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Forging Design Considerations

Impression Die - Case Studies (pdf) - Forging Industry Association

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Tolerances are an important consideration, since as forged surfaces must meet critical dimensional requirements savings compared to fabricated part design
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Design Considerations

Description

Module-II of PDPT

Figure 2

Figure 2

Two types of operations are used in forging in order to arrive at the final shape

They are as follows

Drawing out: This is the operation in which the metal gets elongated with a reduction in the cross sectional area

For this purpose,

the force is to be applied in a direction,

perpendicular to the length axis

Upsetting: This is applied to increase the cross sectional area of the stock at the expense of its length

To achieve this,

force is applied in a direction parallel to the length axis

Because of the manipulative ability of the forging process,

it is possible to closely control the grain flow in the specific direction,

such that the best mechanical properties can be obtained based on the specific application

Some examples of desirable grain flow directions are given in the adjacent figure

In the crane hook it is possible to get the two types of grain patterns by proper arrangement of operations

The grain pattern obtained without bending is shown in fig

where as the one in (b) is obtained by bending after drawing out

As a result,

the grain flow is also bent along the hook and thus provides the necessary strength for lifting loads

The gear blank shown in (d) is obtained by upsetting the blank and then finish forging,

whereas the one in (c) is obtained without upsetting the blank

This provides radial grain flow which is essential for good strength in gear teeth for several applications

Figure 2

Lecture Notes of Chinmay Das

Module-II of PDPT Forging Design Considerations Parting Plane: A parting plane is the plane at which the two die halves of the forging meet

It could be a simple plane or irregularly bent,

depending on the shape of the forging

• The parting plane should be the largest cross sectional area of the forging,

since it is easier to spread the metal than to force into deep pockets

• A flat parting plane is more economical

• It should be chosen in such a way that equal amount of material is located in each of the two die halves

• It may be required to put more metal into the top die half since metal would flow more easily in top half

which is perpendicular to the parting plane,

is required then it may be necessary to choose a parting plane which distributes the hole evenly and provides sufficient strength to the punch

The below mentioned figure shows one possible parting plane which simplifies the lower part of the die

But the punch in the upper die half becomes excessively long and may buckle

By changing the parting line as shown in the next figure,

it is possible to punch from both sides,

This also provides a smaller height to diameter for the punch increasing its rigidity

This makes it easier for the metal to fill up the working volume of the die impressions and facilitates the removal of the forging

Standard practice indicates the use of 2 to 12 0 draft angles depending on the type of die,

and the material to be processed

Internal surfaces require more draft than external surfaces

The forgings of non-ferrous alloys need smaller drafts than the steel ones

In upset forgings,

the draft problem is minimized because the part is held securely by the gripper die during the punch withdrawal and the gripper itself gets opened to release the component

So for upset forgings smaller value of draft angle is considered

Draft position Outside Inside

Height or Depth (mm) Up to 25 Above 25 Up to 25 Above 25

Drop forgings Normal Close ( degree) (degree) 5 to 7 3 to 7 5 to 10 3 to 7 7 to 10 5 to 8 8 to 12 5 to 9 Table I: Recommended draft angles

Upset forgings Normal Close ( degree) (degree) 3 to 5

Fillet and Corner Radii: Since forging involves flow of metal in orderly manner,

therefore it is necessary to provide a streamlined path for the flow of metal so that defects’ free forging is produced

When two or more surfaces meet,

a corner is formed which restricts the flow of metal

These corners are rounded off to improve the flow of metal

Fillets are for rounding off the internal angles,

whereas corner is that of the external angle

Let us consider the flow of metal over a corner as shown in the figure 2

Because of large corner radius provided,

metal is allowed to flow smoothly into the pocket

But when corner radius is small or not provided as in figure 2

the metal flow is first hindered and when it finally enters the

Lecture Notes of Chinmay Das

Module-II of PDPT cavity,

the metal would fold back against itself forming a defect called lap or cold shut

Nominal fillets and corner radii are taken from the tables to suit the weight and required accuracy of the forgings

Sharp fillets and radii increase the tendency towards forging defects and accelerate the die wear

To avoid this fillets are taken to be larger than corner radii

Figure 2

5 25 8 4

0 40 12 4

5 50 15 5

0 65 18 5

5 75 20 6

25 to 3

5 Over 3

At this temperature,

the material gets expanded and when it is cooled to the atmospheric temperature,

its dimensions would be reduced

Hence a shrinkage allowance is added on all the linear dimensions

Length or width,

mm Up to 25 26 to 50 51 to 75 76 to 100 101 to 125 126 to 150 Each additional 25

Commercial,

45 Add 0

Die Wear Allowance: This allowance is considered to account for the gradual wear of the die which takes place with the use of the die

Lecture Notes of Chinmay Das

Module-II of PDPT Net mass of forging,

Kg Up to 0

46 to 1

36 to 2

26 to 3

21 to 4

11 to 5

Commercial,

Finish or Machining Allowance: It is provided on the various surfaces which need to be further machined

The amount of allowance to be provided should consider accuracy & surface finish required on the forged products,

and also depth of decarburized layer,

scale pits etc formed during the forging operation

Greatest dimension,

mm Minimum allowance per surface,

mm Minimum allowance per surface,

Thin long punches are likely to wear out quickly and need reconditioning of the die

Figure 2

Magnesium Steel ,

Titanium

Ratio of h : W L=W 1

L ≥ 2W 2

Table VIII: Maximum limits of depth In addition to these allowances,

the various tolerances that are applicable to the forgings such as mismatch tolerance,

are also considered while arriving at the final dimensions of the die

Lecture Notes of Chinmay Das

Module-II of PDPT The forging tolerance is the value of permissible deviation from the nominal forging size indicated in the drawing

Overlap is the stock left on the work where forging is inconvenient,

this stock projects beyond the outline of the ready article

Overlaps are resorted to for the sake of simpler shape of the forging to facilitate its manufacture

The overlaps are removed by machining

A sample component after providing the necessary allowances and tolerances is shown

Figure 2

Figure 2

Reference: 1

Manufacturing Technology by P

-264 Dies,

Moulds and Jigs by V

Vladimirov,

MIR Publishers,

page 301-304 Manufacturing Engineering and Technology by Kalpakjian and Schmid,

Pearson Education,

Lecture Notes of Chinmay Das

Module-II of PDPT Review Questions 1

Explain the features of a typical forging die

How parting plane selection in case of forging is different from that of casting

? Why corner radius is less than fillet radius in forging die

? On which section of forged products machining allowance is provided

? Draft angles are less in upset forging compared to drop forging

? Name various positive and negative allowances considered in forging

Why larger values for draft angle are considered for internal surfaces

? Take two solid cylindrical specimens of equal diameter but different heights and compress them (frictionless) to the same percent reduction in height

Show whether final diameters will be different or same

Why tolerances are considered in die design

Why ratio of rib height to web height is important in die design

Lecture Notes of Chinmay Das