use,

the airplane has collapsible bucket type seats along each side of the fuselage,

Ten additional seats can be placed h"1 the center

There are provisions for the h"1stallation of 33 hospital litters

Operational Equipment

Other Equipment

For loading and securing cargo,

the airplane has the following equipment: A 2-piece loading ramp

Ti€--dovm rings

Tracks for engine dollies

A task floor for heavy equipment

Fittings for a hydraulic winch to be used in loading heavy cargo

Fittings for carrying propellers under the fuselage of the airplane

Standard radio equipment Extra fuel and oil tanks Life raft installation Nayigator's station Oxygen equipment A utomatic pilot

Chemical toilet Signal flares Blind flying hood

C-46 DATA SHEET Weigh' (Lbs

Dimensions

Normal gross

76 feet,

4 inches

NOTE: These weights are operating limits specified 'by Air Transport Command

et Height (in 3-point position)

2' feet,

'360 square feet Landing gear tread

2S feet,

11 inches

Normal winglooding (48,000 Ibs

CAPACITY Total cargo capacity

gallons gallons gallons gallons

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Normal fuel capacity

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RESlRIClED

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CONTROL PEDESTAL

Throttles

Booster cross-over control

Propeller governor controls

Detonator buttons

Left mixture control

Elevator trim tob control

Friction adjustments 6

Left oil cooler shutter control 7

Left landing light switch

Control booster shutoff

Landing gear selector valve handle 20

Carburetor heat controls

Landing gear handle latch

Supercharger controls 23

Tailwheel lock handle 24

Propeller selector switches

Left sump pump HI·LOW sw

Fuel c:rossfeed control 10,

Left propeller feather switch

Left propeller circuit breake,

Wing flap control 13,

Parking brake

Aileron trim tab control

Rudder trim tab control 28

Right landing light switch

Carburetor filter cantrol

Right oil cooler shutter control

Glider release

Right mixture control

Emergency brake control

Cowl flap controls

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L COCKPIT

Heated suit control box

Jack box

Pilot's rudder pedal adjustment 8

Fuel tank selector

Radio filter box 4

Pitot anti-icer shutoff valves

Signal light receptacle

Heater air intake valve

Windshield wiper control valve

Ultra-violet light control

Defroster

IlES1R\C'TED

COCKPIT

R6C09"ition fight

Pltot blowout pump

Main ac:cumulator

Pitof blowout valve

PitOf heater switch ••

Copilot'

Radio filter box \0

Jock box

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Ie Ifit

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r------

L\&k,·-::'

AMf'S •

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OVERHEAD PANIFL

Sump pump controls

Generator switches

Lighting systtlm circuit breakers

Anti-ieer pump switches

Spotlight

Inve-rter and horn release

Radio compass control box

Propeller anti-icer pump rheostat

Compass CW·VOICE switch

Warning bell switch

Command transmitter cantrol box

Left engine s10rter panel

Right engine sianer panel

Sattery moster switch (optional)

Panel light

Battery selector switch

Command receiver control box

Light switches

Localizer control box

Compass and overhead light rheostats

Anti-jeer circuit breakers

Voltmeter

Fuses and spores

Ammeters

Dome Ijght

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aESTRJCTED

INSPECTIONS AND CHECKS I

It takes many thousands of man-hours to build a C-46

You can reduce it to a pile of junk in 3 seconds

That 3 seconds may conceivably be 3 seconds you "saved" by skipping some little detail in inspecting and checking your plane before takeoff

As aircraft get bigger and more complicated,

the need for thorough inspections before every flight becomes more important

Probably your plane gets such inspections,

But ground crews are human

They make mistakes,

So there's only one '",ay to be certain that your plane is in good condition and ready to fly

That's to check it yourself,

No one expects you to make a SO-hour inspection of your plane before each flight

But there are certain important things,

that you must check if you want to be sure of flying home

Your aerial engineer probably has forgotten more about the insides of your airplane than you'll ever know

Get in the habit of talking to him about your ship's condition every time you

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Have him accompany you on your inspection tour of the outside and inside of the plane,

so that he can investigate anything that looks doubtful,

fix anything that needs flXing

A thorough inspection of your plane needn't take long,

if you adopt a standardized procedure and stick to it

Start at the same place every time,

and work around in the same way

Once you have developed the habit of h systematic procedure you'll find that you can make the whole inspection in just a few minutes

Oubide Vi5

Start from the cargo door on the left side of the ai

WingtiJl and leading edge-Check for damage

Someone may have bent a wingtip in parking or taxiing your plane the night before

De-icer boots-Check general condition

Flaps-Up

Pitot covers-Removed

Propeller-Look for nicks and excessive oU

Ask engineer if props have been pulled through

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~-------

Now move in under the left nacelle: Look up through the landing gear doors

Any fluid dripping

? Any leaks in the accessory section

? Fire extinguisher seal-Red disc intact

Cowling-Buttoned down

Oleo strut-Inflated to 2lh-3lh inches

Tires-Any cuts

Cross under the ship and repeat this inspectioD on the right wing and nacelle

As you start back toward the tail,

check the lower cargo compartments

Doors and inspection panels secure

? Now for the tail section: " Control locks-Removed from rudder and elevator

De-icer boots-Check for cuts and general condition

Elevators-Check both

sections to make sure that the torque tube connecting them has not sprung and they are not out of line

Note setting of trim tabs

Tailwheel tire-Check for cuts

A semi-deHated condition is normal for this tire

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Loading-Proper loading is one of the most important things to check in all cargo airplanes

Has the cargo been checked on the load adjuster for proper balance

? Does the distribution of cargo in the plane agree with its description on Form F

? Is the cargo tied down securely so that it cannot shift on takeoff or in flight

? Checking the loading is your responsibility

You may delegate it to a reliable copilot,

but make sure it has been checked

Fuel crossfeed valve-This valve is on the left ceiling of the cabin amidship on most C-4f's,

on the pedestal on some models

See that it is OFF and safetied

Forms 1 and lA-Read carefully to check the status of the airplane if on a red diagonal

Hydraulic reservoirs-Main reservoir is near the cockpit door

Check the level on the glass gage

Remove the booster system reservoir cap and see if the fluid level reaches the bottom of the screen

See that there are spare cans of fluid aboard

Hydraulic shut-off valve-ON

Anti-icer fluid-Tank full and spare cans aboard

Emergency landing gear crank-In place under the cockpit hatch

Hand hydraulic pump handle-Stowed under the liaison transmitter

Emergency dump valve-down

Ask the engineer these final questions: 1

Fuel tank caps secure,

and fuel quantity checked visually

Grade 91 fuel in any tanks

Oil tanks serviced

All hatches secured

Passengers and parachutes aboard and safety belts in place

Load secure

Any other defects in the condition of the airplane

? Now you are ready to take your seat in the cockpit

Adjust your seat to permit full rudder control and best vision without discomfort

Check seat locking mechan:sm

Rock the seat back

and forth and sideways vigorously to make sure that it is securely locked

Adjust rudder pedals

USE Of CHECKLISTS There is a checklist in the cockpit of every C-46 airplane

AAF Regulations require that you use it on every flight

Common sense,

requires that you use this checklist

There are too many instruments and controls to check,

too many operations to perform in an airplane the size of the C-46 for you to trust your memory

And the possible consequences of omitting one single item are too dangerous to risk

How to Use

Use the checklist in the followil'lg manner: The copilot holds the checklist in his hand and reads out the question porti

The pilot (or copilot,

on items he checks) checks or operates the instrument or control and calls out its status

For example: Copilot: "Trim tabs

!" You probably will have most of the checklist memorized after using it a few times

But you alway~ run the risk of omitting some important check or operation wben you trust your memory entirely and don't use the printed checklist

Directional Type Checklist

The before-starting checklist is a directional type one

In using it you follow a definite path around the cockpit: 1

From bottom to top of pedestal

From rear to front of pilot's windowsill

From left to right across the instrument panel

From front to rear of copilot's windowsill

From front to rear of overhead panel

This checklist eliminates hopping around and makes checking quicker and easier

It also reduces the possibility of skipping items

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C-46 CHECKLIST BEFORE STARTING ENGINES Start from the bottom of the pedestal: Cross-over valve-Down Emergency brake valve-Down Glider release-Down Carburetor filter doors-Down

Wing flaps-UP Tailwheel-LOCKED

Parking brake-ON Superchargers-LOW blower Carburetor heat-COLD Landing gear handle-DOWN and latched

Aileron tabs ) Rudder tabs {Free and neutral Elevator tabs ,

Control booster shut-off-ON

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Prop selector sv

itches-AUTO Circuit breakers-In Feather sv

TIICTED Oil cooler shutters-CLOSED Mixture controls-IDLE CUT-OFF Prop governors-Full forward (high rpm) Throttles-Cracked (~ open) Cowl fiaps-

Now on the pilot's windowsill: Pitot anti-icer valves-OFF

Nose valve-As desired Fuel selector valves-Tanks desired On the instrument panel:

Airspeed selector valve-AiRSPEED TUBE Autopilot bleed-NORMAL Autopilot shut-ofI-OFF

On the copilot's windowsill: (To be checked by copilot) Pitot blowout valves-INSTRUMENTS Accumulator shut-ofi valve-Down

Pitot heat s-

Putt-putt-Off

BEFORE TAXIING Flight engineer's report-Crew aboard,

Hydraulic pressures: Booster system-750-1050 psi Main system-l050-1350 psi Radios-ON Altimeter-Set Clock-Set Gyros-Set Flight controls-Free Chocks-Removed Pennission from tower to move

Parking brake-OFF Tailwheel-UNLOCKED "All Clear" from alert crew

ENGINE RUN-UP On the overhead panel: Light switches-OFF Anti-icer switches-OFF Radios-OFF Circuit breakers-OFF Heaters-OFF

Parking brake-ON Tailwheel-LOCKED (1£ straight) Fuel booster pu

"Ilps-OFF Oil cooler shutters-As desired Mixtures-AUTO RICH Cowl fiaps-OPEN Fuel selector valves-Takeoff tanks

STARTING ENGINES

Start putt-putt } (Unless battery cart is Battery switches-ON used) Master and ignition switches-ON Inverter-ON (Check spare) Generators-ON Gas gages-Check quantity Booster (or sump) pumps-ON Fire guard posted Call "Clear" to ground crew

Check: Engine gages for proper readings Superchargers,

then return to LOW Carburetor heat,

then return to COLD Generators Manual prop controls Prop governors Magnetos Pitot heaters Suction gage

Energize starter 15 to 18 second'i,

BEFORE TAKEOFF

AFTER ENGINES ARE RUNNING Booster pumps-OFF Battery switches-ON (Battery cart out)

Prop selector switches-AUTO Circuit breakers-In Booster pumps-ON Trim tabs-Neutral Control boost-ON

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Mixtures-AUTO RICH Prop controls-Full forward (high rpm) Cowl flaps-Trail Fuel selector valves-Takeoff tanks Gyro instruments-Set and uncaged Engine instruments-Normal readings When lined up: Friction locks-Tightened Tailwheel-LOCKED Flight controls-Free

Wing de-icers-OFF Heaters-OFF Brake pressure-1050 to 1350 psi

AFTER LANDING Flaps-UP Cowl flaps-OPEN Props-Full forward (high rpm) Booster pumps-OFF Trim tabs

AFTER TAKEOFF Gear-UP Brakes-ON 'Power reductions: Intermediate-41" Hg

and 2300 rpm Airspeed 120 to 140 mph Booster pumps-OFF (at safe altitude)

SlOPPING ENGINES Clear blower clutches Mixtures-IDLE CUT-OFF Throttles-Full OPEN All switches-OFF Wheel chocks in place Brakes-OFF (if hot) Fuel selector valves-OFF

CRUISING Power-Reduced to cruise setting Mixtures-A UTO LEAN} When cylinder-head Cowl flaps-CLOSED temperatures are below 200°C

Tanks-Use front tanks for 30 minutes

'BEFORE LANDING Prop governors-2300 rpm Slow plane to 150 mph Gear-DOWN Mixtures-AUTO RICH Fuel selector valves-Proper tanks Booster pumps-ON Gear checked down: Visually Light-Green (or Selsyn-DOWN) Copilot checks: Parking brake-OFF Superchargers-LOW Carburetor heat-COLD Tailwheel-LOCKED Propeller switches-AUTO Circuit breakers-In Autopilot-OFF RESTRICTED

BEFORE LEAVING AIRPLANE Tailwheel-LOCKED Control locks installed Wmdows and hatches closed Forms 1 & 1A completed

BI:FORE RE-TAKEOFF Parking brake-ON Flaps-UP Prop switches-AUTO Circuit breakers-In Trim tabs-Neutral Props-Full forward (high rpm) Mixtures-AUTO RICH • Fuel selector valves-Takeoff tanks Run up engines and check: Magnetos Prop controls Generators Booster pumps-ON Cowl flaps-Trail Friction locks-Tightened Tailwheel-LOCKED Flight controls-Free 25

'" STARTING ENGINES Before cranking 'eT up,

perform your beforestarting check

This check covers almost every control and instrwnent in th€' cockpit

It must be complete and detailed,

because you have no other way of knowing in what position some pilot left the various controls after the previous

Following the before-starting checklist protects you from the results of someone else's carelessness

Auxiliary Power for Starting

Always use auxiliary power for starting the engines

Using the plane's batteries drains them excessively and can cause loss of propeller governor control for takeoff

Use the auxiliary power unit (the putt-putt)

Note: 1£ battery cart is used,

Procedure for Starting

Make sure the fire guard is poste-d before starting the engines

Master and ignition switches-ON

Battery switches-ON (unless battery cart is used)

Generators-ON

Inverter-ON (check spare)

Gas gages-FULL

Booster pumps ON

On late-model planes there are no standard booster pumps

Turn on the sump pump switches on the overhead panel,

position switch to deliver 17 psi pressure

Call "Clear" to ground crew

Energize the starter for 15 to 20 seconds

Engage starter,

Do not overprime

or if outside temperature is over 60°F,

priming is usually nct necessary

release the switches and allow the starter to cool for 2 minutes,

Overheating may burn out the starter

As soon as the engine starts,

place mixture control in AUTO RICH

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return immediately toIDLE CUT-OFF and resume engaging

Idle at 800 to 1000 rpm

Watch the oil pressure gage

H pressure does not register within 30 seconds,

shut off the engine and investigate

After engines are running: 1

Booster pumps-OFF

Battery switches-ON (battery cart out)

Putt-putt (if used)

When Engine Won't Start

If the engme does not start readily,

move the mixture control from IDLE CUT-OFF to AUTO RICH for not longer than 3 seconds and then return

This forces raw gas into the blower,

where it is vaporized by rotation of the impeller and serves as additional prime

Caution: Do not leave in A'lITO RICH longer than 3 seconds or you flood the blower section and overprime the cylinders

When Engine Is Flooded To clear out Q flooded engine,

with mixture control in IDLE CUTOFF,

and continue turning over the engine with the starter

TAXIING Nothing can make a pilot feel so foolish and look so ridiculous as banging up a big,

expensive airplane in a taxiing accident

There is only one reason for taxi accidents: carelessness

Yet the figures show that taxiing accidents and mishaps represent a large proportion of the cost of repairs and maintenance on our aircraft

So learn the right way to taxi

taxiing technique for the C-46 differs little from that of other large multi-engine aircraft you have been handling

This plane is big and it's heavybigger than some 4-engine ships

Respect its size,

and you'll have a minimum of trouble handling it on the ground

Controls for Taxiing Like most other heavy airt:raft,

·the C-46 gives little or no response tb rudder or aileron action in taxiing

The principal controls are: engines,

Use throttles for directional control whenever possible

Rov-rever,

anyone who tries to use only power and no brakes on a C-46 under all conditions is headed for trouble

In case of engine fire during starting:

Place mixture control in IDLE CUT-OFF

Open throttle wide and keep engine turning

The fire may be sucked through the engine and extinguished

If fire persists: 1

Pull the handle of the built-in CO: extinguisher system for that engine

Turn booster pump OFF

Turn fuel selector valve OFF

Push throttle wide open

Do not attempt to re-start an engine after using the nacelle fire extinguisher

Another fire may start and you have no way of putting it out

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Use of Brakes

Never start a turn from a parked or stopped position

Let the airplane roll a few feet forward first

Pivoting on one wheel wears out the tire an,d puts a severe strain on the entire land

For the same reason,

don't make your turns too short

Make slow,

easy turns with both wheelS moving throughout the turn

Start turns by leading with one throttle well befole you reach the turning point

Remember,

it takes time for the engine to bring the ship into the tum

In the same m8nner,

anticipate with the other throttle well before the turn is completed so that you can straighten out with a minimum use of brakes

Use your brakes when neces

Guard against leap-frogging your throttles

Return the inside throttle to the closed position so that you can make the turn with the least power possible

Do not ram throttles forward suddenly

Large engines are not built to take sudden applications of power

Keep yO'LU' feet on the rudder pedals with tOes in position to apply brakes

If desired,

have your copilot keep his feet on the bottom of the pedals to hold the rudder neutral

To slow or stop the airplane,

apply pressure on each brake gently,

to feel out the braking action

Never slam on the brakes on a C-46

airplane usually swerves to one side or the

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md in the case of turns usually results in loss of altitude

It is safe to make turns into the dead engine as long as you keep airspeed reasonably above the stalling speed for the degree of bank

You can't keep a chart of stalling spee-ds handy,

so just remember to stay above 125 mph in a normally loaded airplane and don't exceed a

30° bank

• H you must make a hank of more than 30° t don't turn into the dead en

With hec'llY lood,

'urns into good engine ere best

Climbing

There is no "best" airspeed for climbing with one engine

Desirable airspeed is that which gives good performance without using dangerously excessive power

s airspeed varies with different loads and flight conditions

If you are climbing above 130 mph LJ\S,

use lower cowl flap settings as long as cylinder-head temperatures stay withi

This reduces drag

Cruising /

Trim the ship for straight a

Use your power chart to get best performance

In general,

use the least power you can to maintain prop~r airspeed

RESTRICiED

Hold 125 mph ond don't exceed 300 bank wilen turning into d~d engi"

Londing

Because of the weight of thiS airplane it is imperative that you keep adequate airspeed with sufficient power until you are absolutely sure of reaching the field

Recovery from undershooting is precarious

RESTRICTED Establish your base leg as w a normal approach

Drop the landing gear on the base leg if you

!-:ave su

'TIcient speed and altitude and are sure that you can get into the field with gear clc

Otherwise,

Jet your gear do-wn after you have turr

The Joss of the hydraulic pump on the dead engine does not greatly delay gear exteI'

Have the el'lgineer check gear down with hand crank

nen you are close to the field,

Keep part in reserve

Maintain plenty of airspeed

This allows a power-off landing with time to re-trim rudder,

or perrruts going around if necessary

Cut power and perform a

The airpla

Crosswind landings

choose a runway where the wind is blO'1wing from the side of your good engh"le

In this way you can use power to offset the tendency of the ship to weather into the wind

Go-around-If necessary to go around,

mamtam airspeed at all times above 120

Milk up flaps at any speed over 120,

and re-trim for change of attitude

Don't spare the horses

Do not make the rni

at night flying is no different from day flying

It is difierent

The night flying accident rate alone is adequate proof of this

Unless you can see a clearly defined horizon at night,

or unless lights are properly grouped on the ground to provide an uI'

night flying is instrument' flying

Be sure to check your flight instruments before

Preparation for Night Flights Before starting on night flights,

~ts that are likely to extend after dark,

Pay particular attention to your landing,

Keep off any non-essential lights in the cock~

pit and keep essential lights dimmed

and engineer must each have a flashlight and spares should be available

Flashlights are necessary in emergencies: and in the C-46 they are required to check on the position of controls and readings of gages which are not illu:rninated

It is particularly important' at night that your copilot wait for orders from you before changing any control

You can't see the changed settings

S1:ress this

Night Taxiing

Taxiing the C-46 at night requires cart:

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For best lig

you may have to extend and retract the laIlGing lights

The sweep of the beams lights the area in front of you

The glare from uIlshielded landing lights makes it difficult to see the wbg'"

Watch your v,'ingtips for clearance only when the landing lights are off,

In congested areas get the alert crew or your own crew wit

ashlights at the v,ringtips to guide you

The use of the aaxilia

xiing prevents excessive drain on batteries and insures power for propeller control during takeoff

Night Takeoffs

Hold the airplane on the ground until you reach an airspeed of

is allows a clean departure and eliminates the danger of stalling back in because of insufficient speed

Use your landing lights when taking off over unfamiliar terrain

You may tu

On dark nights,

""lDot se€ a clearly defined horizon,

your takeoff is essentially an instrument takeoff

You must refer to your instruments as soon as you cross the boundary of the field

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Failure of many pilots to rely on aL-speed indicator and gyro-horizon instead of the seat of their pants has caused a number of fatal takeoff accidents in C-46 aircraft

Hold takeoff power until you

Do not allow a--spe€'d to go above 125 r=lph,

as this probably means that the ship is flying level or even diving back into t

Remember that any siuible power reduction causes the nose to drop

compensate by holding back-pressure on the wheel and adj~-ting the elevator trL

Night landings

The use of a standard p

ttern and predetermined power settings is particularly important in Landing at night

The accuracy of depth perception at night is considerably reduced and you must place more reliance on mech

If you need landing lights,

turn them on after you complete the turn onto' final approach

Most installations on the C-46 set the beam of the rig

ht landing light along the line of flight,

so your approach follows the light beam,

contrary to the procedure in most ot

The actual technique of landing at night is the same as that for daylight operation

You may keep a little power on all the way to the ground if you need it for feeli

RESTRICTED When you are £lying through turbulent air,

Don't try to correct every change of attitude

The ship is inherently stable and usually rights itself after minor changes

Use the elevator trim tab as much as necessary to relieve the strain of moving the control wheel back and forth

Re-trim smoothly

:remember that the ship is sensitive to trim

In severe turbulence,

s long as you keep a margin of about 50 mph above stalling speed,

you have sufficient speed for handling g'

To prevent overcooling of the engine and increased risk of carburetor icing,

Increase rpm to 2100 or even higher in order to have flexibility and power available when

Wins Iu

The book you are reading covers icing only as it applies to the C-46

Wing and surface ice affects the C-46 as it does any other airplane-it increases the weight and increases the stalling speed

However,

will cany a comparatively large aIrlOunt of ice

Once heavy ice accumulation starts,

you have a tendency to pull up the nose to maintain altitude

When this bappens,

nodules of ice form around the rivet heads on the bottom surfaces of the ship

These airborne ba

-ease drag

To prevent their accumulation,

increase power and airspeed when heavy ice starts to form

This keeps the ship in a levelflight attitude

A speed of 180 mph keeps the airplane level with a heavy load of lee

The rubber de-icer boots are quite effective for removing ice from wing and tail surfaces

Use them intermittently as needed for different types of ice

Remember: De-icing equipment is ins

alled primarily to allow you to fly the ship through icing conditions in order to reach levels where there is no icing

Get out of icing contt

Carburetor Ice

The fuel injector type of carburetor tL

Increase airspeed to decrease angle of attack

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When you are £:,y"1

ice can form in the C-46 carburetor when the carburetor intake air temperature is as high as +15°C

The venturi effect inside t

~e carburetor lowers the temperature to freezing leveL Normally,

this temperature drop is 10° to 15°C

Note: The carburetor air temperature bulb is in the elbow of the air L

not the temperature inside' the carburetor

When you are reasonably sure that icing conditions exist,

ntain a carburetor ina'ke air temperature of 15° to 30°C

This prevents icing

Do not use carburetor heat unless there is real danger of icing

Heat cuts down engine power and may cause detonation lliJ

der certain conditions of high-power operation

Usually,

it is not desirable to use heat when the precipitation is in the form of sleet and intake temperatures are below freezing

Sleet passes on through the carburetor without causing trouble,

whereas carburetor heat melts the sleet and it then refreezes inside the carburetor

Tnere are three symptoms of carburetor icing: 1

Manifold pressure drops because of constriction of the air intake passages

Fuel-flow gages fluctuate because of improper fuel metering when ice clogs t

~e impact tubes and boost venturi

gine surging or backfire may occur

Use full carburetor heat when any of these symptoms show up

Application of heat :may result in a momentary rise in manifold pressure as ice melts and the carburetor is cleaned out

g is likely to occur at small throttle openings when letting down through an overcast or during an approach for a landing

Use full h

Carburetor icing

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When you are flying through precipitation or

through air with heavy moisture content,

ice can form in the C-46 carburetor when the carburetor intake air temperature is as high as +15°C

The venturi effect inside the carburetor lowers the temperature to freezing level

Normally,

this temperature drop is loa to 15°C

Note: The carburetor air temperature bulb is in the elbow of the air intake and reads intake air temperature,

Dot the temperature inside'the carburetor

When you are reasonably sure that icing conditions exist,

use carburetOr heat to maintain a carburetor intake air temperature of 15° to 30°C

This prevents icing

Do not use carburetor beat unless there is real danger of icing

Heat cuts down engine power and may cause detonation under certain conditions of high-power operation

Usually,

it is not desirable to use heat when the precipitation is in the form of sleet and intake temperatures are below freezing

Sleet passes on through the carburetor without causing trouble,

whereas carburetor heat melts the sleet and it then refreezes inside the carburetor

There are three symptoms of carburetor icing: 1

Manifold pressure drops ~ause of constriction of the air intake passages

Fuel-flow gages fluctuate because of improper fuel metering when ice clogs the impact tubes and boost venturi

Engine surging or back

Use full carburetor heat when any of these symptoms show up

Application of heat may result in a momentary rise in manifold pressure as ice melts and the carburetor is cleaned out

Icing is likely to occur at small throttle openings when letting down through an overcast or dlli-mg an approach for a landing

Use full heat

Carburetor icing RESTRICTED

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let-down but place in COLD jlli>-t before landing in order to have full power available

The carburetor heater in C-46's does not give a quick r

se or a large rise when outside air temperatures are low

if the engine quits because of ice,

there is not sufficient heat available to remove the ice,

since the heat comes n-om the engine ex

T'ne carburetor alcohol anti-icer system is an effective met

Turn on the system and use continuously as long as is needed

Use alcohol to prevent ice on takeoff,

when carburetor heat is undesirable because of the power loss

As a last resort,

unate carburetor ice by leaning the mbcture and causing the engine to baclu'1re

This is risky,

because of the possibility of da

"Daging the engine

Be sure to turn carburetor heat off before using this method

p&lIer Ice Icing of the propeller blades has as great an effect on the over-all performance of the airplane as WLTlg ice

Propulsive efficiency may drop considerably if the blades lose their airfoil shape because of heavy ice accumulation

Turn on the propeller anti-kLTJ

g system before ice starts to form,

and let it run at full speed for at least 30 seconds to fully coat the blade surfaces with alcohol

'Then reduce the rate of flow by adjust

!nent of the rheostat and leave on as long as icing conditions prevail

If you run out of fluid,

or the anti-icer system fails,

a sudden increase of engine rpm may

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Speed up t

~e engines for a few ~onds until ice'is removed,

Windshield Ice and Frost Operation of the cockpit h~ter provides heated air to the windsbield defrosters for removal of any frost and ice

Some C-4S's have an alcohol system

Use the windshield v

ipers in conjunction with the alcohol to help remove the ice

Db-toJ"tion results when there is any glaze or liquid left on the WL"1dshield

If it is difficult to keep the windshieJd dean,

trozen by opening and closing them frequently

It is easy for them to freeze tight when fly"

ng through n-eezing rain or sleet

'When it is impossible to clear the winds

eld sufficiently to see ahead for contact flight or for landings,

use the clear-vision panel Open the sliding side window and turn the panel so that it deflect

You can then ~ out the window without bei

!Jg blinded by the air stream

The present panel is 3 ir-ches wide,

and for bi=tter vision a width of 5 inches to 6 inches is desi

Some organizations have modified the panel to suit their needs

Pitot Heat&rs

Whenever you fly through any type of visible moisture,

Turn on the breaker switch on the overhead panel,

and then turn on the individual switches for each pitot mast

This prevents ~zing of the pitot head and loss of airspeed indication

A knowledge of emergency procedures is

Vi'ben you need it,

You've got to laarD emergency procedures before the emergency

There's no time then for guesswork,

or for looking it up in the book

Either you know the right thL"J

Remember,

you have a crew and possibly a cabin full of passengers,

for whose safety you are responsible

You owe it to them to know what to do and how to do it when you meet an emergency

How to handle your aL-rplane when things begin to happen is the proof of whether you are really a pilot or just al'loilier Junior Birdman

ENGINE FAILURE The best thing to do about t

~e loss of an engine is to prevent it

That's the pu

""1es will operate properly throughout flight

!ing the critical period of getting the s

lUp into the air

But someti

ay fail any time between the takeoff run and the approach for landing,

so you need to know what to do about it undar all conditions

When to Feather

Don't get featheritis

In most cases of engine failure you can take your time about feathering without endangering the engine or the airplane

The only times you need to jump for the feathering button are: when an engine fails after takeoff,

at critically low flying speed

or when there is severe vibration in the engine which may damage the wing and perhaps tear the engpe from its mounts

In all other cases,

The cause of engine failure may be minor,

and you may be able to re-start the engine immediately

Check to see that ignition swi

Check fuel pressures

Check the fuel selector valve position

Turn it to another tank

Fuel quantity gages

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-- ,-- ~

------:-

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- ~~"'~~~'

SiNGLE iEHGHiE EMEIiltGENCY PROCEDURE

CONTROL OF

?LANE AND GOOD ENGINE

Coil "Gear up'" 2

!Pd for yaw with rudder pressure

Defermine which engine is out

You are pI'8$$ing the rudder on the good engine side

Remember-"Sest foot forward

Advance the- prop control and t

(If you haye any doubt about which engine is d~d,

Move mixture control on good engine to AUTO RICH

Apply rudder trim

You now ha"

the oirpf:me partially trimmecJ and power advanced on the good engine

Use standard feathering pr:>e:~dure on the dead engine:

FEATHERING PROCEDURE

Retard throttle

Feather the prop

Move mixture control to IDLE CUT-OFF and turn booster pump OFF

Tum fuel seJ'iitCtor valve OFF

Retrim airplane

FINAL ADJUSTMi:NTS

Set cowl flaps and oif shutters on good ensine to maintain temperatures within limits

Shut cowl flops and tum ignition OFF on deod engine

In prod ice feathering,

when you don't wish to odually leather the prop9J1er,

substitute "Pull back prop control" for step No

Remember that you may have to use fuel from the tanks on the bad engine side and warn the e-ngineer to be ready to tum on the crossfeed valve at your order

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are not accurate and you may be ~rying to nm an empty tan

Turn bel booster pump ON

Move r:llxture control to FULL RICH

If this check fails to re-start the engine,

feather the propeller if necessary

If the loss of power is only partial,

it may be desirable to keep tbe engine running

In general,

ne is offsetting the drag of the propeller

lUng above that is

LOSS OF AN ENGINE ON iAil(lEOFF On Takeoff Run

If an engine fails b'efore you leave t

chop the throttles immediately and use brakes to stop the airplane before you run out of

You can't take the airplane" off the ground with one engine,

If you see that the brakes won't stop you before you get into trouble,

men you can't stop with the brakes a

d can't grounclloop because you're too close to other aircraft or obstacles-there's only one thing left to do: Retract the gear and make a belly stop

It's costly,

but worth it to prevent loss of life and a complete washout of the airplane

Feathering for Single-engine Practice

(Curtiss Electric Propellers) 1

Retard thrQtde and prop control on L~e side to be fe

xture control to IDLE ClTT-OFF

Feather the propeller by use of the feathering sv

Advance power on the good engine

Restarting the Engine

(Curtiss Electric Propellers) 1

Adjust the controls on the engine to be restarted: 'Throttle-Closed Propeller control-Full back (low rpm) Ignition-ON Fuel selector valve-On desired tank

Move feathering switch to NORMAL

Hold selector sv

'itch in mc RPM until propeller willdmills at 800 to 1000 rpm

After Leaving the Ground 1

Before reaching single engine speed: Chop the throttles and land straight ahead

If the wheels are still down and enough runway remains,

land wheeIs-down and stop by using brakeS

If the wheels are still down and not enough nmway is left for stopping,

If you have retracted the wheels,

iVter reaching safe single engine speed: Follow normal single engine emergency procedure

Bring the ship around and land as soon as possible

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Mixture-AUTO RICH

\Varm up engine at not more than 1000 rpm and 15" Eg

Place selector s'witch in AUTO and resume normal operation

Hamilton Standard Propellers The procedures described above are for Curtiss electric propellers,

but apply to HaIr'ilton Standard propellers also,

with these exceptions: To feather,

simply press the feathering button

You do not have to hold the button in

it stays in position until the prop reaches the fullfeathered position and then pops out

If the propeller starts to unIeather im

"TIediately after reaching the feathered position,

because of the switch not cutting out automatically,

After a few seconds,

To umeaL,er,

"lg button until the rpm reaches 1000,

Then perform the following check: Selector sv-

'itch-AiJTO Circuit breakers-In Batteries,

then the trouble is in the governor control or electrical system

Do not take off until the trouble is corrected

In Flight

If runaway occurs after the ship has already

If controls are in normal position,

try to reduce rpm by using the DEC RPM s~itch

If the DEC RPM switch won't work,

use feathering switch momentarily

F:1i1ure to Feother

If either type of propeller fails to feather because the feathering meChanism is not working prop