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COMMONWEALTH ASSOCIATION OF POLYTECHNICS IN AFRICA CONFERENCE Globalisation and TVET in Africa: Challenges and Opportunities

Implications of Globalisation for TVET Curriculum Design

Gabriel S Konayuma

Ministry of Science,

Technology and Vocational Training Zambia

Willow Park Conference Centre,

Johannesburg December 2007

Implications of Globalisation for TVET Curriculum Design

Globalisation and TVET in Africa: Challenges and Opportunities Implications of Globalisation for TVET Curriculum Design Gabriel S

Konayuma,

MBA Senior TEVET Officer,

Ministry of Science,

Technology and Vocational Training,

[email protected] Abstract African countries are facing the challenges of globalisation that have significant impact and implications on the delivery of TVET

These implications of globalisation for TVET include the areas of curriculum design,

pedagogical innovations and resource mobilisation

This paper focuses on the implications of globalisation for TVET curriculum design and training methodologies

It draws lessons from the experiences of TVET curriculum design in Zambia and countries in the region

The paper concludes with recommendations for closer co-operation between African nations which includes sharing of best practices in TVET curriculum design and training methodologies

The paper seeks to increase the knowledge of globalisation-induced trends in TVET delivery to TVET practitioners

The paper also seeks to lead TVET practitioners and policy makers to an understanding of the implications and impact of globalisation on education and training in general

Lastly,

the paper seeks to propose strategies that will promote quality and relevant TVET for national development and economic competitiveness in a globalizing economy

Key words: Globalisation,

Technical and Vocational Education and Training,

Curriculum design

INTRODUCTION Globalisation has been described as a system of economic forces of change that are driving the future

Indeed,

no country can afford to ignore the effects of globalisation or the increasing integration and inter-dependence of national economies

Globalisation is driven by the ease of information exchange,

goods and services across national boundaries

One of the main challenges of globalisation for TVET in Africa is the tension it has created between developing skills for poverty eradication and skills for global economic competitiveness (CAPA,

2007:1)

African countries are facing the challenges of globalisation that have significant impact and implications on the delivery of TVET

These implications of globalisation for TVET include the areas of curriculum design,

pedagogical innovations and resource mobilisation

This paper focuses on the implications of globalisation for TVET curriculum design and training methodologies

It draws lessons from the experiences of TVET curriculum design in Zambia and countries in the region

Gabriel S Konayuma

Implications of Globalisation for TVET Curriculum Design

BACKGROUND INFORMATION ON AFRICA New policies and politics are slowly creating a completely new economic environment across the African continent

Political changes are driving greater opportunity and openness

A spate of liberalization and privatisation has flooded across the region (Shelley,

2004:11)

Geographically,

Africa is the second largest continent on earth,

occupying 20% of the Earth's land area

Africa's land area is approximately 30

The Nile River is the world’s longest river

Other long rivers in Africa are the Congo,

Zambezi,

Africa's share of the world's major mineral reserves is estimated as follows: 8% petroleum,

and substantial reserves of iron ore,

Algeria,

and Nigeria are the major petroleum and natural gas producing countries in Africa

Botswana,

Democratic Republic of Congo,

and South Africa together produce 50% of the world's diamonds

South Africa,

and Zimbabwe together produce nearly 50% of the world’s gold

Africa’s population is 887 million (about 14% of the total world population) (Globeafrica,

2007:1)

Key sectors in the African economy are: agriculture,

financial and information and communication technology

In Agriculture the situation whereby African nations export crops to the West while millions on the continent starve has been blamed on Western States including Japan,

the European Union and the United States

These countries protect their own agricultural sectors with high import tariffs and offer subsidies to their farmers,

which many contend leads to the overproduction of such commodities as grain,

The result of this is that the global price of such products is continually reduced until Africans are unable to compete,

except for cash crops that do not grow easily in a northern climate

While mining and drilling produce most of Africa's revenues each year,

these industries only employ about two million people,

a tiny fraction of the continent's population

In manufacturing Africa is the least industrialized continent

Egypt and other North African nations have substantial manufacturing sectors

Despite readily available cheap labour,

nearly all of the continent's natural resources are exported for secondary refining and manufacturing

According to the African Development Bank,

about 15% of workers are employed in the industrial sector (Wikipedia,

2007:1)

In the ICT sector,

the continent has the largest growth rate of cellular subscribers in the world

African markets are expanding nearly twice as fast as Asian markets

The African cell phone has created a base for cellular banking

Some local and international banks are offering cellular banking as well as Internet and e-mail banking

DEFINITIONS OF KEY TERMS Globalisation: Globalisation means growing interdependence,

capital and information and the diffusion of democracy and agreements on environmental and human rights standards (Regan,

2002:224)

Globalisation is also defined as the increasing interconnection of people and places as a result of advances in transport,

and information technologies that causes political,

and cultural convergence (Wikipedia,

2007:1)

Gabriel S Konayuma

Implications of Globalisation for TVET Curriculum Design

Technical and Vocational Education: Technical and Vocational Education

is used as a comprehensive term referring to those aspects of the educational process involving,

in addition to general education,

the study of technologies and related sciences,

and the acquisition of practical skills,

understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in various sectors of economic and social life (UNESCO,

2001:1-2)

Curriculum: Curriculum refers to the teaching and learning activities and experiences which are provided by schools

It is also defined as all aspects of teaching and learning such as the intended outcomes of learning,

2000:5)

CURRICULUM DESIGN IN TVET IN ZAMBIA Curriculum design in TVET in Zambia is done using a mix of TVET trainers,

professional associations and staff from Technical Education,

Vocational and Entrepreneurship Training Authority (TEVETA) and government ministries

The curriculum is designed for various programmes ranging from Construction,

Tailoring and Design,

Information and Communication Technology,

Carpentry and Joinery,

Hospitality and Tourism etc

New programmes are developed when a training need is identified by training institutions,

Existing programmes are reviewed in a similar manner

Currently TEVETA manages the curriculum design and review process by supervising the curriculum development teams and providing guidance

The curriculum is developed by developing occupational profiles for various skills levels of training

These are then used to develop curricula indicating the learning outcomes expected of trainees after the end of each learning programme

The curriculum is developed using a combination of DACUM (Develop A Curriculum) and SCID (Systematic Curricula Instructional Design)

Curriculum is developed at two levels: national and local

National curricula is used by trainees from various provinces in Zambia while local curricula are used by trainees in local communities to address their training needs

The former is developed under the guidance of TEVETA and involves industry and staff from different parts of Zambia while the latter involves mostly local staff

For the national curricula,

efforts are made to ensure that the national vision and plans are incorporated

This includes ensuring that priority economic sectors such as mining,

agriculture and tourism have their curricula reviewed regularly

However,

apart from the national curricula developed by TEVETA,

TVET institutions also use international curricula developed mostly in the United Kingdom

There have been debates on the suitability of some of the programmes for the development needs of Zambia

At one time,

the Zambia Institute of Marketing (ZIM) advised Zambians to ensure they obtained local Marketing qualifications e

the marketing degree programme offered by the Copperbelt University and the Diploma and Certificate Marketing programmes examined by the Examinations Council of Zambia offered in TEVET institutions

Their argument in the advice offered was that the local programmes offered addressed the marketing needs of Zambians

The professional marketing programmes they later advised were suitable as an added advantage to students that already the marketing programmes

This case illustrates the way that a number of Zambians and may I say Africans get attracted to studying foreign programmes without looking at whether they address local needs

Gabriel S Konayuma

Implications of Globalisation for TVET Curriculum Design

institutions offer these programmes because they are popular and they sound “nice” to teach and have without looking at the consequence of whether the trainees will get employed and contribute to national development

However,

not all foreign programmes are in conflict with the needs of African nations

It is important that ministries in charge of vocational education and training devise measures to ensure that curricula that is used in training institutions whether local or foreign is relevant to the needs of the nation

A number of nations in the region such as South Africa,

Namibia,

Botswana and Mauritius have developed qualifications frameworks so as to ensure that qualifications that are offered are relevant and meet quality measures

Zambia too is in the process of developing a TEVET Qualification Framework (TQF) and National Qualification Framework (NQF)

IMPLICATIONS OF GLOBALISATION FOR TVET CURRICULUM DESIGN What are the implications of globalisation for TVET Curriculum design

TVET Curriculum design should incorporate interdependence in today’s global arena

From the definition of globalisation above which states that globalisation is growing interdependence curriculum design in TVET must have the interdependence of subject areas fused in it

For example,

curricula in Information Technology should include aspects of entrepreneurship,

communication skills and management

Interdependence also covers the area of interdependence of nations in knowledge and skills

As globalisation spreads Curriculum designers need to realise that skills and knowledge that they may lack could be acquired using the Internet

The Internet brings global knowledge close to people wherever they are found

Secondly,

globalisation requires the development of high level skills in TVET trainees

This entails that the curriculum should not just concentrate on traditional skills but also develop high level technical skills for global economic competitiveness

“Although the primary objective of TVET in Africa is to help alleviate poverty through the acquisition of employable skills,

a strategic approach to skills development on the content cannot ignore the effects of globalisation

In a globalising world economy,

the acquisition of “industrial” skills is also important” (African Union,

2007:15)

Thirdly,

globalisation implies that TVET Curriculum design should be flexible

Designers of TVET curriculum need to bear in mind that trainees in TVET have different backgrounds socially,

technologically and also in terms of knowledge and skills

TVET curriculum design should have greater emphasis on recognition of prior learning

This is to ensure that trainees’ are not made to take subjects or modules whose knowledge or competencies that they already possess

Fourthly,

cross-cutting issues such as HIV & AIDS,

disability and the environment need to be part and parcel of TVET curriculum design in an increasingly global world

HIV and AIDS for example is a reality globally that has a negative impact on the developing human resource base of many nations

A number of nations are losing youths that would otherwise contribute to economic development if they were not claimed by the AIDS pandemic

TVET curricula apart from bio-medical and scientific programmes should address HIV & AIDS issues

It should also integrate issues of disability

In Zambia,

Information and Communication Technology curricula for the Visually Impaired was developed in 2004

Gabriel S Konayuma

Implications of Globalisation for TVET Curriculum Design

issue of gender and development is also key in TVET Curriculum design

The very design of curriculum should avoid gender stereotyping

Some vocational training programmes like dressmaking,

and cookery are associated with girls – very often girls who are less gifted academically

In Benin,

such girls are derogatorily referred to as following the “c” option of the secondary school curriculum: la serie “c” – couture,

2007:34)

Globalisation is also impacting TVET curriculum design in issues of the environment

Sustainable development in TVET is becoming a key topic at many international TVET fora

Recently UNESCO hosted a Virtual Conference on Education for Sustainable Development

The conference sought to provide participants with a better understanding of how SD can be addressed through TVET in different contexts

It also sought to bring out an outcome of criteria and principles that described sustainable performance of TVET institutions

Fifthly,

globalisation implies that TVET Curriculum design should incorporate ICT enabled education

E-learning is becoming an important way for many to acquire knowledge and skills within TVET institutions and at the workplace

E-learning has also become a major theme in TVET for a in Africa

E-learning Africa has recently held two conferences i

in Ethiopia in 2006 and in Kenya this year

Plans are already in full swing for another conference in May 2008 in Ghana (details are on www

The conference this year attracted over 1200 participants with 80% coming from Africa

UNESCO has taken advantage to have a one day African summit on the first day for TVET Policy makers and practitioners to discuss issues of ICT and e-learning

Sixthly,

globalisation has implications for TVET curriculum design in that the curricula needs to address the flooding of markets in Africa with cheap products

For instance,

an African TVET graduate who was taught Carpentry and Joinery would face a great challenge in selling their wooden furniture when it competes with international products made from plastic

The curriculum should thus include aspects of how students can manufacture furniture from bamboo and other products

It should also emphasize aspects of business management,

business opportunity identification and marketing strategies in order to survive in a globally competitive market

RECOMMENDATIONS 1

Policy Makers and Governments  Introduce sustainable funding schemes for TVET

If TVET is to make a significant contribution to the economic development then sustainable funding is very important

 Increase funding support to the sector

In as much as there is competing demand for funding from other sectors,

African nations can best produce globally competitive trainees with adequate funding to the TVET sector

 Set up venture capital and provide tools and equipment to support TVET graduates start their own enterprises which will lead to job and wealth creation

 Support research and development in the TVET sector to ensure that national TVET systems can cope with the effects of globalisation

 Constantly monitor and evaluate the TVET system to ensure improved quality,

 Incorporate generic skills in curriculum such as:

Gabriel S Konayuma

Implications of Globalisation for TVET Curriculum Design

analyzing and organizing information

communicating ideas and information

planning and organizing activities

working with others and in teams

using mathematical ideas and techniques

and using technology (Bhuwanee,

20005:1)

Training Providers  Establish strong linkages and collaboration with employers and industry

 Mainstream cross cutting issues such as entrepreneurship,

HIV & AIDS,

gender into training programmes and activities

Joint studies such as the one undertaken by Botswana and Zambia in 2006 (TVET sector) with the support of UNESCO-UNEVOC and their respective governments are commendable

 Benchmarking against best practices in TVET nationally,

Co-operating Partners  Need to partner in funding research and advocacy for TVET

CONCLUSION The paper looked at Curriculum design in Zambia highlighting the involvement of TVET regulators,

providers and industry in the design

The paper then looked at the implications of globalisation on curriculum design

Implications such as interdependence in the curriculum,

development of high levels skills in TVET trainees,

a flexible TVET Curriculum design,

incorporating cross-cutting issues in curriculum design and having a TVET Curriculum design incorporating ICT enabled education and having curricula that addresses the flooding of markets in Africa with cheap products

The paper makes recommendations for policy makers,

training providers and co-operating partners

These recommendations are meant to ensure that curriculum design in Africa is relevant,

accessible and of high quality so as to remain globally competitive

This is in keeping with the African Union vision of “an integrated,

driven by its own people to take its rightful place in the global community and the knowledge economy

Gabriel S Konayuma

Implications of Globalisation for TVET Curriculum Design

BIBLIOGRAPHY African Union,

Addis Ababa: African Union

Bhuwanee,

UNESCO Professional Cadres and TVET Policy Makers Seminar

Lilongwe: UNESCO

Nairobi: Commonwealth Association for Polytechnics in Africa

Globe Africa,

Available from http://www

[Accessed 30th August 2007] Regan,

Wicklow: 80:20 Educating and Acting for a Better World,

Pretoria: South African Qualifications Authority

Shelley,

Cape Town: Zebra Press

UNESCO,

Paris: UNESCO

Wikipedia 2007 Globalization [online]

Available from: http://en

org/wiki/Globalization [Accessed on 30 November 2007]

Gabriel S Konayuma