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Importance of Livestock in India

Livestock Resources - APEDA

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Description

Importance of Livestock In India Livestock is an Important sourece of income for a nation

In fact,pastoral production is for resilient than crop production,and more remurative too

The share of livestock production in the aggregate agricultural output in some of the western European countries in about 60 to 80percent

In India,however,the gross value of ooutput from livestock sector ie

animal husbandary and diary development is placed at around 6

India is endowed with the largest livestock population in the world

The significance of livestock sector in the Indian economy arises also because of its assitance to tackle the serious problems of unemployment and underemployment of weaker sections in the country and for providing subsidary occupation for income generation

It also plays a dominant role in dry-land agriculture particularly semi-arid and arid areas of the country

Animal husbandry and dairy development are being used as a poverty eradication measure

to provide additional employment and increase family income of the rural poor

Livestock provides regular employment to about 11 million in principal status and 9 miliion in subsidiary status

It is equally interesting to note that woman constitute 69 percent of the labour force in livestock sector as against 35 percent in crop farming

Finally,export earnings from livestock related products Rs

Thus livestock sector plays in an important role in Indias economy and socio-economic development of the country

Table{1} shows the livestock position in India according to the different livestock census(taken once in the 5 years

) Table (1) Livestock Resources in India(million) Data source:Annual Repot(2011-2012) Dept of Animal husbandary,Diaring and Fisheries,Ministry of Agriculture

Milk Production

India in the largest producer of milk in the world,is set to produce over 133 million tonne milk during 2012-13 several measures have been initiated by the govt-to increse the productivity of milch animals,

which has resulted in increasing milk production significantly from the level of 102

The annual growth rate of production of milk in about 5% in 2011-12 compared to 2010-11

The poor yield of Indian cows is proverbial it is estimated that the average yields of cows in India is 220 liters per year,

as compared to 3000 to 5000 liters per year in western countries

As regards meet,about three-fourths of the meet million tones in produced in India is from goats and sheep

Beef accounted for only 6%

Thus through cattle accounted for the largest proportion of livestock in India,there contribution to the national income of India was insignificant

Five year Plans and Animal Husbantory The devalopment programes of animal husbantory under the five year plan have a three fold objective-to increase the supply of milk and milk products,to provide draught animals for farm opertions and to rise the output of such products as wool and hides which have commercial importants

The plan have proposed to increase production of livestock products by impriving methods of animal husbandory supported by co-operative marketing structure

Under the impact of development plans,milk production has rises to 97 million tonnes in 2005-06 and is rising continuosly due to the implimentation of "Operation Flood Project" the world's largest integrated diary development progamme started in 1970(milk production was put at 17 million tonnes in 1950-51 and 54 million tonnes 1990-91)

This programme has organised about 69000 diary co-operative societies involving 9 million farmers

It links rural milk producers with urban consumers and eleminates the middleman and their commission per capita availability of milk has increases from 124 grams per day in 1950-51 to 302 grams per day in 2005-06

Statement of the problem The study is relevant,particularly,when the govt

is very keen on the promotion and development of diary sector

However it is evident that,in situation continous rising in cost of production of milk,the smallscale milk producers suffer several problems

The present study is a humble attempt to have an analysis the problems of smallscale diary farmers

Objectives

(2) To analyse contribution of diary enterprise to standard of living

(3) To examine the socio-economic conditions of diary farmers

Importance of study Milk production and trade mainly operate as acottage industry in the rural areas

A majority of those involved in this activity are women for whom it provide employment and help to suppliment their family income

Traditionaly dairying and pasturing activities were done to meet the domestic requirments

Urbanisation has increased the demanded for milk and this necessiated procuring,processing,and distribution of milk in a sensitives manner

Now 216000 tonne milk produce in kerala annually

The increase in population and consumption demand a rise in milk production

so it is necessary to take steps to increase cattle population in kerala

To acheve self sufficiency in milk production it is important to understand the problems faced by diary farmers and take remedial measures

Methodology In conducting the study a cross-sectional design in which data was collected at a single point and time was used

Both primary and secondary data have been utilised for the study

The population of study constituted smallscale dairy farmers who had dairy cattle at the point of study in Nettithozhu village

The respondant were selected at random

Strutured questionnaires comprised of closed and open ended question,which were answerd by respondant through interview

The study was conducted in Nettithozhu village between December 2013 and January 2014

the secondary data is collected from kattappana diary and Nettithozhu milk society Area of study The present study is conducted in Nettithozhu,Anakkara village

Limitation of study The present study is only concentrating the nettithozhu area of Anakkara village ,Idukki district only 37 dairy farmers are taken as the sample to find the socio-economic condition and the problem faced by diary farmers

The availability of data about the problems of diary farmers is also limited

Unwillingness of the diary farmers and the ignorance of them also limited the study another important constraint is the limited line

CHAPTER 2 Literature review

Introduction The government social development agencies ,the diary sector highlight the fact that India holds the worlds largest milk producing country

The diary sector is charecterised by a small holder production system of village

Government policies and budgetory allocations promote a model where diary is one of the constituents of the farmers livelihood basket and most often compliments crop production

Its chief findings are

(a)there has been a conciderable increase in the productivity of milch animals and total milk production in Kerala

(b)The profitability of milk production has gone up over the year and ,

(c)That milk production in Kerala is mainly undertaken by small and marginal farmers

The papper also makes some broad protections of the demand for milk and milk products by 1990 and concludes that a mere programme of improved cross-breeding can't possibly meet the projected demand

The papper briefly touches upon the demand for a ban on the slaughter of cows in Kerala and argues that there is no economic rationale behind such a demand any ban on the slaughter of cows in the state would be totaly harmful to the growth of livestock economy and surely affect adversly several devalopment project already undertaken

The contribution of small-scale dairy farming to community welfare : A case study of morogoro municipality by urassa JK and Raphael

It can be concluded from the study that small scale dairy farming contribute a great deal to the household welfare in form food security ,

shelter income generation and other social services

It may also concluded from the study that small scale dairy farming in the study area is mainly carried out as an income supplimentary activity rather than as a main source of income

It may further concluded that the dairy enterprise is mostly a male domain in the muncipality

In order to protect promote and develop the small holder dairy enterprise he suggest

(1) provision of training in dairy husbandry to the small scale dairy farmers

(2) Improvement or modernisation of existing vetenary clinics and extra services

(3) provision of capital (loan or credit )support to small scale dairy farmers

Harsh vivek in his 'policy environment for development of dairy in India' attempt to take a look at some of the government policies over the past few decades and assess the impact of such policies on the growth and development of dairy sector in the country starting from the ' operation flood ,in the 1970 to the delicensing the dairy sector in 1991

It emerge from the study that govt

had a bais in favour of small and cottage units in dairy processing due to the presumed contributions of such units providing livelihood ,

to small and marginal farmers in the rural

development of the modern dairy industry

Only by operating at a large scale can a fairm generate surpluses Accoding to him scale is important in the development of modern dairy industry

Only by operating at a large scale can a firm generate surpluses to invest in building a sustainable procurement base for procurement and processing milk

In the absences of any concerned effort on part of the govt

to promote the development large scale dairy plants in india ,

the Indian dairy industry became cluttered with innumourous sub-optimal plants considerably below the potential and expected performance

The paper finds following weaknesses of dairy sector

Lowest produtivity of milch animals in the world

Dairy sector dominated largly by informal unorganised players

Vertical integration (coordination)still not very robust in case of many dairy firm/cooperation

Most dairy brands are nacent and not very popular among consumer

weak marketing for procurred dairy product

Risk management and insurance facilities are still not very available

An Economic Analysis of production efficiency in Alberta Dairy production by Scott R

Jffery & Heather R Grant

The world trade Oraganisation is currently formulating an agenda for a new round of global trade negotiation

Therefore the livelihood of increased competition within Canada's supply managed dairy industry is probably

Concequantly,there is a greater need for producers to be concerned with efficiency in the international market place

This study assessed the cost efficiency and competatives of dairy producers by estimating the economic cost associated with milk production and deriving the physical and ecomomic efficiency of producers

Result support the presence of economies of size and economies of yield within the Alberta milk producton

A link between incresed hard size labour productivity,

and lower total cost was identified in the analysis

' Livestock development in Kerala' by Thara s

The paper attempt at an overall review of the policies and programmes implimented so far in the livestock sector of Kerala

It also analysis the constraints in milk production

The rapid diffusion of cross breeding technology in Kerala can be attributed to various factors

The most important among them are (a) increasing demand for milk(b)favorable movement of milk price (c)increasing

opportunities of marketing milk

The paper concludes that the complete success story because there are basic limitation which sevenly constrain the effectiveness of various programmes and policies

The most crusial among there is the scarcity of most essential input feed

The cattle sector in the state is dependent exclusively on the supply of paddy straw

Which is the only source of roughage

coarse grains like millet and sorghum,oilseed and nitrogen rich pulses are pratically unimportnt in Kerala's agriculture

Because of the shift in the cropping pattern in favour of plantation and perennialcrops the area under paddy has been dwindling and concequantly the supply of paddy straw fall short of demand

Green fodde ,on the other hand is yet to be incorporated as part of states cropping system

Added to this the heavy demographic pressure on land which makes it difficult to divert land under food and cash crops to fodder crops

The concequances of this constraint are also reflected in the cattle economy of the state viz the flow increase in the productivity milch animals

The paper suggest that the small and marginal farmers and agricultural labours for whom livestock provide a supplimentry sourse income need to be educated in scientific method of rearing ,feeding and management of animals

CHAPTER 3 Socio-economic house hold charecteristics Major household charecteristics of the respondent are shown in the table 1

The age of the respondent ranged between 31-80 years

The study indicated that most(54%) of the respondent were above the age 51 years

From the study 67

In Nettithozhu the results shows that men have more interest in milk production

The education level of the respondents ranged from primary school education to those with university education more than 50% of the respondent had attanined primary school education including same with university education

Table 1

Neverthless the level of education had no significant effect on the level of milk production of the diary cattle

The result of the study shows that the diary farm did not constitute the major source of income most of the respondent depended on other activities (Table 1)

Diary cattle ownership ranged between one to more than six diary cattle with about 81

Nettithozhu ksherolpadaka unit Nettithozhu ksherolpadaka unit is the best milk society under Kattappana diary situated at Nirmalacity

The amount of milk collected from Nettithozhu society is higher than other societies milk providing in Kattappana diary

The milk collected in nettithozhu society is of higher quality

The society is very successful in collecting high quality milk with the help of the device milk analyser

There are total 866 members in Nettithozhu society it include 155 women members

Nettithozhu milk society is very effective in meeting the needs of farmers society is providing various financial assistance to diary farmers from diary development board ,NABARD and milma

Milma provides Rs 1 lack to purchase one and two cows respectively

NABARD Provides Rs 2500 as subsidy for it for the development of green fodder milma and diary development board provides Rs 6000 per acre for 5 hector and 50 acre respectively

Tube well ,springler ,grass cutter ,

The society have many collection centres throughout the locality which contribute to more milk collection

Nettithozhu society

Milk collection

590940 kg

607690 kg

90,30,69

Bardiagram

Socio-economic charecteristics of small scale Diary Farmers

Partner

Frequency

Percentage

Total farmers surveyed

Age of respondent 31-40 41-50

Genderwise contribution Frequency to dairing

Respondent education

Frequency

Illiterate

Percentage 2

Primary school

Secondary

Higher secondary

Above higher secondary

Respondent other source of income

Frequency

Percentage

Bussiness

Agriculture

(carpentary,rural employment guarantee programme)

Diary cattle ownership

Frequency

Percentage

Milk production and income generated

The average milk production per day per respondent an 6-10 litres

Gross income from milk sales ranged between 0 to 2175litres per day

Table : Daily milk production and sales for the surveyed small holder dairy farmers

Parameter

Frequency

Percentage

Milk production/cow/day

Average milk production/cow/day=6

Frequency

Gross income

1-5 29-145

174-290

319-360

464-580

609-725

754-870

899-2175

Average milk sales/day=19

Result from the study show that most farmers (89

Farmers mostly prefer the zero grazing concepts as it reduced diseases challenges

It was also observed in the study that all the respondents were supplimenting their cattle

How ever some of them (16

Table 2: Dairy cattle feeding by the respondent

Parameter Feeding system

Frequency 33

Zero grazing Partial grazing

Supplimentary feeding Farmers not purchasing

Farmers purchasing 37 Maize bran &minerals only 6 Cotton seed

Contribution of the diary enterprises to standard of living

The study revealed that small scale diary farming contributed very much to the welfare of the household involved in it

Income or profit frome the diary enterprise was mainly used an following activities ,furnishing houses 15

Education and on other things (such as food ,health service etc

Reason for prefering diary farming Fre Profitable position & Getting countinuous income 7

Less investment couples with immediate return

Under any circumstance there is a market for milk

Lack of knoledge on other activities

Peaceful and no tension

Milk used for domestic use

Livestock and crop production is better Problems of diary farmers

Inadequate availability of quality input

Availability of quality input is a pre-condition for smooth production both in industry and agriculture

Diary farming requires high yeilding verities of cow,green and diary and dry fudder compounded cattle feed veterinary facilities and so on

Shortage of high yielding verities of Bovins The availability of high yielding verities of bovines is very limited

While cross-bread cows cost between Rs 1000 and Rs per litre in Kerala

Though it is comparatively cheaper in Thamilnadu their quality is often not assured

Consequently some farmers are cheated by brokers of Thamilnadu

Their are many reasons for the lower availability and higher demand for high yeilding verities of cow

Firstly as diary farming is wide spread ,newly born high yielding verities of cows are absorbed by the farmers substitute the old ,weak ,and low yielding verities by the new ones secondly with the development of diary co-operatives more and more people are coming to the field of diaring

This also result in higher demand for high yielding milk animals ,Thirdly with the development of commercialised diarying ,farmers are eager to subtitute their low yielding lows by high yielding lows leading to higher demand for the latter

Lastly,diary loan given under Integrated Rural Development Programme result in incresing demand for high yielding verities of cow and consequent increase in thier prices

Shortage of Green and dry Fodder Though Idukki district is bussed with a generally abundant supply of green fodder is supply is insufficient diarying summer season diary such periods farmers have to depend in paddy straw which is purchased mainly from Tamilnadu

In Nettithozhu society farmers get financial aid for green fodder development from Milma and Diary development boared

But farmers having land area can not use this fund effectively in this area green fodder development is limited by scarcity of land

Defficiency of Quality cattlefeed The real problem in the case of concentrates and compounded cattle feed is not their general scarcity but the scarcity of quality feed

As the quality of feed directly affects the yeild of cow,it should superior in quality but majority of

the feeds are of substandard quality

It is interesting to not that though their are a large number of compines producing compounded cattle feed in the state ,the number of compines producing cattle feed with ISI mark is very low

This means that the bulk of the cattle feed sold in Kerala is of substandard quality

Inadequate veterinary Facilities

Availability of cheap and expert veterinary facilities within the easy reach of farmers is highly essential for the success of diary farming

Increasing price of input

Rising price of inputs in diary farming is another problem comforting diary farmers prices of milk animals ,concentrates ,diary fodder and compounded cattle feed are increasing at a faster rate than the increase in price of milk

This makes diary farming with purchased feeds less profitable

The prices of milk animals ,materials of cow shed and veterinary services also have increased considerably

Insufficient price of milk

The most serious problem faced by diary farmers belonging to both society areas ,the average price recieved by members of diary co-operatives is Rs per litre while the members of diary co-operatives get Rs

from direct sales of consumers (217)

Findings * Diary farming is mainly carried out as an income supplimenting activity

*The farmers have more number of cow have more profit

Suggetion * Farmers should be made familiar with scientific foddr cultivation and fodder conservation diary co-operatives should come foward to cultivate green fodder and make it available to farmers at reasonable price

Transport cost also can be saved by farmers is 10 kg bag are made available

The capital should be directed towards modernisation of production

Appendix

Questionaire 1

Name of the diary farmer : 2

Male/Female

Educational Qualification : Below 5-10,

Hs,above HSS 5

Source of income

Land holding

Number of cattle holding

Average milk/cow/day

Average milk sales/day

Why you prefer diary farming : 11

What about your standard of living in our society : 12

Do you get remunerative price for milk : 13

Dou you have green fodder cultivation : 14

What are the problems faced in diary farming : 15

Do you get profit or loss

Do you borrow money from bank or any other agencies for diary farming : 18

Do you get sufficient money from diary farming to repay the borrowings :

Are you satisfied with diary farming 20

Any suggetion to improve the diary farming Signature

:Investigator