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IMPACT OF A JET

Impact of a Jet - Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science

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OF A JET

Description

IMPACT OF A JET

Introduction The Impact of a Jet experiment shows students the force produced by a jet of water as it strikes a flat plate,

curve surface or hemispherical cup

They can then compare this to the momentum flow rate in the jet

Water jet momentum in civil engineering used in water dams (to move the turbines,

next generating electricity) and in water pressure test in building piping system (Hydraulic pressure test)

Water turbines are widely used throughout the world to generate power

By allowing fluid under pressure to strike the vanes of a turbine wheel,

mechanical work can be produced

Rotational motion is then produced by the force generated as the jet strikes the vanes

One of the common types of water turbines is Pelton wheel

In this type of water turbine,

one or more water jets are directed tangentially on to a vanes or buckets that are fastened on the rim of the turbine disc

The impact of the water on the vanes generates a torque on the wheel causing it to rotate and to develop power

To predict the output of a Pelton wheel and to determine its optimum rotational speed,

understanding on how the deflection of the jet generates a force on the buckets and how the force is related to the rate of momentum flow in the jet are needed

This experiment aims at assessing the different forces exerted by the same water jet on a variety of geometrical different plates

Under this experiment,

the force generated by a jet of water striking a deflector is measured and compare the results with the computed momentum flow rate in the jet

To perform experiments,

level the apparatus and zero the weigh beam assembly

Set the flow from the hydraulic bench to maximum,

Then reduce the flow from the hydraulic bench in several increments

At each increment record,

record the force of the jet on the plate and the flow rate

Then repeat the experiments for different test plates

All test plates are all easily interchangeable,

taking only a few seconds and needing no tools

Compare the results to those calculated from theory,

working out graphs of rate of delivery of momentum against force on the plate

Objectives i

To compare the forces obtained from the experiment and the actual force using theoretical formula

To understand correctly how a turbine (a Pelton wheel for example) works,

students need to understand how jet deflection produces a force on turbine vanes

To understand how this force affects the rate of momentum flow in the jet

Theory Mechanical work can be produced by using pressure of moving fluid at high velocity

As an example jet of water from nozzle can produce force when it strikes a plane of the surface of plate

This type of force can produce power to generate a system such as hydropower turbine

The force exerted onto the plate will depend on the density of fluid,

The force is also depends on whether the plate is moving or static condition

Theoretically,

the force of water jet striking on a statistic plate can be calculated by using the following equations: Is given by its angle of incidence α:

For a flat surface

the previous equation has the form:

For a curve surface

For Hemisphere

Equipment/Apparatus      

Hydraulic Bench Impact of jet equipment Chronometer Gauge Stopwatch Weight

Unit Description

The unit is designed to investigate jet forces impacting against stationary deflectors

The impact forces are produced by a water jet

The impact forces are measured using a lever mechanism and loading weights

The impact forces of the water jet are set via the flow rate

The unit essentially consists of: – Loading weights [1] – Lever mechanism [2] – Deflector [3] – Nozzle [4] – Perspex vessel [5] – Drain connection [6] – Base Plate [7] – Inlet connection [8]

Various deflectors can be fitted at position [3]

Hemisphere

Method 1

Disassemble the top that is placed over the transparent water tank to place the flat surface in the impact place and secure to the vertical rod that is part of the calibration system assembled in the top

Cover the tank again

Place the device on the Hydraulic Bench channel,

connecting its water inlet to its quick connector

Balance the set

Adjust the gauge indication until it is situated at the same level as the signal of the auxiliary platform

Place on the platform a weight

Close the flow control valve of the hydraulic bench

Switch on the pump of the Hydraulic Bench

Regulate the flow that impacts against the surface to get that the platform signal is at the same height as the gauge indication

In this balance situation,

measure the outlet flow through the nozzle and note down the weight value of the weight placed on the platform

Repeat the previous steps increasing

Repeat procedure 1 to 10 using curve surface of 120 and semishherical surface

Result / Data & Calculation

PLANE IMPACT SURFACE (α = 90°) Measured Force

Calculated Force

680 x 10-4

824 x 10-8

31x 10-4

34x 10-8

80x 10-4

84 x 10-8

26x 10-4

06x 10-7

CURVE IMPACT SURFACE (α = 120°)

Measured Force

389x 10-4

929x 10-8

845x 10-4

411x 10-08

120x 10-4

790 x 10-8

520x 10-4

360 x 10-8

HEMISPHERICAL IMPACT SURFACE (α = 180°) Measured force

Calculated Force

538 x 10-4

367 x 10-8

875 x 10-4

516 x 10-8

308 x 10-4

327 x 10-8

5 x 10-4

25 x 10-8

Sample calculation For Flat Impact Surface (Experimental)

Theoretical Way Values (Calculated)

Percentage of different between the Experimental Way Values and Theoretical Way Values

For Curve Impact Surface (Experimental)

Theoretical Way Values (Calculated)

Percentage of different between the Measured Force and Calculated Force

For Hemispherical Impact Surface Experimental Way Values

Theoretical Way Values (Calculated)

Percentage of different between the Experimental Way Values and Theoretical Way Values

Discussion & Recommendation: For this experiment,

we used 6 litre of water and a nozzle of diameter 8mm

Based on the time recorded and the information above,

we are able to calculate the calculated force,

Fy and the percentage of error

we convert the unit of the flow rate,

Q from L/min to m3/s for the easier of calculation

For the calculated force,

F y and percentage of error,

they are calculated according to the formulas below

Formulas used to calculate the calculated force,

: Plate: Curve: Hemisphere: Formula used to calculate the percentage of error:Percentage of Error =

In this experiment,

the time needed for the level in the volumetric tank to rise from 20 to 30 litres decrease

This results in a decrease in the flow rate

When comparing the three types of deflectors,

the flow rate for the hemisphere is found to be the lowest

The percentage of error ranged from around 6

Some of the percentages of error are large due to several errors made during the experiment

One of the errors may be the error made during setting the pointer

the pointer may not precisely set to zero due to parallax error

Another possible error is the error made when recording the time

Possible factors influencing the results of experiment: a) The factor which influenced the result is that the water flow velocity,

where if the velocity is high when the rate of flow was rapid

weight of load also effects to the result because if the weight of load is high,

the distance between of nozzle and conical plate will be near and the rate of water flow hence will be high

c) Readjustments were not properly made for the datum each time weight is added to the device,

hence increasing errors to the data

Uses of water jet momentum in civil engineering: a) Usage in water dams (to move the turbines,

next generating electricity) b) Water pressure test in building piping system

Conclusion As a conclusion,

the calculated force is correlated with the measured force

Both of the forces will have directly proportional relation

Theoretically,

the calculated force should be the same as the measured force

However,

this cannot be achieved experimentally due to the errors made during the experiment

This experiment also conducted in order to understand correctly how a turbine (a Pelton wheel for example) works,

where students need to understand how jet deflection produces a force on turbine vanes

It is also understood how this force affects the rate of momentum flow in the jet based on the experiment

From this experiment,

the flow rate for the curve impact surface is found to be the lowest and thus require a longer time for the volumetric tank to rise from 0 to 6 litres