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Upgrade and Migrate to Oracle Database 12c Release 2 Best

2 cs uh edu ~ordonez pdf w 2004 KDD sqlkm pdf Programming the K means Clustering Algorithm in SQL Carlos Ordonez Teradata, NCR San Diego, CA, USA ABSTRACT Using SQL has not been considered an e cient and feasible way to implement data mining algorithms

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Description

The Primary Key A primary key is a column that makes each row of data in the table unique in a relational database

UNION and UNION ALL UNION returns the results of two queries minus the duplicate rows

The difference between Union and Union all is that Union all will not eliminate duplicate rows,

Union eliminate duplicate rows

INTERSECT INTERSECT returns only the rows found by both queries

MINUS Minus returns the rows from the first query that were not present in the second

What is Normalization

? Normalization is the process of efficiently organizing data in a database

There are two goals of the normalization process: eliminating redundant data (for example,

storing the same data in more than one table) and ensuring data dependencies make sense (only storing related data in a table)

Different types of joins: 1)

Equi-Joins SELECT O

ORDEREDON,

PARTNUM,

PARTNUM,

DESCRIPTION FROM ORDERS O,

PART P WHERE O

PARTNUM = P

PARTNUM

Non-Equi-Joins SELECT O

PARTNUM,

PARTNUM,

QUANTITY * P

PRICE TOTAL FROM ORDERS O,

PART P WHERE O

PARTNUM > P

PARTNUM

PARTNUM,

DESCRIPTION,P

PARTNUM FROM PART P RIGHT OUTER JOIN ORDERS O ON ORDERS

PARTNUM = 54

PARTNUM,

DESCRIPTION,P

PARTNUM FROM PART P LEFT OUTER JOIN ORDERS O ON ORDERS

PARTNUM = 54

Sub Queries: SELECT p

product_name FROM product p WHERE p

product_id FROM order_items o WHERE o

Correlated Subqueries: SELECT * FROM ORDERS O WHERE 'ROAD BIKE' = (SELECT DESCRIPTION FROM PART P WHERE P

PARTNUM = O

PARTNUM) Same As SELECT O

ORDEREDON,

PARTNUM,

QUANTITY,

REMARKS FROM ORDERS O,

PART P WHERE P

PARTNUM = O

PARTNUM AND P

DESCRIPTION = 'ROAD BIKE'

Using EXISTS,

and ALL The usage of the keywords EXISTS,

and ALL is not intuitively obvious to the casual observer

EXISTS takes a subquery as an argument and returns TRUE if the subquery returns anything and FALSE if the result set is empty

For example

SELECT NAME,

ORDEREDON FROM ORDERS WHERE EXISTS (SELECT * FROM ORDERS WHERE NAME ='TRUE WHEEL') Differences between Stored procedures and User defined functions 1) Stored procedures may or may not return values

But function should return value 2) Stored procedure cannot be used in the select/where/having clause But function can be called from select/where/having clause 3)Temporary table (derived) cannot be created on function

But it can be created in stored procedures

But the function can have only input parameters

But the function

Execution plan of stored procedure and function is already created

Defining Database Structures (DDL) New Term Data Definition Language,

is the part of SQL that allows a database user to create and restructure database objects,

such as the creation or the deletion of a table

The main DDL commands discussed during following hours include the following: CREATE TABLE ALTER TABLE DROP TABLE CREATE INDEX ALTER INDEX DROP INDEX

Manipulating Data (DML) New Term Data Manipulation Language,

is the part of SQL used to manipulate data within objects of a relational database

There are three basic DML commands: INSERT UPDATE DELETE

Selecting Data (DQL) Though comprised of only one command,

Data Query Language (DQL) is the most concentrated focus of SQL for a relational database user

The command is as follows: SELECT This command,

accompanied by many options and clauses,

is used to compose queries against a relational database

Queries,

The SELECT command is discussed in exhilarating detail during Hours 7 through 16

Transactional Control Commands In addition to the previously introduced categories of commands,

there are commands that allow the user to manage database transactions

�COMMIT Used to save database transactions � ROLLBACK Used to undo database transactions � SAVEPOINT Creates points within groups of transactions in which to ROLLBACK � SET TRANSACTION Places a name on a transaction

Creating a Table from an Existing Table CREATE TABLE PRODUCTS_TMP AS SELECT * FROM PRODUCTS_TBL

The ALTER TABLE Command ALTER TABLE TABLE_NAME [MODIFY] [COLUMN COLUMN_NAME][DATATYPE|NULL NOT NULL] [RESTRICT|CASCADE] [DROP] [CONSTRAINT CONSTRAINT_NAME] [ADD] [COLUMN] COLUMN DEFINITION

Dropping Tables

DROP TABLE PRODUCTS_USER1

Foreign Key Constraints: A foreign key is a column in a child table that references a primary key in the parent table

Type of constraints Primary key constraint Unique key constraint Foreign key constraint Not null constraint Check constraint

Normalizing a Database: Normalization is a process of reducing redundancies of data in a database 1NF: There should not be repeating row in table(dividing a table in to multiple table) 1)There are no columns with repeated or similar data 2)Each data item cannot be broken down any further 3)Each row is unique i

it has a primary key 4)Each field has an unique name

2NF: A 2NF relation is in 1NF and every non-primary-key attribute is fully functionally dependent on the primary key

a relation must first fulfill the requirements to

Additionally,

all attributes that are not dependent upon the primary key must be eliminated

The COMMIT command is the transactional command used to save changes invoked by a transaction to the Database A SAVEPOINT is a point in a transaction when you can roll the transaction back to a certain point without rolling back the entire transaction

Find nth max row SELECT TOP 1 salary FROM ( SELECT DISTINCT TOP 6 salary FROM employee ORDER BY salary DESC) a ORDER BY salary

EXISTS Condition The EXISTS condition is considered "to be met" if the subquery returns at least one row

The syntax for the EXISTS condition is: SELECT columns FROM tables WHERE EXISTS ( subquery )

The EXISTS condition can be used in any valid SQL statement

- select,

Example #1 Let's take a look at a simple example

The following is an SQL statement that uses the EXISTS condition: SELECT * FROM suppliers WHERE EXISTS (select * from orders where suppliers

This select statement will return all records from the suppliers table where there is at least one record in the orders table with the same supplier_id

Example #2

For example,

SELECT * FROM suppliers WHERE not exists (select * from orders Where suppliers

This will return all records from the suppliers table where there are no records in the orders table for the given supplier_id

Example #3

The following is an example of a delete statement that utilizes the EXISTS condition: DELETE FROM suppliers WHERE EXISTS (select * from orders where suppliers

Example #4

name FROM customers WHERE customers

supplier_id) WHERE EXISTS ( SELECT customers

name FROM customers WHERE customers

Example #5

supplier_name) SELECT account_no,

name FROM suppliers WHERE exists (select * from orders Where suppliers

Structured Query Language (SQL)

Correlated Subqueries SELECT * FROM ORDERS O WHERE 'ROAD BIKE' = (SELECT DESCRIPTION FROM PART P WHERE P

PARTNUM = O

PARTNUM)

ANY compared the output of the following subquery to each row in the query,

returning TRUE for each row of the query that has a result from the subquery

ALL returns TRUE only if all the results of a subquery meet the condition

Oddly enough,

ALL is used most commonly as a double negative,

What is an Index

? An index is a performance-tuning method of allowing faster retrieval of records

The syntax for creating a index is: CREATE [UNIQUE] INDEX index_name ON table_name (column1,

column_n) [ COMPUTE STATISTICS ]

UNIQUE indicates that the combination of values in the indexed columns must be unique

COMPUTE STATISTICS tells Oracle to collect statistics during the creation of the index

The statistics are then used by the optimizer to choose a "plan of execution" when SQL statements are executed

For example: CREATE INDEX supplier_idx ON supplier (supplier_name)

In this example,

we've created an index on the supplier table called supplier_idx

It consists of only one field

We could also create an index with more than one field as in the example below: CREATE INDEX supplier_idx ON supplier (supplier_name,

SQL CREATE VIEW Statement In SQL,

a view is a virtual table(which does not consumes disk space) based on the result-set of an SQL statement

A view contains rows and columns,

The fields in a view are fields from one or more real tables in the database

You can add SQL functions,

and JOIN statements to a view and present the data as if the data were coming from one single table

SQL CREATE VIEW Syntax CREATE VIEW view_name AS SELECT column_name(s) FROM table_name WHERE condition

Modifying Data in a View As you have learned,

by creating a view on one or more physical tables within a database,

you can create a virtual table for use throughout an SQL script or a database application

After the view has been created using the CREATE VIEW

SELECT statement,

or delete view data using the UPDATE,

INSERT,

and DELETE CREATE VIEW LATE_PAYMENT AS 2 SELECT * FROM BILLS

View created

SQL> UPDATE LATE_PAYMENT 2 SET AMOUNT = AMOUNT * 1

Following is a list of the most common restrictions you will encounter while working with views: You cannot use DELETE statements on multiple table views

l'You cannot use the INSERT statement unless all NOT NULL columns used in the underlying table are included in the view

This restriction applies because the SQL processor does not know which values to insert into the NOT NULL columns

l'If you do insert or update records through a join view,

all records that are updated must belong to the same physical table

l'If you use the DISTINCT clause to create a view,

you cannot update or insert records within that view

l'You cannot update a virtual column (a column that is the result of an expression or function)

A view from a single table can be updated where as a view from multiple tables can not be updated

create unique index unique_id_name on BILLS(ACCOUNT_ID,

NAME) Clustered index:

When a clustered index is used,

the physical arrangement of the data within a table is modified

Using a clustered index usually results in faster data retrieval than using a traditional,

create unique clustered index id_index on BANK_ACCOUNTS(ACCOUNT_ID)

Temporary Tables temporary tables,

which are simply tables that exist temporarily within a database and are automatically dropped when the user logs out or their database connection ends

create table #albums ( 2> artist char(30),

Cursors Database cursors enable you to select a group of data,

scroll through the group of records (often called a recordset),

and examine each individual line of data as the cursor points to it

You can use a combination of local variables and a cursor to individually examine each record and perform any external operation needed before

moving on to the next record 1

Create the cursor

Open the cursor for use within the procedure or application

Fetch a record's data one row at a time until you have reached the end of the cursor's records

Close the cursor when you are finished with it

Deallocate the cursor to completely discard it

DECLARE 2 3 v_employeeID employee

last_name FROM employee WHERE city = v_city

BEGIN OPEN c_employee

LOOP FETCH c_employee INTO v_employeeID,

DBMS_OUTPUT

DBMS_OUTPUT

DBMS_OUTPUT

EXIT WHEN c_employee%NOTFOUND

END LOOP

CLOSE c_employee

How does one eliminate duplicates rows from a table

Method 1: SQL> DELETE FROM table_name A WHERE ROWID > ( 2

SELECT min(rowid) FROM table_name B

WHERE A

Delete all rowids that is BIGGER than the SMALLEST rowid value (for a given key)

Method 2: SQL> create table table_name2 as select distinct * from table_name1

SQL> drop table table_name1

SQL> rename table_name2 to table_name1

Generate New Guid (uniqueidentifier) in SQL Server INSERT INTO Employees (EmployeeID,

Phone) VALUES (NEWID(),

'John Kris',

Stored Procedures The concept of stored procedures is an important one for the professional database programmer to master

Stored procedures are functions that contain potentially large groupings of SQL statements

Exec push_return_to_hst(29020048695,2010,9,0)

Create procedure push_return_to_hst (tin number,

typ char) as BEGIN if typ = '100' then begin insert into hst_web_ret_100 (select * from web_ret_100 where TIN_NO=tin and PERD_YEAR=yr and PERD_MONTH=mon and QUARTER_CODE=qtr and STATUS='SBM' and RET_DATE