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C2 POWER FACTOR AND CAPACITANCE OF ABB TYPE O PLUS C, AB, AND

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C2 POWER FACTOR AND CAPACITANCE OF ABB TYPE O PLUS C, AB, AND


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Description

C2 POWER FACTOR AND CAPACITANCE OF ABB TYPE O PLUS C,

AND TYPE T CONDENSER BUSHINGS Pritpal Singh ABB Inc

ABSTRACT Measurement of C2 power factor and capacitance of condenser bushings has been a topic of much interest among the utility and other users for quite sometimes

This paper deals with the subject of C1 and C2 power factor and capacitance in condenser bushings

It describes the constructional/design differences between C1 and C2 and discusses the factors that can influence these measurements

INTRODUCTION C2 power factor and capacitance measurement of condenser bushings has been a topic of much discussion for many years

Even though this measurement can be influenced by various external factors,

more and more users are making C2 measurements to assess the quality of the bushing insulation

As per the IEEE bushing standards,

bushings rated 115 kV and above are tested for C1 and C2 capacitance and power factor values

Both these capacitances are mainly dependant on paper insulation,

which is strictly controlled by condenser design,

therefore producing predictable test results

Bushings rated 69 kV and below on the other hand have an inherent C2 capacitance that is dependent upon on a few outer layers of paper with adhesive,

The C2 power factor and capacitance of these bushings can be affected by external stray factors

These factors among others may include contamination on porcelains,

air and oil surrounding the bushing

This paper describes the constructional /design differences of C1 and C2 capacitance between bushings of different voltage classes/designs and discusses the factors that can influence these measurements

DESIGN/CONSTRUCTION OF C1 AND C2 CAPACITANCE IN CONDENSER BUSHINGS As per the IEEE Standards C57

00 and C57

condenser bushings rated 115 kV and above are provided with C1 (main) and C2 (tap) capacitances

The C1 capacitance is formed by the main oil/paper insulation between the central conductor and the C1 layer/foil,

which is inserted during the condenser winding process

The C2 capacitance is formed by the tap insulation between the C1 and the C2 layers

The C1 layer/foil is internally connected to the voltage tap stud whereas the C2 layer/foil is permanently connected to the grounded mounting flange

Under normal operating condition,

the C1 layer/foil is automatically grounded to the mounting flange with the help of the screw-in voltage tap cover that makes a connection between the tap stud and the mounting flange

The C2 insulation under normal operating condition is therefore shorted and not subjected to any voltage stress

When such a bushing is used in conjunction with a potential device,

the voltage tap is connected to this device

Under this condition,

the C1 and C2 capacitances are in series and perform like a voltage or a potential divider

The voltage developed across the C2 capacitance is modified by the potential device and is used for operation of relays,

the voltage tap can be used for measuring the power factor and capacitance of C1 and C2 insulation of the bushing

In addition,

this tap can be used for monitoring the partial discharge during factory tests and insulation leakage current (including partial discharge) during field service operation

See Figure 1 for condenser design and voltage tap details

Voltage Equalizers C1 Layer/Foil M ounting Flange Voltage Tap Stud C1

C2 Layer/Foil (alw ays grounded) Oil Impregnated Paper Central Conductor

Figure 1: Design/Construction Details Of A Typical Condenser Bushings Rated 115 kV And Above Condenser bushings rated 69 kV and below as per the IEEE Standards are provided with C1 capacitance,

This capacitance is formed by the oil/paper insulation between the central conductor and the C1 layer/foil,

which is inserted during the condenser winding process

The C1 layer/foil is internally connected to the test tap

These bushings have an inherent C2 capacitance,

which is formed by the insulation between the C1 layer and the mounting flange

This insulation consists of a few layers of paper with adhesive,

an oil gap between the condenser core and the mounting flange,

Under normal operating condition,

the C1 layer/foil is automatically grounded to the mounting flange with the help of the screw-in test tap cover that makes a connection between the test tap spring and the flange

The C2 insulation under normal operating condition is therefore shorted and not subjected to any voltage stress

The test tap is used for measuring the power factor and capacitance of C1 and C2 insulation of the bushing

In addition,

this tap is sometimes used for monitoring the partial discharge during factory tests and insulation leakage current (including partial discharge) during field service operation

See Figure 2 for condenser design and test tap details

Voltage Equalizers C1 Layer/Foil Mounting Flange

Test Tap Spring C2 C1

Bushing Oil/Paper in C2 Insulation Oil Impregnated Paper Central Conductor

Figure 2: Design/Construction Details Of A Typical Condenser Bushings Rated 69 kV And Below 2

FACTORS INFLUENCING C1,

C2 CAPACITANCE AND POWER FACTOR MEASUREMENTS As mentioned earlier,

the C1 and C2 capacitance of condenser bushings rated 115 kV and above are strictly controlled by design and are mainly dependent upon oil impregnated,

Therefore,

the power factor and capacitance test values under normal circumstances,

are not affected too much by external factors

However,

under conditions of contamination and high humidity,

these measurements may be significantly affected

In addition,

capacitively coupled resistive paths to ground may affect these measurements

These may include supporting structures,

wooden crates that are moist/wet,

resistance between bushing mounting flange and the transformer tank,

stray effect from other objects,

and external connections during testing

Although,

Type O Plus C,

and T condenser bushings C1 power factor values are well below this limit

Condenser bushings rated 69 kV and below as mentioned earlier,

which is strictly controlled by design

Like the bushings rated 115 kV and above,

the C1 power factor and capacitance test values of these bushings are not affected too much by external factors under normal circumstances

However,

under conditions of contamination and high humidity,

these measurements may be significantly affected

these measurements may be affected by supporting structure,

wooden crates that are moist/wet,

resistance between bushing mounting flange and the transformer tank,

stray effect from other objects,

and external connections during testing

These bushings have an inherent C2 capacitance,

which is dependent upon a few outer layers of paper with adhesive,

an oil gap between the flange and the condenser core,

Variations in adhesive in the outer paper layers and other factors can result in PF variations in bushings of the same style number

In addition,

the close proximity of the C1 layer (See Figures 2) with the mounting flange results in greater fringing effect between the two parts

As a result of this,

and air surrounding the bushing can have some affect on the C2 power factor test values

In particular,

high current Type T condenser bushings with a short mounting flange and a long internal C1 layer/foil tend to exhibit higher power factors because of greater coupling effect between the C1 layer/foil and the surrounding materials,

as shown by patterned areas in Figure 3

Depending upon the design,

the C2 power factor of these bushings can range from 0

1 % to 2 %

Paper Voltage Equalizers

Upper Porcelain

C1 Layer/Foil

Tap Assembly

Bushing Oil

Coupling Effect Between The External Ground Plane And The C1 Layer/Foil

Transformer Oil Paper Lower Porcelain

Transformer Tank

Central Conductor

Figure 3: Design/Construction Details Of A Typical High Current Type T Bushing And The Influence Of Surrounding Materials/Objects 3

One of the factors that can significantly influence the C2 capacitance in bushings with long internal C1 layer/foil and a short mounting flange is the external ground plane

The following table shows the effect of proximity and type of ground plane on power factor and capacitance of two different types of condenser bushings

Type AB,

which is similar to an O Plus C bushing with a metallic mounting flange and a long external ground sleeve

Type T bushing with short mounting flange and a long internal C1 layer/foil as shown in Figure 3

TYPE / STYLE

AB / B035200AA

AB / B035200AA

T / 025V1000VY

T / 025V1000VY

C1 / C2 PF %

C1 / C2 CAP pF

C1 / C2 PF %

C1 / C2 CAP pF

NP Values

508 / 494*

514 / 492

Flat vertical grd

05 PU) 0

Cylindrical xx xx xx xx grd

plane which is: 6 in away from the xx xx 0

C1 value is normally checked with lower end immersed in oil ** C1 and C2 values are normally checked with lower end immersed in oil As can be seen from the above table,

the C1 and C2 capacitance values of Type AB bushing have basically very little effect from the type or proximity of the ground plane within the practical range of clearances

Similarly the C1 capacitance of Type T bushings has minimal effect from the type or proximity of the ground plane

The C2 capacitance of Type T bushing on the other hand increased by 55 % (from 278 pF to 431) when the bushing was tested with a cylindrical ground plane surrounding the lower porcelain with an air gap of about 1 inch

This is because of greater coupling effect between the C1 layer/foil and the external ground plane

The above bushings were tested in a clean and dry environment and therefore the power factor values exhibit very little change if any

If the lower end of the bushing was immersed in oil,

the increase in capacitance would be higher as the oil has a higher dielectric constant

Another observable fact is the small difference of C2 PF and CAP test values of Type T bushing between nameplate (with lower end immersed in oil) and those taken with the bushing in air and no external ground plane

The test values with the lower end in air are lower by about 10 %

This could be due to the fact that air has zero power factor and a lower dielectric constant compared to oil

Type T bushings have a greater coupling effect between the C1 plate and the medium surrounding the lower porcelain,

the C2 values are somewhat lower when the test is made in air

Due to design and construction,

the C2 power factor of condenser bushings rated 69 kV and below may therefore exceed the C1 power factor limit of 0

The IEEE Standard does not specify any limit for C2 power factor

The C1 power factor on the other hand is well below the 0

For bushings rated 69 kV and below,

IEEE Standard only requires stamping of C1 power factor and 4

As a result of frequent requests from customers,

ABB Inc

TN started stamping the C2 power factor and capacitance test values on bushing nameplates since December of 2002

With this addition,

O Plus C,

and T condenser bushings are now stamped with factory test values of C1 and C2 power factor and capacitance

We complied with the industry’s need so that users can better assess the condition of the bushing insulation

Because of reasons mentioned within this paper,

users may see a greater variation in C2 power factor and capacitance values in different bushings of the same design

It is important to compare the initial test values before installation with the nameplate values

To verify nameplate values (especially for Type T bushings),

the measurements should be made with the bushing mounted on a metallic test tank/stand with the lower end porcelain immersed in dry good quality oil

There should be sufficient clearance (at least 16

For C2 measurement,

the center conductor should be guarded and test tap voltage not exceeding 1 kV

For detailed test set up and other information,

refer to test equipment manufacturer’s instructions

Once the bushing has been installed in the apparatus,

it should be retested to establish a benchmark value

It is important to compare the subsequent field test values with the initial benchmark value after installation

Any significant deviation (10 % change in capacitance or doubling of power factor) from the benchmark value would be a cause for concern and should be investigated

Test values with lower end in air may vary from those with lower end immersed in oil

CONCLUSIONS Because of the inherent design of C2 capacitance and design/constructional differences in bushings rated 69 kV and below,

the C2 power factor and capacitance can be affected by external factors

These factors may include external contamination,

and stray effect and proximity of other objects

As a result of this,

the field installed C2 power factor and capacitance test values can vary from the nameplate values

Test values with lower end in air may vary from those with bushing mounted on the transformer with lower end immersed in oil

Sometimes,

variations may be noticed between bushings of the same design

The initial test values before installation should be compared with the factory nameplate values

While checking the power factor and capacitance values of these bushings,

it is important to compare the field test values with the initial benchmark value after installation

Any significant deviation from the benchmark value would be a cause for concern and should be investigated

Additional information on bushing maintenance can be found in ABB bushing instruction leaflets IL 44663,

and 666 available on our website at http://alamo

com BIOGRAPHY Pritpal Singh is a Fellow Engineer with ABB Inc

TN and is engaged in business/product development activity

In the past 41 years,

he has been involved in the design,

and testing of transformers and bushings

He has held different technical and management positions in BHEL (India),

General Electric (Pittsfield,

Westinghouse (Alamo,

He has been an active member of the IEEE Transformer Committee for the past 20 years and was the Chair of the WG for the revision of IEEE Std

Presently,

he is the Secretary of Bushing Subcommittee

He is a native of India and graduated in 1962 with a Bachelor of Science degree in Electrical Engineering from Aligarh University

REFERENCES 1

IEEE Standard C57

Doble Manual for Testing of Electrical Insulations by the Dielectric Loss and Power factor A

Rickely and R

“Application and Significance of Ungrounded Specimen Tests”,

Minutes of the Doble Clients Conference 27AC60,

Page 3 – 201

Kopaczynski and S

Manifase,

“The Doble Tap – Insulation Test For Bushings (A Review)”,

Minutes of the Doble Clients Conference 57A1C90,

Page 4-3

Raka Levi and Stan Manifase,

“Further Studies of Anomalous Phenomena In Dielectric-Loss Measurement – Transformer Bushings Model”,

IEEE Transaction on Power Delivery,

April 1995 IEEE Standard C57

“Performance Characteristics and Dimensions For Outdoor Apparatus Bushings”