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How to Orchestrate and Arrange Music

Alan Belkin, composer Artistic Orchestration

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Orchestrate and Arrange Music


Brinkman: How to Orchestra and Arrange Music 1

How to Orchestrate and Arrange Music By Dr

David Brinkman Prepared for the Instrumentation and Arranging Class at the University of Wyoming This material is intended for use by students in the class,

and may not be used or duplicated for any other purpose

Copyright 2009

All rights are reserved

Table of Contents Introduction Chapter 1 Instruments Chapter 2 Definitions Chapter 3 Historical Instrumentation/Orchestration Chapter 4 Transcriptions Chapter 5 Arranging Chapter 6 Score and Parts Chapter 7 Overall Considerations Chapter 8 Grading Rubric Chapter 9 Jazz Arranging Chapter 10 Marching Band Arranging Chapter 11 Scoring for Young Band/Orchestra Chapter 12 Finale Check Sheet

Introduction Creating an effective arrangement of music is a craft and it is an art

A person can learn appropriate ranges of the instruments and effective combinations

as well as learning to effectively notate (using Finale or other notation program) can be considered the craft of arranging

The artistry is the ability to imagine sounds and to make them come alive

It involves creativity,

The successful student—and the successful orchestrator/arranger will be able master the craft and work towards the artistry of creating a new musical work

Brinkman: How to Orchestra and Arrange Music 2

Chapter 1 Instruments You must know “in your ear” how the various instruments will sound individually and in combination

• You must know the ranges of the instruments o Consult your text o Use the Check Range Plug-in on Finale

On Finale 2009 it is under Scoring and Arranging

It will allow you to select for beginner,

intermediate and advanced players

o Talk to persons who play the instrument in question •

You must understand the sound of various registers of instruments (including percussion) o Consult your text o Listen and absorb the demonstrations in class

You must understand the blend and balance of instruments as they are combined o More blend—families of instruments such as strings or brass o Less blend—a variety of instruments such as a quartet of trumpet,

This happens when the melody is not on the top of the voicing and it is masked by other instruments in the same register or with similar tone quality ƒ Spread the voicing to give the melody space ƒ Make sure the voice has a different tone quality ƒ Double the voice or making it louder with a dynamic marking

Understanding of the sounds of the instruments and how they will sound in combination takes time

Make a point of listening to music and trying to understand how sounds are created

As you arrange and orchestrate music,

you should feel like you are listening with “new ears

Essential Dictionary of Orchestration

Los Angeles: Alfred Other Resources Adler,

(2002) The Study of Orchestration,

New York: Norton

A comprehensive guide with many musical examples

CDs accompany the book


The Technique of Orchestration 5th Ed

Englewood Cliffs,

NJ: Prentice Hall

A standard text

CDs accompany the book

Creative Orchestration

Boston: Allyn Bacon

Brinkman: How to Orchestra and Arrange Music 3

Chapter 2 Definitions Arrangement The adaptation of a piece of music so as to make it suitable for performance by media other than those for which it was originally

a simplified version of a work for the same medium of performance

Transcription An arrangement that strives to give the impression of the work in a new medium

Example: Transcribing an orchestra piece for band

A transcription can vary from trying to sound exactly like the original to a re-conception of the original in a new medium

In this case,

the transcriber would use the resources of the new medium to come up with a new version of the piece

Composition To compose is to create new music

Those who compose for band or orchestra are usually thinking about the orchestration from the beginning of the process


Some musicians use the terms Orchestration and Instrumentation interchangeably


others say that instrumentation deals with individual instruments,

while orchestration has to do with combining sections of the band or orchestra

Another view is that instrumentation is a science and orchestration is an art

Bandstration applies the idea of orchestration to band

Brinkman: How to Orchestra and Arrange Music 4

Chapter 3 Historical Instrumentation/Orchestration This information is from the following website http://www

html The orchestra in the modern sense of the word did not exist before the 17th cent

Previous instrumental ensemble music was chamber music,

except for occasional ceremonies when as many instruments as were available would be massed together

Until well into the 17th century,

there was little thought of specifying what instrument should play a part

any available instrument with the proper range was used

The first known example of orchestration occurs in Giovanni Gabrieli's Sacrae Symphoniae (1597)

Monteverdi's Orfeo (1607),

demands a large and varied group of instruments—all,

that were available to him through his patron

During the 17th cent

the violin family displaced the viols,

as the principal strings of the orchestra

By the end of the century a division into four parts had become standard: first and second violins,

with the double basses playing the cello part an octave lower

did the cellos and basses frequently have different parts to play

) Woodwinds appeared in the earliest orchestras,

though infrequently and subordinate to the strings—usually two oboes and a bassoon,

with flutes sometimes replacing the oboes

The flutes were established as regular orchestra members,

playing together with the oboes,

The trumpets,

inseparable from the kettledrums through the 17th and 18th cent

were used occasionally in the 17th cent

and became standard in the orchestra by about 1700

The French horn was fully accepted by 1750

The trombone was used in church music even before the 17th cent

and occasionally in opera thereafter

it did not become a regular member of the orchestra until after 1800

Throughout the baroque period and into the second half of the 18th cent

the basso continuo was an integral part of the scoring and required that a harpsichord or some other chord-playing instrument fill in the harmonies above the figured bass

The treble and bass were strongly emphasized,

while the middle parts were often left to the continuo alone

The orchestra was rather small at this time

Bach had as few as 18 players for his larger church works,

and Handel usually used about 30

The Eighteenth-Century Classical Orchestra During the latter half of the 18th cent

the classical orchestra was gradually established through the disuse of the continuo and the acceptance of the clarinet

The abandonment of the continuo led to much greater independence in the string parts,

which now had to fill the harmony unaided

Instead of both violin parts doubling the melody and the violas,

there were now four distinct parts

The clarinet,

first appeared as an alternate for the oboe,

but in the late works of Haydn and Mozart the orchestra was standardized,

French horns,

Brinkman: How to Orchestra and Arrange Music 5 to the strings

All the wind instruments,

providing desired changes of color

Orchestras in the Nineteenth Century In the 19th cent

beginning in the works of Beethoven,

the brass took an increasingly prominent place

The trombone was used regularly,

while the invention of the valve in 1813 soon made the horn and trumpet completely chromatic

All the brass thus became melody instruments,

instantly available in the most remote keys

The horn section was increased to four early in the century,

and the introduction of the tuba (c

The woodwinds also were improved mechanically in the 19th cent

greatly enlarging their technical capabilities

Throughout the century the string section was expanded to balance the increasing numbers of wind players

The scores of Mozart and Beethoven generally required an orchestra of about 40

those of Weber and early Wagner called for about 55

Wagner's Ring cycle (1854–74) called for about 110

Hector Berlioz was highly influential in increasing awareness of orchestral color and in encouraging the use of a larger orchestra

a fundamental work of its kind,

envisioned an ideal orchestra of 465

After the climax of orchestral bulk in the works of Wagner,



composers reacted against orchestral gigantism,

first in the impressionism of Debussy and his followers

They still used a large orchestra,

making more distinctive use of the instruments and largely avoiding massive sonorities

Innovations of the Twentieth Century Stravinsky's Rite of Spring (1913) illustrates the early 20th-century interest in diverse instrumental combinations and original exploitation of the instruments' capabilities

In general,

composers of the 20th century have continued exploring novel uses of instruments and have preferred a moderate-sized orchestra

Seventy-five to ninety players suffice for most 20th-century scores

orchestra of classical or baroque dimensions has also been much used

In this century,

the percussion section is used more prominently

new instruments have been devised and the playing of old ones varied

Further Reading about Historical Orchestration • • •

A (1925)

The History of Orchestration ML 455 C32 Read,

Style and Orchestration ML 455

R4 See New Grove “instrumentation and orchestration” and “arranging”

Band Orchestration • Early bands played arrangements and compositions that had the entire group playing

Bands also played orchestra transcriptions

• School band music tended to have lots of tutti for inexperienced players • The Wind Ensemble movement has given bands many pieces written specifically for all the possible tone colors available

Contemporary band literature mirrors trends in orchestra composition

Brinkman: How to Orchestra and Arrange Music 6

Chapter 4 Transcriptions Steps to an effective orchestration—such as assigning instruments in a transcription of a piano piece • Adler lists these requirements to do a transcription o A thorough knowledge of all the instruments (their capabilities and the characteristics of different parts of their range) used in the piece you wish to transcribe as well as in the transcription you wish to make

o An intimate knowledge of the piece’s structure,

including its formal details o An insight into the orchestral style of the compose whose work is to be transcribed,

or it that composer has not written for orchestra,

familiarity with the orchestral practices of the era in which the composer lived o A love for the work to be transcribed o A valid reason to transcribe a particular work

o The Study of Orchestration by Samuel Adler is an excellent resource

The 3rd edition was published in 2002 by Norton

• Examine the musical characteristics of a piece o Key,

• Make a preliminary determination about the kinds of instruments that would be appropriate

o What is the most important musical element that you want to start with

? o Try some various combinations of instruments for the melody,

Usually melody is the most important item,

but other elements may need to be considered first

An example would be a rhythmic figure that drives the piece

o Consider range and tonal effects

For example,

if there is a big crescendo that you would like to have the trumpet on the melody,

make sure the trumpet is in an appropriate range

Consider changing key if needed

o Work with the other elements and consider instruments that would work

Once again,

consider range and tonal qualities

• Once you have made a preliminary determination,

try filling in the other elements—bass,

If it seems to work,

If not,

different kinds of instruments assigned to different musical elements

Keep “starting over” until you get a plan that works

you may also make some decisions about how faithful you are being to the original

Do you need to make changes such as simplifying rhythms,

stretching the sound palette or condensing it

Are the instruments you chose able to do what you want

? • Now look back at the piece and make sure that you have taken into account the musical effects,

consider adjusting the doublings you have tried—either to make the piece fuller in sections or to thin things out

Brinkman: How to Orchestra and Arrange Music 7 •

Avoid a transcription where everyone plays all the time

This results in a boring effect

Consider how you used colorful sections contrasted with tutti sections

This is one of the areas where you have to interpret the music

For example,

if the composer wanted a change in sound,

and changed octaves on the piano,

can you experiment with tone color or doublings instead of only changing octaves

This is a simple concept that arrangers sometimes forget

If the music gets louder,

then use more instruments—and vice versa

Don’t forget basic musical sound o Chords voiced to the overtone series (except when you are trying for something different) o Voice leading (avoid parallel octaves and 5ths unless you are trying for an effect

Look at individual instruments and make sure the part does not have awkward jumps

Good voice leading will help your piece have a professional sound,

and it will make the musicians happy

Do a final listening in your head to the piece

Imagine you are conducting this

Would it work

? Would the musical style and effects happen

? Is the melody clearly stated

? Are accompaniments the right dynamic level

? Is there the proper balance between melody and accompaniment

? Do dynamics need to be adjusted

? Examine individual parts for correct range,

Brinkman: How to Orchestra and Arrange Music 8

Chapter 5 Arranging Arranging involves creating something new from something old

You will take an existing piece of music and change it in some way

Some common reasons for arrangements are to: • Simplify

You want the Junior High Orchestra to play Beethoven Symphony #5

• Make harder or elaborate on the original

You are going to make a simple folk song into an interesting piece for the UW orchestra

You create a swing version of the march American Patrol (Glen Miller did this) • Added elements such as intro,

What is not arranging— • Having four saxes play a string quartet

(That is a transcription) • Finding a piano version of a pop tune,

and assigning instruments to an existing arrangement (That is plagiarism)

Arranging also involves orchestrating—so all the things you did in the “Transcription Section” above need to be considered here

Examples of arrangements: Christmas Carols,

Boston Pops pieces,

Medley from “The King and I” for band,

easy version of “In the Mood” for jazz band etc

Live with tune for a time,

and think of multiple ways to vary the music

What do you have to say as an arranger/composer

? What is the purpose of the arrangement

? What is the level of proficiency of the players involved

? Examine the musical characteristics of the music you will arrange

What will you change—style,

? Ways to Make an Arrangement The following points are ideas you can use as you work on an arrangement Manipulate texture How can changes in texture be used to create a musically interesting arrangement

? • wide/close • dense/transparent • solo/tutti • polyphonic/homophonic/homorhythmic/unison/etc

Brinkman: How to Orchestra and Arrange Music 9 • • • • •

Where are phrases

? Where is the peak of the phrase

? Where is the loudest and softest point in the tune

? What do words or title have to contribute to musical possibilities

? Emotional connection you have with the music

Color/Timbre How can voicing be used to create a musically interesting arrangement

accompaniment • Feature soloist or section • Solo or “combined” color • Contrast Dynamic Contrast Don’t expect the performers to do this for you

• Phrases • Sections • Dynamic contour of entire piece • Relationship of volume to the number of instruments playing Harmony How can harmonic variation be used to create a musically interesting arrangement

? • Add harmonic interest • Simplify harmony • Unison can be a surprising and strong effect • Mode—change to major or minor • New key for different effect or ease of playing Meter Can meter be manipulated to create a musically interesting arrangement

? • Change meter for variety (e

change a waltz into a jig in 6/8) Form How can form be manipulated to create a musically interesting arrangement

? • extend/compress sections • new sections • overall balance Style Will putting the tune in “new clothes” make an effective arrangement

? • Making a Bossa Nova out of a folk song • Changing a tune from swing to rock

Brinkman: How to Orchestra and Arrange Music 10 Ways to Add Variety or Harmonize a Melody • Unison or Octaves o Same or different instruments o Color (e

Flute + Viola) o Articulation (e

Trumpet plus Marimba) • Harmonize o Two part—3rds or 6ths most common

Other intervals can be used for special effects

o Chords—close position o Chords—Hymn Style o Chords—with added color tones o Chords—independent from rhythm of melody o Embellish or change the harmonization • Melodic embellishment o Neighbor tones o Decorated melody • Use of Motion o Contrary Motion o Similar or Parallel o Oblique—One part moves and another is stationary • Countermelody o Fill in the spaces in the melody • Pedal Point o Low or high • Ostinato o Repeated rhythmic pattern as a counterpoint • Rhythm o What is the pulse of the piece

? o Add rhythmic interest—percussion or other rhythmic ideas Further Considerations • Decide on your general approach

Make some decisions about style,

assignment of background harmony and rhythm parts,

An arrangement is likely to have more than one section,

so you will have to do this more than once

Also consider key changes for various effects • Do parts or rhythms need to be simplified or made more interesting

Does the piece go somewhere

Does the accompaniment create a sense of forward movement when appropriate

Brinkman: How to Orchestra and Arrange Music 11 •

Chord Voicing o Safe Chord Voicing ƒ Voice by the overtone series ƒ Choices for voicing sections • Complete chord in each section—ww,

Each section has a balanced sound • Overlapping or interlocking

Example: WW have the 3rd and 5th,

xylophone and marimba have the root,

and Strings have the root and 7th

o More interesting voicing ƒ Experiment with various parameters • Wide vs

thick voicing • Tessitura • Bright vs

dark Percussion o Safety—predictable and easy parts o On the edge—percussion is completely independent of the rest of the group

Percussion helps establish and maintain rhythm and provides color and added punch for selection moments in a piece of music

o Percussion should be considered as a melodic,

rhythmic and harmonic section of the group with an enormous palette of sound available

Work with all the elements to sketch out the main sections of an arrangement

You may find that when you make a decision on one section—such as assigning clarinet to the melody in a certain key,

it goofs up what you wanted to do for accompaniment

This process will take some time,

If you try to rush this,

you will likely have an inferior arrangement

Add introductions,

Check the issues for basic orchestration—range,

Does your arrangement need to be adjusted

Do a final listening in your head to the piece

Imagine you are conducting this

Would it work

? Would the musical style and effects happen

? Is the melody clearly stated

? Are accompaniments the right dynamic level

? Is there the proper balance between melody and acc

? Do dynamics need to be adjusted

Brinkman: How to Orchestra and Arrange Music 12

Chapter 6 Score and Parts Common problems with parts and scores • No rehearsal letters/numbers •

No rehearsal letters/numbers in the middle of multimeasure rests

No dynamics

Dynamics on the score…but not part

Usually it is because you actually hooked it to the line above when you placed the marking on the score

Dynamics above the line

They should be below the line in instrumental music

Extra empty measures at the end

Delete highlight them and push delete

Composer/arranger name missing

Music too big,

or not enough measures per system

Look at the format before you print

This is sometimes tricky

See your instructor if you have problems

No articulations

Score should be transposed

Instruments out of range

Consult your text or have Finale do this for you

My printer ran out of ink

Plan ahead

! This is not an excuse that will help you

I suggest you print at FA 118

Parts don’t agree with score

If you make changes,

make them on the score and print out the parts again

Finale parts and score are linked

Not enough time spent on the assignment

This is the biggest problem that occurs in assignments

All the items above are evidence of this

Other evidence includes minimal instrumentation (example: melody only for a long time),

harmony that does not make sense,

transitions) and generally “sloppy” work

These items have to do with Craftsmanship—see the Grading Rubric in Chapter 8

Brinkman: How to Orchestra and Arrange Music 13

Chapter 7 Overall Considerations Characteristics of a Good Arrangement •

It must make formal/musical sense

Changes of orchestration must arrive at appropriate places,

with appropriate degrees of contrast

o Supply sufficient variety and freshness of color to maintain interest

o Ensure clarity of the various musical elements

rather than being like a bunch of arbitrary variations

Every element and part for the players contributes something

Players (and audience) stay interested

The music is easily playable as possible,

always using the simplest means to create the desired effect

The arrangement considers the capabilities of the intended performers

Creates richness in musical effect

Has clear character,

and uses all your resources to make the character apparent

Uses the whole ensemble effectively

An effective piece of music demonstrates: o Craftsmanship (attention to details of notation,

) o Originality (something that sounds fresh) o Aesthetic interest (overall artistic communication and effect)

See the Grading Rubric in Chapter 8

This rubric takes the principles above and provides a means for determining the grade on an individual project

Brinkman: How to Orchestra and Arrange Music 14

Chapter 8 Grading Rubric for I & A Arranging Projects Grade

Notation Staff is appropriate and readable Dynamic,

tempo markings included and properly placed

Reduction to fit music to paper Instruments/voices labeled Parts appropriately labeled and extracted

Improvement through the semester

Most of these items present

EX: Most Dynamic,

tempo markings included and properly placed

Some of these items present EX: Some Dynamic,

tempo markings included and properly placed

Few of these items present EX: Few Dynamic,

tempo markings included and properly placed

None of these items present EX: No effort made to do notation appropriately

Transposition All transpositions correct • Clefs Correct • Ranges & Keys Playable and Appropriate for instrument and level

• Improvement through the semester •

Most of these items present EX: Most ranges are appropriate

Some of these items present EX: Some ranges are appropriate

Few of these items present EX: Few ranges are appropriate

None of these items present EX: No ranges are appropriate

Interest Interesting partwriting and good voice-leading

Variety of textures and colors

Use of Key Change to create interest and contrast Balance between sections appropriate and melody and accompaniment scored well

Improvement through the semester

Most of these items present EX: Most of the writing shows a variety of interesting texture and color Some of these items present EX: Some of the writing shows a variety of interesting texture and color Few of these items present EX: Most of the writing is boring

None of these items present EX: No attempt was made to include interesting texture and color

Overall Creative and Original solution to the arranging problem

• Appropriate composed intros,

codas • Directions for the assignment followed well • Arrangement is musically compelling • Source copy included • Improvement through the semester Most of these items present EX: Most of the piece was creative and original •

Some of these items present EX: Some of the piece was creative and original Few of these items present EX: Little of the piece was creative and original None of these items present EX: No creativity or originality shown

Arrangement was copied

The actual grading sheet will include all of the items in the “A Row” above

Use this rubric to make sure you have created a project that will get the grade you want

Brinkman: How to Orchestra and Arrange Music 15

Chapter 9 Jazz Arranging Big Band Trumpets 4 or 5 Saxes A,

B Trombones,



Combo Instruments Rhythm Section

Jazz Choir 4,

Show/Swing Choir SATB or SAB Usually with accompaniment HS & JH

Jazz Standards

Show and Pop Tunes

Style Is Everything Groove Jazz Harmony Basic Styles Swing Usually notated as straight eighths--sometimes dotted eighth,

sixteenth Shuffle a variation of swing doo dot,

Rock Straight Eighths Latin---Samba,

Straight eighths Ballad Straight or Swing eighths An arrangement Intro Head (the main tune) Optional contrasting section Solos with background Out-restate the head Ending Voicing Chords in jazz are not just triads Choices 1

Assign instrument to every chord note from top to bottom--muddy 2

Overlap--Brass Overlap 1 or 2 voices 3

Duplicate in a different octave (Basie Voicing) 4

Spread Drop 2--drop the second voice of a close-spaced chord to an octave lower Drop 2 and 4--drop the second and fourth voice an octave

Brinkman: How to Orchestra and Arrange Music 16

Chapter 10 Marching Band Arranging B The problem: Converting an indoor ensemble to an outdoor ensemble

What Happens Outside • •


Temperature Type of performance

Scoring • • • • • •

Melody most important Low rhythm,

bass Percussion provides drive and effects Woodwind and mallet percussion effects are possible Unison/octaves can be used Think visually as well as in sound

Indoor Marching • •

Score more like concert band Problem is that bands do not march exclusively indoors

Flute and Clarinet


Double Melody or Harmony (3rd & 6ths) Do not split Flute and Clarinet Clarinet above the break or double a tenor line in low register

More unison than you might do in concert band Range G-high G

C for strong sections Consider endurance

Horn and Alto Sax


Tenor Sax

This “alto” line can be very effective Harmony or countermelody Occasionally reinforce bass line if needed

Same part TB 1 &2 is possible

Double Baritone and Trombone 2

Safest range is F-F Harmony,


Bari Sax,

Bass Clarinet

Drive Accents Effects Mallet melody or effects in pit

Bass Line--use Trombone/Baritone to reinforce Consider a “power” bass melody--EX: Smoke on the Water

General Hints • • • •

Get Instruments in range where they will project-consider melody first Tessitura--be kind Complexity-remember they have to march Keep it simple

Brinkman: How to Orchestra and Arrange Music 17

Chapter 11 Scoring for Young Band/Orchestra Sc “Young” groups are those who have been playing instruments from 1-4 years

Depending on when they started,

this could be anywhere from 4th-8th grade

Skill levels will vary between schools--6th graders at one school may play as well as 7th graders in another

One purpose of young band music is to teach specific concepts such as: • meter • key signature • rhythms • range extension • style • confidence of players

Directors chose music for young groups with specific considerations in mind

They are interested in music that: • is playable • sounds good • teaches something • hides deficiencies • is safe in performance • challenges students

Music for young groups should be accessible

”) The question you consider is: What do Elem and JH kids know,

? Suggested band keys First year Second Year Bb,

F + Ab,

Third & 4th Years + Db

Suggested Orchestra Keys First year Second Year D,

Third & 4th Years Bb,

Rhythms First year eighth

Second Year dotted eighth sixteenth

Third & 4th Years sixteenth

Second Year 6/8

Third & 4th Years 5/4,

Meter First year 4/4,

Range--see book for each instrument

Brinkman: How to Orchestra and Arrange Music 18 Other Tips for Young Groups • Avoid extended high or low tessituras

Solo and Soli passages are fine--just make sure you cue any solo or important soli parts

Cue for other possible missing sections

Band will have few bass instruments--JH more

Reinforce bass part whenever possible


Do not limit yourself to snare and bass drum

! Be Creative--lots of players and a variety of instruments

Do not divide too much


Sax 1 &2 OK for younger groups

Make sure there are adequate instruments on each “voice


With young musicians,

Write music they will like

o Rhythmic o Attractive melody o Contrast o A bit of a challenge

Brinkman: How to Orchestra and Arrange Music 19

Chapter 12 Finale Check Sheet YOU NEED TO KNOW HOW TO DO THESE THINGS Set up ‰ New Score from Template (File Menu) ‰ New Score using Wizard (File Menu) ‰ Open old file (File Menu) ‰ Save (File Menu) ‰ Key Signature Tool (looks like Bb Key Sig) ‰ Time Signature Tool (looks like 4/4 time) ‰ Page View/Scroll View (Under “View” Menu or toggle with Ctrl-E) ‰ Display in Concert pitch/ or not (“Document” Menu) Enter notes,

‰ Notes and rests o Simple Entry o Speedy Entry o Hyperscribe (opt

) ‰ Dynamics (mf tool) ‰ Ties (slur tool and double click first note) or = in speedy note ‰ Slur

Double click first note and drag to last) ‰ Cresc,

Double click first note and drag to last) ‰ Articulation (whole note with accent tool) ‰ Delete notes or measures (careful If you highlight measure with Mass Mover and hit delete,

the whole measure in all parts will be deleted) Try both delete and backspace key to see what they do Other ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰

‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰

Copy and paste (Mass Mover Tool) Undo Ctrl-Z

This may be the most important command you know

! Triplets (triplet tool) Transpose (highlight with Mass Mover and then find transpose under untilities menu

Use this to change octaves or move something up by a 3rd,

Use key sig tool to change key of piece


If you need to move notes up or down,

highlight the measure and use the 6,

or 9 keys to move notes up/down a step/octave Check Range (Plug In Menu) Tempo Marking(Plug In Menu) Endings (Plug In Menu) Rehearsal letters (mf tool) Multimeasure rests in parts Double bar for key or meter change (Measure tool—whole rest)

Brinkman: How to Orchestra and Arrange Music 20 Playback ‰ Listen through headphones in lab ‰ Show in Concert pitch and listen for mistakes

Print ‰ ‰ ‰

Prepare to print Print parts and score

You can see individual parts…

Ctrl-Alt-period Percentage and Page layout—don’t waste paper