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of Chinese Goods on Indian Economy

Description

A FINAL PROJECT REPORT ON

“IMPACT OF CHINESE GOODS ON INDIAN ECONOMY” For The Partial Fulfillment of Degree of Bachelors of Business Administration Batch 2010-2013

UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF DR

AJAY SHARMA Faculty of management Graphic Era University,

Dehradun

Submitted by: RAJAT MITTAL BBA VIth SEMESTER (MARKETING)

GRAPHIC ERA UNIVERSITY

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This project is a bonafide record of the research work done by me in the partial fulfillment

BACHELOR

BUSINESS

ADMINISTRATION

I would like to convey my special thanks to Dr

Ajay Sharma (Faculty of management GEU) for giving me an opportunity to undergo this project

Above all I would like to thank God as the project would not have been completed without the shadow of his dignity

RAJAT MITTAL VIth SEM (Marketing) BBA

GRAPHIC ERA UNIVERSITY

TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1

Chapter 2

Chapter 3

- India vs

China Economy

Chapter 4 – Research Methodology

Chapter 5

Chapter 6

Chapter 7

Chapter 8

- Findings

Conclusion

Bibliography

GRAPHIC ERA UNIVERSITY

CHAPTER

SOLD IN INDIA:With the world turning into a global village and competition getting stiff,

countries like China are ruling the roost in many a market in varied spheres

India is the hub of diverse business opportunities,

Chinese products like electronics,

are predominating similar Indian products

The festive season is the season of business especially filling the pockets of traders

But instead of the domestic sector holding sway over the market,

the opportunities are grabbed by Chinese manufacturers with their variety of exquisite products

Whether it is SMEs ( Small and Medium Enterprises) or cottage industries,

they are not able to provide a stiff competition to the cost effective offers provided by the Chinese

Due to these relentless import of Chinese products,

most Indian cottage industries have closed down,

and the future of the existing ones looks very bleak

The Chinese entrepreneurs have infiltrated the market in a very systematic manner with their well-planned marketing strategies and continuous innovations

They GRAPHIC ERA UNIVERSITY

study the demand patterns and the market trends and work out the lowest price that they can offer to attract a huge section of the consumers while still maintaining a profitable margin

As the Indian market is price-oriented,

the domestic players are slowly losing their share to the strategic Chinese entrepreneurs

Chinese electronic goods like radio,

DVD players,

are reigning supreme in the Indian market

Decorative items,

fashion accessories like slippers,

receive huge responses during festive seasons

This year,

one saw the flooding of the Indian markets with Chinese made idols which were welcomed with open arms by the Indian consumers

Commenting on the change of the market scenario,

P Agarwal,

President of Delhi Exporters Association,

"Chinese manufacturers have created a big problem for the Indian manufacturers

Especially the cottage sector which produces goods like handicrafts,

has been drastically affected,

by the dominance of Chinese products in the market

This has raised a question mark against the various marketing policies that the Indian Government is making

" Even the entry of these products is questionable

According to Mr

Bikky Khosla,

"The need of the hour is to address whether the products are fully duty paid or

GRAPHIC ERA UNIVERSITY

In the long run,

with globalization and free trade becoming the norm of trade,

Indian SMEs need to buckle up and get ready to face these challenges

No doubt SMEs have been affected,

yet they need to be educated on latest market trends and technologies

SMEs should be encouraged and guided for the marketing of their products

Agarwal said,

"Indian SMEs should learn from China about various marketing strategies undertaken by them

Rather than comparing the two countries,

the Government should first focus on its policies and work on the ways to ensure that these products from China are heavily taxed so that the Indian craftsmen's only livelihood don't get affected due to the unrestricted import of Chinese made products

" The only way the above problem can be solved up to an extent is by introducing SME favorable policies

The Indian Government should understand the basic fact that SMEs are the backbone of Indian economy and their growth will in turn add to the development of India

Indian SMEs should also continuously study the market needs and come up with innovative and cost effective products to tackle the burning issue

GRAPHIC ERA UNIVERSITY

ECONOMY OF INDIA The economy of India is the tenth-largest in the world by nominal GDP and the third-largest by purchasing power parity (PPP)

The country is one of the G-20 major economies and a member of BRICS

On a per-capita-income basis,

India ranked 141st by nominal GDP and 130th by GDP (PPP) in 2012,

India is the 19th-largest exporter and the 10th-largest importer in the world

Economic growth rate slowed to around 5

It is to be noted that India's GDP grew by an astounding 9

the growth rate has nearly halved in just three years

The independence-era Indian economy (from 1947 to 1991) was based on a mixed economy combining features of capitalism and socialism,

resulting in an inward-looking,

interventionist policies and import-substituting economy that failed to take advantage of the post-war expansion of trade

This model contributed to widespread inefficiencies and corruption,

and the failings of this system were due largely to its poor implementation

In 1991,

India adopted liberal and free-market principles and liberalized its economy to international trade under the guidance of Manmohan Singh,

finance minister from 30 November 2009 to 24 January 2010,

and previously under the leadership of P

Narasimha Rao,

prime minister from 1991 to 1996,

who had eliminated License Raj,

a pre- and post-British era mechanism of strict government controls on setting up new industry

Following these major economic reforms,

and a strong focus on developing national infrastructure such as the Golden Quadrilateral project by Atal Bihari Vajpayee,

the country's economic growth progressed at a rapid pace,

with relatively large increases in per-capita incomes

GRAPHIC ERA UNIVERSITY

OVERVIEW The combination of protectionist,

import-substitution and Fabian social democratic-inspired policies governed India for sometime after the end of British occupation

The economy was then characterized by extensive regulation,

public ownership of large monopolies,

pervasive corruption and slow growth

Since 1991,

continuing economic liberalization has moved the country towards a market-based economy

By 2008,

India had established itself as one of the world's fastest growing economies

Growth significantly slowed to 6

but subsequently recovered to 7

while the fiscal deficit rose from 5

India's current account deficit surged to 4

The unemployment rate for 2010–11,

according to the state Labour Bureau,

As of 2011,

India's public debt stood at 68

However,

inflation remains stubbornly high with 7

the highest amotrade (counting exports and imports) stands at $606

During 2011–12,

India's foreign trade grew by an impressive 30

GRAPHIC ERA UNIVERSITY

CHAPTER

There seems to be no way to escape the DRAGON

! Chinese goods are using the big Indian market merely to dump their products and by doing so they are killing the Indian units

For example last year during Diwali,

China made crackers were sold in the Indian market

These crackers reportedly contained Sulphur

Sulphur is more harmful than Nitrate,

which is used in India to make crackers

? Since the Chinese crackers were cheaper than the Indian crackers,

so they managed to attract innocent and largely illiterate Indian lot

As a result the Indian cracker industry saw a decline in the revenue

Because of cheaper prices products made in China are becoming more popular among the Indian masses

This has had a very negative effect on our own manufacturing units and as a result many of them have had to shut shop

For instance,

data reveals that 60 per cent of the industrial units in the industrial belts of Thane and Bhivandi near Mumbai have been closed down

handicraft) Due to its cheap labour,

China offers low– priced imports such as textiles and clothing,

According to official data,

Chinese imports stood at $3I9 million (Rs 1,435 crore) during April-June this year as compared to $223 million (Rs 1000) crore during GRAPHIC ERA UNIVERSITY

the corresponding period of the previous year

It has also affected Indian Export market,

as china has replaced Indian goods in the foreign market as being cheaply produced

DRAGON’s designs of capturing a major share …: DRAGON‟s designs of capturing a major share … They are killing the economy of not only India but also the economy of the whole world very slowly

They are selling their cheap products on very cheap rates and we people are getting addicted of these cheap rated things and after few years there will come a time when you will see only the Chinese goods in the markets because all the other manufacturers will become bankrupt and after that China will start to raise the rates of their products i

there will be complete monopoly of china on the goods market

That‟s the policy on which china is working now days

GRAPHIC ERA UNIVERSITY

Page 10

CHAPTER-3 INDIA VS

CHINA ECONOMY INDIA VS CHINA ECONOMY Making an depth study and analysis of India vs

china economy seems to be a very hard task

both India & china rank among the front runners of global economy & are among the world‟s most diverse nation

Both the countries were among the most ancient civilizations and their economies are influenced by a number of social,

However,

if we try to properly understand the various economic and market trends and features of the two countries,

we can make a comparison between India and Chinese economy

Going by the basic facts the economy of china is more developed than that of India

while India is the 11th largest economy in terms of the exchange rates

china occupies the 2nd position surpassing Japan

Compared to the estimated $1

China has an average GDP of around $4909

India lags far behind china with just $1124 compared to $7

To make a basic comparison of India and china economy

we need to have an idea of the economic facts of the countries

GRAPHIC ERA UNIVERSITY

Page 11

28 billion

GDP growth

Per capital GDP

Inflation

Labor Force

5 million

Unemployment

Fiscal Deficit

Foreign Direct Investment

7 billion

Gold Reserves

Foreign Exchange Reserves

41 billion

World Prosperity Index

Mobile Users

71 million

Internet Users

16 million

81 million

If we make the analysis of India vs

we can see that there are a number of factors that has made china a better economy than India

First things first,

India was under the colonical rule of the British for around 190 years

This drained the countries resources to a great extent and led to huge economic loss

On the other hand,

she was no such instance of colonization in china

As such,

from the very beginning the country enjoyed a planned economic model which made stronger

GRAPHIC ERA UNIVERSITY

Page 12

AGRICULTURE Agriculture is another factor of economic comparison of India and china

It forms a major economic sector in both the countries

However,

the agriculture sector of china is more developed than that of India

Unlike India,

where farmers stills use the traditional and old methods of cultivation

The agriculture techniques used in china are very much developed

This leads to better quality and high yield of crops which can be exported

IT/BPO One of the sectors where India enjoys an upper hand over china is the IT/BPO industry

India‟s earning from the BPO sector alone in 2010 is $49

76 billion

LIBERALIZATION OF THE MARKET In spite of being a socialist country,

china started towards the liberalization of its market economy much before India

This strengthened the economy to a great extent

On the other hand,

India was a little slow in embracing globalization and open market economies

CHINA’S IMPORT & EXPORT (2010/11) As far as exports of both the countries are concerned both the country managed to do pretty well in 2012

China total imports and exports stood at US $2677

India‟s exports grew by 26

below is presented details about china‟s import and exports for the year 2010

GRAPHIC ERA UNIVERSITY

Page 13

CHINA’S IMPORTS & EXPORTS (2010/11) Absolute Value for November

Year-on-year growth % for November

Absolute Value Year-on-year for first 11 growth % for months first 11 months

Export Value

Import Value

Total Import and Export Value

Import and Export Balance

Impact of Imports from China on the Indian Economy in General and Employment in Particular in Share Even as the impacts of globalization continue to be debated,

it is generally conceded that such impacts are uneven across the economies of nation-states and also within particular countries

Some sectors gain more than others,

while others decline China has become India‟s leading trading partner

Two-way trade between the two most populous countries on the planet and the fastest growing large economies is expected to reach around USD 60 billion by the end of fiscal year that ends on March 31,

During a recent visit to India,

China‟s President Wen Jiabao and India‟s Prime Minister Manmohan Singh agreed to double bilateral trade to USD 100 billion by 20151

The trade deficit has been widening consistently and has reached USD 20 bn in China‟s favor causing concern among GRAPHIC ERA UNIVERSITY

Page 14

Indians

India accounts for just above one per cent of China‟s total exports but exports from India to China are a relatively negligible proportion of total imports by China

Casual anecdotal evidence points towards a fairly significant level of penetration of Chinese goods into virtually every nook and corner of markets in India

the “Made in China” product is very visible across the length and breadth of the country

China is considered the manufacturing hub of the world

There are allegations that Chinese firms have unfair advantages over their counterparts in other parts of the world (including India) in terms of tax breaks and a devalued currency

Chinese exporters have been accused of dumping

As a matter of fact,

India has initiated the highest number of anti-dumping cases against China

It has,

become important to study and understand how the rapid increase of Chinese imports to India has impacted markets here

On the one hand,

cheap imports from China could force Indian manufactures to become more productive and competitive

On the other hand,

unfair and predatory trade practices by Chinese companies could prove harmful not only to Indian industry but to the country‟s economy as a whole by constraining domestic job opportunities or even,

Whereas cheap products attract consumers,

concerns about quality and safety

GRAPHIC ERA UNIVERSITY

Page 15

CHAPTER-4 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 4

India should cut interest rates and figure out a way to compete with China,

which is inundating Indian markets with cheap goods

To study impact of Chinese goods on Indian economy

The data was collected from the official websites of SEBI and RBI

The final data were analyzed systematically to achieve the desired reserve from magazines,

GRAPHIC ERA UNIVERSITY

Page 16

CHAPTER

Rather than use tariff barriers to redress its trade imbalance,

India should add to the pressure on China to revalue its currency

Chinese Economic Collapse

Manipulation,

Bad Loans Is The China Bubble About To Burst

? A weak yuan has contributed to a surge of Chinese imports into vulnerable sectors such as raw silk

At another level,

China is increasing its presence in strategic sectors,

India has failed to come to grips with this situation

The governments reported efforts to rein in Chinese incursions into the Indian GRAPHIC ERA UNIVERSITY

Page 17

economy reflect the dangerous turn that economic relations between the two countries have now taken

The concerns over the balance of trade shifting sharply in favour of China have acquired a strategic edge,

with state-influenced Chinese companies gaining a significant share of critical sectors of the Indian economy

The knee-jerk reaction to this turn of events would be to raise tariff and non-tariff barriers at random

apart from generating retaliatory measures on the Chinese side,

this would also hurt the beneficial dimensions of trade between two of the world's fastestgrowing major economies

It would be more meaningful to explore the nature of the unfair advantage the Chinese have and work to create a more even trading field

At the heart of the Chinese success is their ability,

to take the instruments of state control into the battleground of the free market

Their trade with the United States has been spurred by keeping the yuan consistently weak against the dollar

This makes Chinese products cheaper and has allowed China to gain a major share of the American market

China's rising exports to the US should normally have led to an increase in the demand for the yuan and,

a strengthening of that currency

But China has avoided that outcome by buying dollar bonds and simultaneously not allowing the yuan to respond to market trends

To the extent that India tries to maintain some kind of stability in the rupee-dollar GRAPHIC ERA UNIVERSITY

Page 18

the Chinese advantage against the dollar is transferred to the rupee as well

And if this advantage is countered by the rupee weakening against the dollar,

it simultaneously raises the cost of our essential imports

This has an inflationary impact at home as it pushes up the price of oil and food imports

There is thus an Indian interest in keeping the rupee stable against the dollar,

even if it offers an advantage to Chinese imports into India

STRATEGIC INVESTMENTS The Chinese have built on this exchange-rate induced advantage for their products in Indian markets through strategic investments in key sectors of the Indian economy

By keeping their currency weak they are no doubt increasing the cost of their investment in Indian companies

But the Chinese evidently believe this investment is still worth their while because of the strategic importance of the sectors their state-influenced,

They are now believed to have a significant stake in India's power sector and are making rapid inroads into the telecom sector as well

Even as the Chinese are breaking out of old ideological moulds to use their state power in a relatively free global market,

India is helping their cause by making it easier for them to target vulnerable sectors of the Indian economy

A striking example of this trend is the Union government's approach to Indian sericulture

GRAPHIC ERA UNIVERSITY

Page 19

Karnataka emerged as India's largest raw silk producing State,

largely on the basis of a concerted effort in the 1970s to develop sericulture as a secondary occupation for agriculturists

The success of this initiative provided a safety net for agriculturists in the decades when the Green Revolution began to falter

For several years now this sericulture segment has faced the challenge of the Chinese dumping raw silk into the Indian market

Aided by a favorable exchange rate as well as possible state support,

China has been grabbing a larger share of the Indian raw silk market

And the Indian government has,

in its commitment to liberalization,

aided this process by reducing the duties on raw silk

the Chinese have developed an ability to hurt vulnerable sections of the Indian economy

It may be paranoid to see this as being part of a Maoist conspiracy,

but its destabilizing potential cannot be ignored

TARIFF BARRIERS The seriousness of the current situation may demand the immediate erection of tariff and other barriers,

but there is little to be gained in the longer term by building barriers between the two major economies that are outside the direct impact of the economic crisis that has engulfed the Western world

Rather than blocking all trade,

the way forward would be to target the instruments that China has used to gain this hold on the Indian economy

Prominent among the longer-term steps India could take is to join the international GRAPHIC ERA UNIVERSITY

Page 20

pressure that is being built up on China to make its currency reflect market realities,

at least to a greater extent than is the case today

India would also have to consider increasing state investment,

not to subsidize specific industries,

but to at least offset some of the advantages that Chinese products are provided by their state

Special care must also be taken to ensure that state- supported Chinese goods are not dumped in a way that destroys the most vulnerable sections of the Indian economy

As India gears up to meeting the economic and strategic threat that China now poses,

it is important to remember that the most rewarding way forward lies in fair trade rather than no trade

GRAPHIC ERA UNIVERSITY

Page 21

Invasion of Chinese goods in India- the Whys and How’s Come any occasion and the Indian consumer is ready to make a beeline to purchase another of those Chinese goods

For one,

these Chinese goods are substantially cheaper than Indian goods and come in wide varieties

In very simple terms in Economics,

we know that anything like large scale dumping and imports can spell a disaster for the economy

In simple Keynesian terms,

it is a leakage of Income from the Economy

This article focuses on the background of the Pricing Policy by China,

the damage or not it can cause for the Indian domestic industry,

the anti dumping tariffs adopted by the Indian government,

the latest Statistics and we conclude with some Policy suggestions

As the memory of an Indian consumer goes,

this influx of cheap Chinese goods started in the late 90s and gained momentum thereon

Every article,

be it an expensive Barbie doll or a painting you want to adorn your house with has a Chinese alternate to it

Why the Chinese goods are priced so cheap

? The cost of production being less in China is an obvious answer but when we dwell deeper into the world of Chinese manufacturing,

Chinese goods are known for their moderate quality,

prompt delivery and affordable prices in comparison to Indian goods

GRAPHIC ERA UNIVERSITY

Page 22

Following are some of the reasons behind Chinese goods being cheaper than Indian goods 1) China does not have stringent intellectual property rights (IPR) issues so come any new product in the world market

China is ready with a cheaper alternate

Thus there is no cost of research,

designing and redesigning of any product

Chinese companies are not so particular

? This needs to Be carefully studied

the ending of the textile quota regime and Chinese accession to WTO,

the dumping activity by Chinese has increased manifold

High level of cash subsidies being offered by the Chinese government to its producers and exporters

GRAPHIC ERA UNIVERSITY

Page 23

Adopt the business model focused on higher volumes is a natural progression in this scenario

We must also mention here the advantages of the high economies of scale and higher level of Productivity achieved by highly skilled labor

We must remember here that China could not have been able to do it alone

The import of technology and Infrastructure from West has played a very important role

Had West not opened its gate to the Chinese products,

China could not have boasted of such huge trade surplus

China Imports very little from the rest of the world

It is noteworthy to mention the reverse Chinese model of manufacturing

China produces in bulk and sells in bulk

Rather than waiting for the orders and then producing,

Chinese have mastered the art of producing first and selling it later

This is possible due to low interest rates and low taxes Chinese government imposes

This model helps the buyers as they do not have to wait for the produce

They can inspect,

pay and ship the delivery in a single day

! Since Chinese accession to WTO,

China has been much more liberalized in reducing Tariff and Non Tariff barriers

The Liberalization measures taken by China have been more broad and deep in nature though it entered WTO in 1991 whereas India has been a member since Inception

GRAPHIC ERA UNIVERSITY

Page 24

Dumping Meaning and Effects- The simple meaning of dumping is to sell your country‟s products in other countries at unfair lower rates than the domestic rates prevailing in the country of Export leading to losses to domestic suppliers

China has indulged in large scale dumping all across the world

India being majorly affected

Here it has to be remembered that everything you complain against will not be qualified as dumping

According to WTO,

if Investigations prove for such goods falling in the anti dumping bracket that the exporter is charging a price below than what he charges in his domestic market or if the volume of imports is too high so as to cause a disadvantage to the local producers can be called as dumping

we conclude that not any and everything will be classified as dumping

Once a complaint is filed,

it has to be investigated by a designated agencies taking into account the WTO laws

Dumping wars have gained strong ground especially in the times of recession,

with India filing maximum number of anti dumping cases against China

A growing insecurity for India in resorting to levy of high anti dumping duty is the current high trade deficit with China

Can we forget to mention here the case of green

where the Interest of the local monopolist was protected at the cost of consumers getting a better product at more competitive prices

? Besides dumping is not the only way Chinese goods enter India,

much of it enters through Illegal route of Nepal

China leads in the number of anti dumping cases filed against any country in the WTO

Between 1995 and 2005,

India filed more anti dumping complaints against China than any of the developed nations of US and Europe

Anti dumping GRAPHIC ERA UNIVERSITY

Page 25

measures have become more popular today to offset unfair competition,

in relation to other measures such as QR‟s and import quotas which are non discriminatory in nature and require injury in severest form

To India,

the pinch is more in those areas where it is also a large producer such as chemicals,

Recently anti dumping Import duties have been filled on acrylic fibers,

Analgin,

caustic soda and green veneer tape

From 1995-1999,

India initiated 140 anti dumping investigations which are highest for any country

Many feel this is not fair

It is also seen that the amount of anti dumping duties levied are against the basic rules

This also arises due to the non market economy (NME) status of China in countries such as US

As we examine,

we find out that the entire amount of duty which is levied against the Chinese goods is flawed

Here it is pertinent to understand the meaning of a Non Market Economy

In very simple terms,

a Non Market Economy is one which does not operate on market principles of cost and pricing

For NME‟s,

the value of its goods do not reflect the true price

In most cases in US,

it is seen that where the Chinese companies fail to respond against the AD case,

(Many a times due to Ignorance of the legal structure) it gets more of an unfair deal

China‟s relation with US- It has already been mentioned that the boom in China is “made in USA”

Another question which is being asked commonplace today is “Are Economies such as US and Europe overly dependent on cheap Chinese

?” The answer is „no‟ as Stephen Dunaway rightly points out,

that due to intense competition,

the cost differentials between China and other counties has GRAPHIC ERA UNIVERSITY

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Another point which needs mentioning is that China‟s Economy is highly export dependent on countries such as US,

so we may as well study the dependence the other way

China is facing strong opposition of dumping from the European countries as well

These Countries are levying a high import duty on vast scales Chinese dumping of leather goods

To salvage their own domestic Industries countries like Japan are resorting to high level investment in China to sell back in their own domestic economies

This will soon be followed suit by many other Economies

FDI is playing a big role in China‟s technological process with China becoming an attractive destination

India and China are considered at par in terms of investments

India with its paranoid behavior is lacking in many respects to provide a suitable ground to MNC‟s to invest in the country thus losing big on FDI

Current Strategy – The Protectionist path: What stand has India taken on Chinese

? India‟s strategy revolves around Imposing high tariffs and taxes on Chinese goods whereas countries like Japan have resorted to a high level investment in China to counterfeit Chinese dumping

How does this work

? Does it affect level of FDI in our country

? With the dumping allegations against China Increasing

? Is putting high level of tariffs the only solution

a high level of tariffs does promote a menace called smuggling and offers no solution

Indian consumers end up paying more for products they could have brought cheap

Doesn‟t the simple theory of comparative advantage tell us

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those two countries should produce and exchange products with each other in which they have a comparative advantage in

? Also trade between two countries should be a multiple of their GDP‟s

Antidumping tariffs are not a solution,

for one as suggested by many an economists,

the line between protecting the producers and consumer welfare is very thin

Anti dumping games only prevent the competition rather than the competitors

In some cases where the product is being used as a raw material and an antidumping duty is levied on it,

the end user industries suffer because of the cost of rise in their raw materials

They come at the mercy of the monopolist,

duopolistic or the cartelized arrangements in their own country

thus the entire arguments of levying the anti-dumping duty becomes a façade

This is clearly illustrated in the case of imposing a safeguard duty on soda ash

It was vehemently opposed by the detergent and glass manufacturers

Their arguments being that imports of soda ash are less than 10% of the total domestic production and it doesn‟t qualify for dumping

These imports just help in keeping a reality check on the prices

The Government recently imposed a 6 month ban on the import of Chinese toys to India and withdrew it within two months after Beijing warned of going to WTO

The Domestic industry is now alleging China of becoming a price predator (Price Predation refers to selling at lower prices to acquire market share and increasing prices in future) this time

Is it a case of artificial pricing or high

? intensity of competition amongst Chinese products which make similar products cost upto70% less is to be seen

Another Important fact to be mentioned here is that anti dumping Investigations takes long time for final settlement which can GRAPHIC ERA UNIVERSITY

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easily damage the domestic Industries

This has to become faster paced especially in authentic cases wherein the domestic producers are affected

Where does the solution lie

? Are not increasing the Tariffs an easy solution for India or does it needs to work on its own domestic problems

? How competitive is Indian manufacturing

? Why are we not able to offer price parity with the Chinese

? India has a rather dismal rate of competitiveness

The World Bank gives India a low rank of 40 out of 46 countries in terms of its manufacturing prowess

What is it that is holding the manufacturing sector

? These are but a few questions we may ask in context of the given study

It is very clear that there is a tradeoff between the benefits to the consumers and the producers and a balance has to be maintained for the sanctity of justice in trade is to prevail but easier said than done,

the solution isn‟t that simple

It is time the Government of India examines its own policies

All fallacies do not lie with the manufacturing sector

Indian manufacturers do not get adequate Infrastructure

They have to pay high level of taxes

To remain in the reserved sector to get certain privileges by the Government they have to remain small and can‟t then enjoy the “Economies of scale” as enjoyed by their Chinese brethren

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Time has come to develop and enhance inter industry trade with China

knowing that Chinese exports have substantial complementariness with Indian imports

FDI in India till now has not entered the way it has entered China

business tax exemptions given to foreign firms which has not happened in India

These are few of the factors which raises the cost of production for Indian goods making it difficult to compete on price basis with Chinese

Imposition of anti-dumping and safeguard duties are not solutions

Time has come to raise the efficiency and Competitiveness of our own Industries

Unfair Methodology adopted by US,

India and other Countries

The anti-dumping margins are grossly overstated

The domestic producers use them as their weapon to get advantages to the hilt

The zeroing methodology is widely criticized

( Zeroing methodology means that when the Indian price is higher instead of assigning a negative value to this,

thus eliminating the negative trade margin) This is against the basic rules of WTO 4

The going of the collected anti dumping duty to the domestic producer in the US doubly hurt the Chinese companies

They have to pay penance in the form of anti dumping duty and their revenue is dispersed to their domestic competitors

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Market Economy status for China and Impact on India- With China‟s entry into the WTO,

there is much talk happening about granting of MES to China

(MES-When the exporting country is treated at par in terms of transparency and prices are known to be decided by the economic forces

What forbearing it has for India

? For once a market economy status doesn‟t take the anti dumping prowess from you

It will be in the best interest if India does it earlier rather than becoming a mere follower to other countries

This has more political considerations rather than economic

It is also to be remembered that granting of MES to China will not have any effect on the trade deficit

On the upside,

it will ensure that Indian manufacturers improve their efficiency at the earliest possible along with substantial developments in the infrastructural development

Investment linkages between India and China will also grow in coming times

Reforms need to be Implemented by WTO- The need of the hour is not the complete dismantling of Anti Dumping duties but some reforms to be implemented at the WTO level

The WTO rules and regulations in terms of the anti dumping measures are entangled with many rules and regulations

Reexamination of duties imposed after a certain time period,

a maximum limit to the amount of duty imposed,

making the concept of “Injury” clear,

abolition of back to back cases,

time taken for the finalization etc need to be worked upon Future Prospects- As all good things come to an end so will the heavenly rights enjoyed by China

The price of Chinese products in near future will be more realistic as IPR is enforced

The west too is realizing the huge trade surplus of GRAPHIC ERA UNIVERSITY

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the recent imposing quotas on Chinese textiles (Better known as the Bra War) bringing China to reality grounds

Also though China has maintained the price of its goods as static to capture large share in world volumes but it is sooner or later going to face the rising cost of raw materials

China would soon increase its prices when it enters the market economy status which is 2016 for US

We must not forget that India and China produce similar kinds of goods in terms of their export basket to the West

China has highly skilled labor and a comparative advantage in the assembly stage of technology

India has to improve its manufacturing process

Non tariff measures such as Anti Dumping will only prove to be detrimental

In many cases,

it has been observed that the mere filing of a case leads to a total disruption of trade

Trade relations in the coming years between these two BRIC giants are bound to improve,

China‟s imports are surging into India on account of their product diversification and competitiveness

The reality is that 72% of the products imported are at par with Indian Quality or even superior

The World today sits back to notice when a professor claims that in 2050 the trade relations between India and China will be the most important economic relationship in the world and these countries will drive the growth of the entire world leaving far behind the Giant four

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CHAPTER

as also how china is invading the Indian market in checked & thereby killing the Indian units

Some of the alarming facts in this regard are as follows: 

Chinese government offers a lot of tax benefits & subsidies to the manufactures as

Compared to Indian government,

which results in high taxes on raw materials in India as compared to imported Chinese goods & hence Chinese goods cost lesser as compared to finished goods made in India

As a result,

Chinese goods are becoming popular in India

Chinese business have penetrated deep inside the Indian markets and as result crippling the Indian economy and its self sustainability

The range of markets engulfed by china vary from low priced toys of linen fabrics,

torches and DVD players and so on

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Moreover,

the cheap Chinese goods lack in terms of quality too

Some of the disadvantages of Chinese goods are:  lack of durability

 No guarantee or back service

Threats that Indian industries are facing & going to face in near future due to the Inundating of Indian markets with Chinese goods is:1) Industries related to toys,

electrical accessories which are almost completely overshadowed with Chinese brands

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Industries affected by invention of Chinese market in India:1) 60% of industrial units in the industrial belts of thane and bhivandi near Mumbai have been closed down

Now after eyeing the impending disasters of the issue,

the gathering was confronted with the following concerns 1) How can we stop invasion of Chinese market

? 2) Why are we unable to stop the invasion of Chinese market

? The students were exhorted to think on these lines and the unanimous decision was that at personal level we can take step like  Make people aware of Chinese invasion in India,

 Harmful effects of Chinese goods,

 Avoid buying the Chinese goods with conviction for some visible change to become apparent

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CHAPTER

CHINA GOODS IN INDIA:1)

JKB35-30 low price mud brick machine China goods in India Min

Order: 1 Set FOB Price: US $9000-15000 / Set Place of Origin: CN

Power: 140Kw

Capacity: 11000PCS,

Processing: Brick Production Line

Brand Name: Junxin Machine

Tire recycling machine for tyre oil

Order: 1 Set FOB Price: US $25000-70000 / Set Place of Origin: CN

Type: Tire Machine,

Brand Name: Wharbo

Tire Machine Type: Tire Recycling Machine

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Automatic fly ash brick machine making,

China goods in India Min

Order: 1 Set FOB Price: US $17918-18628 / Set Place of Origin: CN

Power: 75 kw

Capacity: 14000-18000 pcs/hr

Processing: Brick Molding Machine

Brand Name: Longman

Method: Vacuum Extruder

Mobile and moving China with good price price in India Min

Order: FOB Price: Place of Origin: Power: Processing: Brand Name: Condition: Brick Raw Material:

GRAPHIC ERA UNIVERSITY

machine made in making machine

Brick Production Line jinlong

Concrete

Page 37

Good sale in Africa and India QTJ4-40 block machine with best service Min

Order: 1 Set FOB Price: US $3000-3500 / Set Place of Origin: CN

Power: 8

Processing: Brick Production Line

Brand Name: ZH

Condition: New

Brick Raw Material: Concrete 6)

Small clay brick machine hot sale in India Min

Order: 1 Set FOB Price: US $5000-500000 / Set Place of Origin: CN

Power: 132kw (Small clay brick machine)

Processing: Brick Production Line

Brand Name: HW-Clay Brick Machine

GRAPHIC ERA UNIVERSITY

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Practical and high efficiency QT12-15 block making machine price in India Min

Order: 1 Set FOB Price: US $1-100000 / Set Place of Origin: CN

Power: 40

Processing: Brick Production Line

Brand Name: HSM

Method: Hydraulic Pressure

Condition: New

Good price

Order: 1 Set FOB Price: US $688-15000 / Set Place of Origin: CN

Power: 75kw

Processing: Brick Production Line

Brand Name: Yingfeng

Method: Vacuum Extruder

Condition: New

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QTJ 4-20 Hot Sale in India Automatical brick making machine high efficiency good quality Min

Order: 1 Set FOB Price: US $5000-59700 / Set Place of Origin: CN

Power: 10

Processing: Brick Production Line

Brand Name: Song ling Tengda

Method: Hydraulic Pressure

Condition: New

Paving Block Making Machine in India for sale with good price Min

Order: 1 Set FOB Price: US $7000-8610 / Set Place of Origin: CN

Power: 6

Capacity: 8,640 pieces/Day (8 hours) (paving stocks)

Processing: Brick Production Line

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CHAPTER – 8 FINDINGS Pros & Cons: Pros & Cons + Positive aspects Relatively Cheaper than the regular/known brands

Advanced Features Affordability,

common man can easily purchase

Widely available Higher profit margins for dealers

Outflow of capital Increased in Imports & Media has recently highlighted the technical issues about the Chinese products

The continuous explosion in china phones,

has resulted in the ban of Chinese phone retailing in Indian market

And those phones are:BLUEBERRY NOT BLACKBERRY Same design Same colour shade May be having advanced features Very cheap Same has been done to various products and brands e

Apple iphone,

Because of cheaper prices products made in China are becoming more popular among the Indian masses

This has had a very negative effect on our own manufacturing units and as a result many of them have had to shut shop

There seems to be no way to escape the DRAGON

! The Chinese goods have invaded almost all the sectors of Indian market and seem to be bringing tougher times for the Indian Industry

Because of wide availability GRAPHIC ERA UNIVERSITY

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of cheap and apparently technologically advanced Chinese goods,

many economists fear decline of local manufacturing units or the small-scale industry in India

The rise in demand and sudden popularity of Chinese products,

which are available at cheaper prices,

is giving nightmares to the Indian industry to the extent that they have started sticking “Made in China” stickers on their products to boost their sales

Chinese manufacturing units produce goods on a large scale

They are using the big Indian market merely to dump their products and by doing so they are killing the Indian units

For example last year during Diwali,

China made crackers were sold in the Indian market

These crackers reportedly contained Sulphur

Sulphur is more harmful than Nitrate,

which is used in India to make crackers

Since the Chinese crackers were cheaper than the Indian crackers,

so they managed to attract gullible and largely illiterate Indian lot

As a result the Indian cracker industry saw a decline in the revenue

For India China is major competitor in sectors like software,

We should not allow China to dump their excess produce here

The small-scale industry (SSI) contributes 35-40 per cent to the total manufacturing in India

So it is the SSI,

which suffers most because of Chinese goods

data reveals that 60 per cent of the industrial units in the industrial belts of Thane and Bhivandi near Mumbai have been closed down

Many small-scale GRAPHIC ERA UNIVERSITY

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Indian companies have stopped manufacturing their own goods as now they import them from China

That‟s why many Indian workers have lost their jobs

This shows that the objective of SSIs of providing employment to the rural youth of India is defeated completely

In the last one decade Chinese labour has developed the skills of manufacturing electronic goods like semi-conductors,

which helped them to capture big markets of America and Europe

It is no surprise that they have been successful in capturing the Indian market too

Although Indian labour can meet these challenges by improving their skills,

the Indian manufacturing scenario is hampered due to stringent and weak labour policies

It is the high time that our political leaders change their mindset and bring about the right kind of reforms without losing precious time in endless discussions

We must take necessary steps so that we do not fall prey to the DRAGON‟s designs of capturing a major share of our growth,

which could prove to be a setback for our economy in the future

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CONCLUSION China and India had similar development strategies prior to their breaking out of their deliberate insulation from the world economy and the ushering in of Market-oriented economic reforms and liberalization

China began reforming its closed,

India always had a large private sector and functioning markets which were subject to rigid state controls until the hesitant and piecemeal reforms of the 1980s

These became systemic and far broader after India experienced a severe macroeconomic crisis in 1991

The political environments under which reforms were initiated and implemented in the two countries and their consequences were very different

India continues to be an open,

while China has an authoritarian,

After recounting the differing rationales as Well as the similarities and differences in the content of their reform agenda,

I Reviewed in Srinivasan (2002) the achievements of reforms and remaining Challenges,

particularly regarding reforms of state owned enterprises (SOEs)

I concluded with an analysis of the competition between China and India in world markets

This is concerned with external sector issues,

the spectacular performance of China relative to India in their competition in world markets as well as the emerging perception in India of the opportunities in the GRAPHIC ERA UNIVERSITY

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large and rapidly growing Chinese markets

It also notes the protectionist backlash that China‟s growing dominance in world trade and India‟s success in Information Technology have induced in the US and Europe

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BIBLOGRAPHY  Wikipedia- Google search engine  Investopedia  www

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