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Description

Designation: C 138/C 138M – 01a

American Association State Highway and Transportation Officials Standard AASHTO No

Standard Test Method for

Density (Unit Weight),

and Air Content (Gravimetric) of Concrete1 This standard is issued under the fixed designation C 138/C 138M

the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or,

A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval

A superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval

This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense

Scope * 1

and air content of the concrete

Yield is defined as the volume of concrete produced from a mixture of known quantities of the component materials

The SI units are shown in brackets

The values stated might not be exact equivalents

therefore each system must be used independently of the other

NOTE 1—Unit weight was the previous terminology used to describe the property determined by this test method,

These notes and footnotes (excluding those in tables) shall not be considered as requirements of this test method

Referenced Documents 2

A C Cb D'M

Mc Mm Ry T

air content (percentage of voids) in the concrete actual cement content,

lb/yd3 or kg/m3 mass of cement in the batch,

lb or kg density (unit weight) of concrete,

lb/ft3 or kg/m3 total mass of all materials batched,

lb or kg (see Note 3) mass of the measure filled with concrete,

lb or kg relative yield theoretical density of the concrete computed on an airfree basis,

lb/ft3 or kg/m3 (see Note 2) yield,

volume of concrete produced per batch,

yd3 or m3 volume of concrete which the batch was designed to produce,

yd3 or m3 volume of concrete produced per batch,

ft3 total absolute volume of the component ingredients in the batch,

ft3 or m3 volume of the measure,

NOTE 2—The theoretical density is,

the value for which is assumed to remain constant for all batches made using identical component ingredients and proportions

It is calculated from the following equation: T 5 M/V

The absolute volume of each ingredient in cubic feet is equal to the quotient of the mass of that ingredient divided by the product of its specific gravity times 62

The absolute volume of each ingredient in cubic metres is equal to the mass of the ingredient in kilograms divided by 1000 times its specific gravity

For the aggregate components,

the bulk specific gravity and mass should be based on the saturated,

For cement,

the actual specific gravity should be determined by Test Method C 188

A value of 3

NOTE 3—The total mass of all materials batched is the sum of the masses of the cement,

the fine aggregate in the condition used,

the coarse aggregate in the condition used,

the mixing water added to the batch,

and any other solid or liquid materials used

Terminology 3

1 Symbols:

Current edition approved Mar

Published May 2001

Originally published as C 138 – 38 T

Last previous edition C 138 – 01

Apparatus 4

at any point within the range of use

The range of use shall be

*A Summary of Changes section appears at the end of this standard

Copyright © ASTM,

West Conshohocken,

PA 19428-2959,

United States

C 138/C 138M dance with Practice C 172

considered to extend from the mass of the measure empty to the mass of the measure plus its contents at 160 lb/ft3 [2600 kg/m3]

5⁄8 in

[16 mm] in diameter and approximately 24 in

having the tamping end rounded to a hemispherical tip the diameter of which is 5⁄8 in

preferably powered by electric motors

The frequency of vibration shall be 7000 vibrations per minute or greater while in use

The outside diameter or the side dimension of the vibrating element shall be at least 0

[19 mm] and not greater than 1

The length of the shaft shall be at least 24 in

The minimum capacity of the measure shall conform to the requirements of Table 1 based on the nominal size of aggregate in the concrete to be tested

All measures,

except for measuring bowls of air meters which are also used for Test Method C 138 tests,

shall conform to the requirements of Test Method C 29/C 29M

When measuring bowls of air meters are used,

they shall conform to the requirements of Test Method C 231,

and shall be calibrated for volume as described in Test Method C 29/C 29M

The top rim of the air meter bowls shall be smooth and plane within 0

Procedure 6

unless the method is stated in the specifications under which the work is being performed

The methods of consolidation are rodding and internal vibration

Rod concretes with a slump greater than 3 in

Rod or vibrate concrete with a slump of 1 to 3 in

Consolidate concretes with a slump less than 1 in

NOTE 6—Nonplastic concrete,

such as is commonly used in the manufacture of pipe and unit masonry,

is not covered by this test method

Rod each layer with 25 strokes of the tamping rod when nominal 0

Rod the bottom layer throughout its depth but the rod shall not forcibly strike the bottom of the measure

Distribute the strokes uniformly over the cross section of the measure and for the top two layers,

[25 mm] into the underlying layer

After each layer is rodded,

tap the sides of the measure 10 to 15 times with the appropriate mallet (see 4

Add the final layer so as to avoid overfilling

Place all of the concrete for each layer in the measure before starting vibration of that layer

Insert the vibrator at three different points for each layer

In compacting the bottom layer,

do not allow the vibrator to rest on or touch the bottom or sides of the measure

In compacting the final layer,

the vibrator shall penetrate into the underlying layer approximately 1 in

Take care that the vibrator is withdrawn in such a manner that no air pockets are left in the specimen

The duration of vibration required will depend upon the workability of the concrete and the effectiveness of the vibrator (see Note 7)

Continue vibration only long enough to achieve proper consolidation of the concrete (see Note 8)

Observe a constant duration of vibration for the particular kind of concrete,

NOTE 4—The metal should not be readily subject to attack by cement paste

However,

reactive materials such as aluminum alloys may be used in instances where as a consequence of an initial reaction,

a surface film is rapidly formed which protects the metal against further corrosion

NOTE 5—The top rim is satisfactorily plane if a 0

[6-mm] or thicker plate glass laid over the top of the measure

[6 mm] thick or a glass or acrylic plate at least 1⁄2 in

[12 mm] thick with a length and width at least 2 in

[50 mm] greater than the diameter of the measure with which it is to be used

The edges of the plate shall be straight and smooth within a tolerance of 1⁄16 in

and a mallet having a mass of 2

NOTE 7—Usually,

sufficient vibration has been applied as soon as the surface of the concrete becomes relatively smooth

NOTE 8—Overvibration may cause segregation and loss of appreciable quantities of intentionally entrained air

Sample 5

An excess of concrete protruding approximately 1⁄8 in

[3 mm] above the top of the mold is optimum

A small quantity of concrete may be added to correct a deficiency

If the measure contains a great excess of concrete at completion of consolidation,

remove a representative portion of the excess concrete with a trowel or scoop immediately following completion of consolidation and before the measure is struck-off

strike-off the top surface of the concrete and finish it smoothly with the flat strike-off plate using great care to leave the measure just level

TABLE 1 Capacity of Measures Nominal Maximum Size of Coarse Aggregate

Capacity of MeasureA

A The indicated size of measure shall be used to test concrete containing aggregates of a nominal maximum size equal to or smaller than that listed

The actual volume of the measure shall be at least 95 % of the nominal volume listed

C 138/C 138M C 5 Cb /Y

The strike-off is best accomplished by pressing the strike-off plate on the top surface of the measure to cover about two thirds of the surface and withdrawing the plate with a sawing motion to finish only the area originally covered

Then place the plate on the top of the measure to cover the original two thirds of the surface and advance it with a vertical pressure and a sawing motion to cover the whole surface of the measure and continue to advance it until it slides completely off the measure

Several final strokes with the inclined edge of the plate will produce a smooth finished surface

clean all excess concrete from the exterior of the measure and determine the mass of the concrete and measure to an accuracy consistent with the requirements of 4

A 5 @~Y 2 V

[75 to 150 mm] and density ranging from 115 to 155 lb/ft3 [1842 to 2483 kg/m3] and included air-entrained and non air-entrained concrete

The study was conducted using 0

Therefore,

results of two properly conducted by the same operator on the same sample of concrete should not differ by more than 1

Therefore,

results of two properly conducted tests by the two operators on the same sample of concrete should not differ by more than 2

A 5 @~Yf 2 V

Precision and Bias

A 5 @~T 2 D

Calculation 7

from the mass of the measure filled with concrete,

Calculate the density,

ft3 or yd3,by dividing the net mass of concrete by the volume of the measure,

Vm as follows: D'5 ~Mc – Mm

Keywords 9

NOTE 9—A value for Ry greater than 1

In practice,

a ratio of yield in cubic feet per cubic yard of design concrete mixture is frequently used,

3 ft3/yd3

NRMCA/NAA Joint Research Lab Study “Series D'324 Accuracy of Concrete Density Test,” Feb

SUMMARY OF CHANGES This section identifies the location of changes to this test method that have been incorporated since the last issue

(5) Section 3 was renamed “Terminology” and revised

(8) Equations in Section 7 were revised

1 and 1

Subsequent notes were renumbered

C 138/C 138M The American Society for Testing and Materials takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned in this standard

Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights,

and the risk of infringement of such rights,

are entirely their own responsibility

This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years and if not revised,

either reapproved or withdrawn

Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards and should be addressed to ASTM Headquarters

Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the responsible technical committee,

If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you should make your views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards,

This standard is copyrighted by ASTM,

PO Box C700,

West Conshohocken,

PA 19428-2959,

United States

Individual reprints (single or multiple copies) of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the above address or at 610-832-9585 (phone),

or [email protected] (e-mail)

or through the ASTM website (www