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Page 13-16 Further Reading: TREES AND FORESTS

Page 17-20 Unit 6: FOREST AND FLOODING

Page 21-24 Further Reading: WINDBREAKS

Page 25-26 Unit 7: CREATING A NEW STAND



Page 37-39 Unit 10: FOREST HARVESTING


Page 43-47 Further Reading: TREES DISEASES



Page 58

Unit 1:


For hundreds of years people have planted trees to serve the needs of future generations for timber and tree products

In Europe and Asia forests were planted by rulers,

church leaders and farmers – for the people

By planting trees they particularly and symbolically showed faith and hope for the future

Trees are fundamental to life and the processes that maintain healthy soil,

There is evidence which shows that in regions where the trees are cleared to less than 30% of their original surface area,

other sustainable life processes begin to collapse

Rivers silt up,

James Lovelock,

claimed these breakdowns in natural systems will in turn affect other word bio-areas continent or cyclones may occur more frequently

It will be sad if these things happen before we change from consumers to producers

I/ Comprehension 1

What do people plant trees for

What do European and Asian people want to show by planting trees

What are fundamental roles of trees

What will happen to the area when the trees are cut down

II/ Grammar ADJECTIVE + PREPOSITION Exercise 1: Complete these sentences with the correct preposition 1

It’ very nice

Thank you very much

Why are you always so impolite …………

It wasn’t very polite …………

him to leave without saying thank you

I can’t understand people who are cruel to …………

Why do you always get so annoyed ……………

We enjoyed our vacation,

but we were disappointed …………

I was surprised …………

It was out of character

These days everybody is aware ………………

Davis spends a lot of time gardening

His garden is very well-kept,

and he’s very proud … ……

Bill has been doing the same job for too long

He’s bored ……

Exercise 2: Fill in the gaps with words in the box boundary

forests involved over millions of years with all the …………

of natural selection operating,

so that finally what we see is a highly refined complex which is beautifully honed to survive in the …………

If the forest is large enough it will offer ………… to indigenous mammals,

Forest may be established in the areas such as: creeks,

ridges and places with …………

and roadside …………………

Your garden is the natural forest that are the …………

and security for the whole landscape

Like your food forest and structural forest,

this assembly of trees and their organisms provides …………… and protection,

water and soil in ……………

Exercise 3: Expressing purposes: To-Infinitive 1

A tree uses sunlight

The purpose in using it is to combine carbon dioxide with water to form carbohydrates

In countries with inadequate rainfall we irrigate the land

Our object in doing this is to supply enough moisture for satisfactory plant growth

We should add fertilizers or manure to the soil

Our aim in doing this is to encourage plant growth

Tile drains may be laid in or on the land

The reason for this is to remove surplus water from the fields

We apply inorganic materials to the soil

Our object in doing this is to increase the supply of one or more of the essential nutrients such as nitrogen,

Expressing conditions 1

Take one clause from each of the two columns below to make one sentence

Make sure your sentences make sense: If you don’t understand the trees,

If a soil is badly drained,

Crops are often lost If you don’t take notes,

If agriculture fails,

You get better crops Most trees die People get sick

it can become waterlogged you will never be a good forester the world will starve if the farmer does not look after them if they don’t get enough water if they don’t eat proper food you won’t remember the lectures if the soil is fertile

Now say what you think would be the result if the circumstances below actually happened

Complete the sentences,

giving your opinion: Example: My car/not/start If my car didn’t start ……………………

My land/flood c

Lose/my note d

My country’s population/double e

There/be/no rice/my country f

we/not/test/new plant varieties

Unit 2:


In very early pioneer days,

trees were cut down with no thought of replacing them


the significance of trees was indicated as early as the 1620s by the Plymouth Colony,

when an ordinance was passed prohibiting the felling of timber on any colony land without official consent

A little later in Pennsylvania,

William Penn,

for every 5 acres of forest land cleared,

After the United States was established,

laws with penalties were passed by several states to prevent thoughtless waste of the forests

In the early 1800s Congress authorized the president to protect live oak and red cedar timber in the state of Florida and to use the Army and Navy for enforcement

During this same period the first step in forestry was taken by the government by providing for the growing of live oaks in the southern states for ship timbers

A federal act also provided for preservation of nearly 250


According to another act passed in that decade,

any person cutting down or destroying living red cedar,

or other trees on federal land could be punished by the government

These laws and regulations,

through which the government tried to control the forest land,

helped call attention to the importance of forests and led to the development of conservation at the state level

In January 1867,

the first state committee on forest protection was appointed in Michigan,

and Wisconsin followed in March of that year

Two years later the State Board of Agriculture of Maine appointed a committee to develop a state policy for the preservation and production of trees

Minnesota created a law in 1871 that granted bounties to encourage the planting of forest trees

The first Arbor Day,

a day in late April or early May observed by the planting of trees was celebrated the following year in Nebraska

The federal government adopted the Timber Culture Act in the early 1870s

It provided that the government would donate 160 acres of land to any person who planted 40 acres of that trees with trees not more than 12 feet apart and kept the trees growing and healthy for one decade

This act,

was repealed after 10 years because of serious abuses

too many recipients of these grants were not honoring their commitments by failing to follow the rules and regulations pertaining to the grants

In many instances,

while employing fire to prepare their land for cultivation,

the settlers disregarded caution relating to neighboring land

Gross carelessness often resulted in destruction of property well

I/ Vocabulary 1

Look at paragraph 1 again

Which word has the same meaning as: A

Look at paragraph 3 again

Find the synonym of the words: A

Look at paragraph 4 again

Which word has the same meaning as: A

10 years B

II/ Put the appropriate word in the blank conserve cut significance fell prevented

protection growing timber laws destruction


…of Eucalyptus on waste land is becoming popular

In Sweden,

machines have been used to………………

It is very important to………………

Shifting cultivation causes a lot of forest………………


most of people are aware the…………………of forests


is a very important subject for us

trees were………………………with no thought of replacing them

consumption of Japan has been increasing since the Second World War

Everybody should respect the………………

New forest laws have……………

……people from destroying forests

III/ Comprehension A/ True or False

Trees were cut with thought of replacing them in very early pioneer days

The importance of trees was known in the 17th century

Before USA was founded laws with penalties were passed by several states to prevent thoughtless waste of the forests

In the early 10th century,

live oak and red cedar timber in the state of Florida were protected

Red cedars were grown by the government in southern states for ship timbers in the early 19th century

In some states of America,

Any persons cutting down one acre of living red cedar,

live oak or other trees on federal land could be punished by the government

In the early 19th century police were used to enforce forest laws and regulations

In 1896 the state Board of Agriculture of Maine appointed a committee to develop a state policy for the preservation and production of trees

These early laws and regulations played an important role in the establishment of forestry in USA

B/ Answer the questions: 1

In very early pioneer days,

why were trees cut with no thought of replacing them

What was the content of the ordinance passed in 1620

What did William Penn order

In the early 1800s,

what did the congress authorize the president to do

When was the planting of trees started

? When was the timber culture Act adopted and what was its content

IV/ Grammar + Some verbs in English must be followed by the

+ Others are followed by the infinitive,

“to”: For example: He agreed to lend me his book

+ Verbs followed by a particles like ‘in’,

Exercise : Make sentences from the following notes

Think whether you should use the infinitive or the – ing form after the verbs

He/suggest/read/chapter 5/before/we/go/lecture 2

The rain/not stop/fall/until yesterday evening 3

He/wants/spend/more time/study

A good farmer/try/set/objectives

Peter/prevent/harvest/his crop/bad weather

I enjoy/listen/music

He/not mind/work/weekends

He/forget/hand in/essay/ last night

There/nothing/that shop/worth/buy

It/no use/leave/your work/last minute

I/miss/watch/college football match/last week

Unit 3:


Trees are woody plants,

but not all woody plants are trees

A tree usually grows upright to at least 20 feet (15

The stem supports limbs and leaves,

Other woody plants are vines and shrubs

Vines may have woody stems but do not have a distinct crown of upright branches

Shrubs may have several woody stems growing from a clump,

and they usually are smaller than trees

Trees generally develop a typical shape when they grow in an open area

Trees that grow in crowded forests usually have trunks of greater clear length


we have no timberline resulting from high elevation in the East,

but at timberline and at higher mountain elevations in the West many trees are knurled,

Such tortuous form is the result of many factors,

and continuous exposure to strong winds


most species develop characteristic shapes

Several field trips with a good identification manual showing local species should enable an inexperienced person to become rather proficient in identifying trees

Identification features are also found in bud,

The precise botanical characteristics by which trees are classified (primarily flower parts) are too small or fleeting to be useful in field identification for those with little experience

The gross features (shape,

buds and twigs) are more useful for quick field identification

I/ Comprehension A/ Multiple-choice 1

A tree usually grows……………

A tree usually has……………

Vines has got………………

The branches of a vine are……………

When growing in an open area,

trees often have a…………

The tree that has to compete for light often has …………

The tree that grows on very adverse place generally has…………

a dense brown B/ Answer the questions 1

All woody plants are trees or not

At maturity,

How many stem does a tree have

What does the stem support

Do vines have distinct crowns

How do trees develop when they grow in an open area

What kind of trunk does a tree often have when it has to compete for light

Why are some trees knurled or twisted

In what conditions do most species develop characteristic shape

In order to have quick field identification what should be used

II/ Vocabulary Put the appropriate word into the blank: stem crown shape branches light

knurled factors identification bark characteristics

is very important for the growth of trees


is a subject that we are going to study next week


Many………………………affect the growth of a tree

After the flood,


of the river banks changed so much

This kind of Pine has got a lot of…………………

We used to play under the……………………………


of this bamboo is 10 metres long


but only the………………………

III/ Paragraph writing Match the following clauses together,

the next evening he needed them Robert could not attend he arrived at the canteen Robert finally arrived they did not please Andrew very much he went to the canteen to look for Last night Andrew lend Robert his lecture Robert note Robert has not returned them e

Andrew needed his notes immediately Robert was not there f

He had waited for an hour he decided to wait

Unit 4:


Trees and other plants often have several common names,

which vary with locality or local use

To make specific identities world-wide,

botanists employ Latinized names,

which remain constant since Latin is a language that no longer changes

The scientific name consists of two parts: the genus (a collection closely related species) and the specific epithet or species (a collection of individuals so similar that they suggest common percentage and produce like offspring)

The generic name always appears first and is capitalized,

while the specific name follows and begins with a lowercase letter

Because general and regional guides to field identification of trees and government publication that describe local or native trees are readily available,

only a few of the important commercially significant trees of the major forest regions will be studied in this chapter

Most of these are valued for their wood products

Prior to studying individual tree species,

it is necessary to know that trees are divided into two main groups

These are the conifers (gymnosperms) or softwood trees and the broadleaf (angiosperms) or hardwood trees

Conifers have mostly needle-like or scale-like leaves and bear their seeds in cones or cone-like structures

The conifers or evergreens do not shed all their leaves annually,

with the exception of larch and bald cypress

Deciduous trees,

those that shed all their leaves in the fall,

generally are broadleaved hardwoods

The term hardwood and softwood can be misleading because the wood of some hardwood trees is softer than that of some softwood trees

For example,

the wood of yellow poplar and basswood is much softer than that of the longleaf pine

We will first study the conifers,

which are very widely distributed in the various regions and are very significant in the production of lumber and paper

I/ Vocabulary Find word or combination of words that means: 1

II/ Comprehension A/ Find an appropriate word to fill the blank 1

He is a very famous……………

These trees do not…………

In old time,

people used to………to construct bridges

is often used to produce paper

It is difficult to store the…………

because their germination capacity is decreased by the time

To conserve valuable………

resources is a task of great importance

This kind of trees are often…………………on high mountains

Names of trees………………with different regions

The generic name always……………………first

do not shed all their leaves annually

Trees and plants have…………

The scientific name of a tree has………

The specific name stands…………

is written or printed in capital letters

Trees are classified into………

Conifers are often………………

Most of softwood trees do not change their leaves………

The wood of………

How many names do trees and other plants have

Why do they have many names

Why do botanists have to use Latin to name trees

How many parts does the scientific name consist of

How are trees classified

D/ Reading test Complete the following text by filling in the blank spaces with the expressions given below

A dotted line………requires a phrase to be added and a straight line ________ requires a word

the leaf very carefully plant groups identifiable some other plant

of how for example grass doing

the surrounding environment unfamiliar plant functions smell

If you want to identify an…………………,

Feel the texture of the leaves

Then____________ the plant- crush the leaves and see if the scent reminds you ________other plants you know

All the mints are ____________by smell,


and again see what it reminds you of

____________the oxalis family all have the same acidic taste,

(Notes: it is very hard to poison yourself by ___________simply a test taste and then spitting the leaf out

) Look at the plant………………

can be similarly recognised by sight

Now you can probable see that this plant is like……………………

Think about it and then check its growing place

Examine ……………………- soil,

slope- and the plant’s habit- tree,

Identify its yields and ________________- mulch,

Now tell yourself where and _____________you would use it in a permaculture design

Unit 5:

TREE SIZE AND TYPE CLASSIFICATION Tree age and size can be described in a general and approximate way by use of such words as seedling,

A stand of trees can be even-aged or all-aged

A forest made up principally of one species is a pure stand,

while one composed of several species is a mixed stand

Trees are also classified by the positions of their crowns relative to the general level of the forest canopy,

the covering created by the crowns interweaving each other

Dominant: A tree having a well-developed crown that extends above the general level of the other crowns and is exposed to full light from above and partial light from the sides

Co-dominant: A tree with smaller crown than the dominants that helps form the general level of the canopy and receives full light from above but limited amount from the sides

Intermediate: A small-crowned tree crowded into the general level of the forest canopy,

receiving some light from above and virtually none from the sides

Suppressed: A tree with poorly developed crown,

beneath the level of the canopy (overtopped),

receiving very little light from above or the sides

Foresters refer to a measure of the number and size of trees in a given area as stand density

It indicates whether the forest is under stocked,

For example,

if the canopy of a tract of timber is closed over as much as 40 to 70 percent,

I/ Vocabulary 1

Look at paragraph 1 again

Which words have the same meaning as: A

Look at paragraph 2 again

Which words correspond to the definitions

a forest of different species 3

Look at paragraph 3,

4 and 5

Can you find the synonym of the following words

Find out an appropriate word in the text to fill the blank: a

How many…………does your nursery produce per year

I think these pines are……………

This stand is………

because it is made up principally one species

This……………of pine grows very fast

He has been a…………

The roots of this tree have…………………

Dominant trees receive full……

Biomass production is affected by stand…………………

The economic…………………of Japan is admirable

A given area of trees,

which is consisted of species is called a……

II/ Comprehension: True or false

A pure stand is made up of different species

Trees can not be classified by the positions of their crowns

In a forest,

each crown of each tree stays away from each other

A dominant tree receives some light from the sides

A co-dominant tree gets no sunlight from the sides

A suppressed tree receives no light at all

An intermediate tree does not have any light from the sides

Stand density is the number and sizes of trees in a given area

Basing on the crowns of trees that are relative to the general level of the forest canopy,

trees can be classified into four types

If the canopy of a tract of timber is closed as much as 55%,

III/ Grammar The form of Definition Definitions often take one of the following forms: 1

may be defined as [ B ] which [ C ] E

A soil profile [ A ] is defined as a succession of soil horizons [ B ] which extends from the surface of the soil to the parent rock

[ B ] which [ C ] is / are called,

A succession of soil horizons [ B ] which extends from the surface of the soil to the parent rock [ C ] is called a soil profile


The process

Transforms light energy from

A soil profile

soil Extends from the surface of the soil to the parent rock

Aerobic bacteria


Can live in the presence of air


Biophysical process

Take place through the tissues of living plants

Complex structure

Utilizes energy from the sun in the manufacture of food


Stomata of plants


Minute openings on the Lead to the interior of the surface of a leaf

The chemical

Enable sunlight to convert carbon dioxide into food and other substances

Definition of Terms: Combine the items in Column A with the ones in column B to make the correct definition of each term

You will need to add some necessary words (articles,

forms of the verb “be”) where appropriate

Ecologically complex unit-community of trees and undergrowth spreading,

Collection of trees which are more or less uniform (i

more or less the same) in species,

Rather like a stand but more extensive- group of similar stands defined by the species composition

Site class

Physical factors which affect the productivity of the trees,

concerning the thing like the soil,

Size of tree

Height of tree and diameter

Diameter of tree

Measured at one point three five metres from the surface of the soil

Measurements used for the diameter of trees (dbh: diameter at breast height)

Further Reading: TREES


A mature forest cannot be precisely measured nor cost


it is clear that forests have special functions

In addition to providing habitats for animals and contributing to environmental stability,

forests influence wind patterns,

rainfall and nutrients turnover

The Function Of A Forest The waru The trees are the fixed elements of a forest and the associates of trees- fungi,

and other animals- can be seen as the mobile elements

The whole- the tree and its associates- can be imagined as a guild or waru (the Australian Aboriginal word waru expresses the sense of all organisms belonging together and working co-operatively

) the tree provides habitat for the animals (shelter,

in return animals carry out the tree’s needs for pollination,

In permaculture,

you are aiming to create landscapes and ecosystems that function with the wonder,

diversity and efficiency of a waru

Trees and wind Trees are “pruned” or deformed by prevailing winds and from this you can predict local wind direction and intensity,

and assess the need for windbreaks

Heavy trees with large canopies,

rely mainly on their weight to withstand severe winds

Trees with lighter canopies insert roots deeply into the ground to anchor themselves

It is important to use anchoring trees in cyclone areas

Wind carries a “load”

It carries ice particles,

Trees with small fine leaves can “trap” the load and deposit the nutrients for their own growth

Because fine-leaved trees are often found on the edges of forests,

you will sometimes find that the edge facing the prevailing wind has richer soils than the edge on the leeward side


in a forest about 60% of the windstream is deflected up and over the trees

The remaining 40% that enters the “edge” or forest closure is absorbed and warms the forest with its energy

Within 100m the wind dies

At this point in the forest the air is clean,

This is a perfect growing place

The deflected wind is compressed in a region up to 20 times the height of the tree canopy

If the air is humid,

it will be compressed and cooled,

The forest edge is essential to the lift of the wind

The species growing on the edge are dense,

small-leaved and thick-stemmed,

and can withstand the force of the wind

The edge must be kept intact because if it is destroyed the plants in the forest may suffer from windburn and abrasion,

and diseases and weeds can enter the forest and destroy its integrity

Trees and temperature Forests can be seen as nature’s air conditioners because they clean the air and modify extremes of humidity and temperature

Trees absorb the sun’s light energy and turn it into chemical energy

If leaves are dark green or reddish in colour,

as often found in the tropics,

more light as absorbed and local temperatures are reduced

Trees transpire water into the atmosphere as humidity

(one medium-sized elm will transpire 7000 litres of water on a clear day

) this evaporation is accompanied by cooling so that by day it is cooler in and near a forest than it is in unvegetated areas

At night,

water condenses on the leaves and warms the surrounding air

In very dry areas,

the evapotranspiration from trees will humidify air which is uncomfortably dry

water captured by trees dehumidifies the air by absorbing water

Trees and precipitation Where the air stream is very humid (i

air flows rapidly and condenses on leaf surfaces

In these conditions dense rainforests will grow and the condensation from leaf surface can be 80-86% of the total precipitation

Trees pump moisture into the air as they transpire- up to 75% of precipitation is returned to the atmosphere in this way

The Tasmanian Blue Gum,

Eucalyptus globulus,

which averages about 60 trees to a hectare in a natural mixed forest,

This is a huge return of moisture to the airstreams

The environmental effects of forest removal are dramatic,

both in the local area and further field

It has been calculated that as much as 60% of inland water comes from forest transpiration

forest removal in one area may relate directly to drought in another area

Forests protect the soil from erosion

In one heavy deluge up to 80 tones/ hectare of soil can be lost from bare earth

In addition,

the topsoil and subsoil start to dry out if water runs across the surface and off the land into waterways

Dams and rivers silt up and eventually flood,

carrying the valuable topsoil downstream

When it rains……… When it rains over a forest the impact of each rain drop on the soil is reduced and the rain is spread as a film of water,

over all the leaves of the trees

It is caught in stems and bark,

The amount caught is influenced by the crown thickness and density

For 100% of rain falling,

branches and trunks of deciduous trees

more is caught in evergreen trees

This is called interception

The rest of the rain- the throughfall- drifts through the canopy as mist and droplets

It contains organic salts,

insect droppings and sheddings

It is nutrient-rich and is directed towards the outer plant canopy (also known as the drip line) and the underlying feeding roots

Before the water reaches the roots however,

the organic humus layer of the soil acts like a great water blotter and soaks up 1cm of rain for every 3cm of depth

This moisture is held for later use,

when the soil begins to dry out again

In the underlying 40-60cm of soil,

the throughfall is filtered into water and air channels,

and is absorbed by soil fungi and bacteria,

This water is first bound by particles of clay and humus and then the excess percolates slowly through the soil

At any time some of this water is valuable to soil organisms and plant roots

Once all this has been accomplished,

water starts to flow very slowly to rivers and the sea

And when it does,

I/ Vocabulary 1

In paragraph 3,

the word “that” refers to: A

In paragraph 6,

the word “their” refers to: A

In paragraph 7,

the word “its” refers to: A

In paragraph 8,

the word “it” refers to: A

In paragraph 9,

B & C D

In paragraph 11,

the word “it” refers to: A

In paragraph 14,

the word “which” refers to: A

In paragraph 16,

the word “they” refers to: A

In paragraph 23,

the word “it” refers to: A

II/ Comprehension: 1

Can a mature forest be precisely measured or cost

What is the definition of the term “waru”

How can you predict local wind direction and intensity

How can trees withstand severe wind

Are fine-leaved trees benefit

? Where can we find them in a forest

What is the perfect growing place

What tree species usually grow on the edge of a forest

Why can forests be seen as nature’s air conditioners

When does air flow rapidly and condense on leaf surface

Can trees pump moisture into the air

How can trees help the soil

Which acts like a great water blotter

Unit 6:


Under normal conditions,

streams establish channels sufficient to carry the water discharged into them


prolonged torrential rains and rapidly melting snow can fill streams beyond their capacity

The resulting overflow causes damage to property and in some instance loss of human life

Flood damage usually is correlated with population density along main rivers

Rapid rise of water in headwater streams (tributaries) results in flooding of the main rivers,

and the deposition of debris on land and in buildings

During our country’s development,

large areas of forest were cleared from the water-sheds of rivers such as the Ohio,



thus making them more prone to flooding than before,

and local and downstream flood control much more difficult

It became necessary to build levees,

usually walls of dirt or of sandbag construction,

to prevent excess water from spilling ever the banks

Good forest management regulates runoff,

which moderates extremes in stream flow in headwater regions and,

helps prevent downstream floods

In this chapter,

the science called ecology was defined and various aspects of ecology were touched upon,

such as the ecology of forest wildlife,

the impacts of human activity upon the environment,

possible interaction between climate and the forests supply and forests,

Rainfall removes dust from the atmosphere,

provides the water necessary for tree growth,

replenishes the underground water table,

dissolves nutrient materials in the soil,

fills the river headwater streams,

and may result in disastrous floods

Lack of rainfall,

wind and barren soil caused the famous Dust Bowl

Forests are affected by climate and in turn produce some effects upon climate

Air and ground temperatures within forests differ somewhat from those outside

Forests affect the speed of air movement

Shelterbelts protect agricultural fields from winds and snowdrifts,

while windbreaks protect farmsteads by changing wind direction and reducing wind speed

Ground litter retards flow of rainwater and also serves as a thermal insulator,

reducing the rapidity of changes in forest temperature

Excessive conversion of forest land into agricultural fields has contributed to soil erosion,

and contributed to the need for levees

I/ Vocabulary A/ Find out the word in the text which means 1

a certain area that supplies water for a river or a stream (paragraph 2) 6

the start of a river or a stream (paragraph 2) 8

fills up again (paragraph 4) 10

too much/ too great (paragraph 5) B/ Put the right word in the blank (use the words in the text) 1

One million dollars is………………………to plant one thousand hectares of forest


of this water pump is 500 cubic meters of water per an hour

People living in the down region of Mekong river are often threatened with……

Last year,

he took part in a…………………

management workshop which was organized by FAO in Bangkok


is one of the main causes that lead to floods

The presence of forest………………



of forest land into agricultural fields is happening in most of developing countries

People in the poor countries are killing themselves by……………

The population………………

of America is 365 persons on a square kilometer

II/ Comprehension A/ Fill in the blank with one word from the text 1


establish channels sufficient to carry the water discharged into them

Flood damage is usually correlated with the……

forests along the main rivers B

shelter belts along the main rivers C

population density along the main rivers D

construction along the main rivers 3

………results in flooding of the main rivers

Storms B

Forest destruction C

Population density in headwater streams area D

Quick increase water in headwater streams 4

Levees can be built with………

Proper rain fall has got………

Over-raining causes only……

Air and ground temperatures within forests are………

the same as somewhat from those outside B

different from somewhat from those outside C

higher than somewhat from those outside D

lower than somewhat from those outside 8

Shelter belts fights against………

desertification B/ Answer the questions 1

In what condition do streams establish sufficient to carry the water discharged into them

In what condition do rivers and streams cause flood

What can a flood damage

What are the relationships between floods and forest destruction

Can you illustrate the above mentioned relationship

To lessen the impact of flood,

What are the advantages of proper rain fall

What are the disadvantages of over raining

What can forest do to the climate and vice versa

What are the functions of shelter belts and windbreaks

III/ Grammar:

Active or Passive Voice

Change the following sentences into passive or active voice a

During our country’s development,

people cleared large areas of forests from the water-shed of rivers

Rainfall removes dust from the atmosphere

Shelterbelts protect agricultural fields from winds and snowdrifts,

After the United States were established,

laws with penalties were passed by several states to prevent thoughtless waste of the forest

In very early pioneer days,

trees were cut down with no thought of replacing them

FURTHER READING: WINDBREAKS When you design windbreaks you call on your knowledge of how forests function

Well-designed windbreaks modify climate,

Wind is a fluid,

and like water it can be deflected sideways or upwards

It naturally forms into layers with hot air rising and cooler air flowing underneath

You can use the natural characteristics of winds to achieve specific planting effects including: • Suntraps • Firebreaks/ fire-retardants • Increased wind velocity (for energy) • Erosion control • Shelterbelts for stock • Dust filtration • Nutrient traps (wind and water) Every site has a predictable wind pattern

Sometimes you can find this out from weather records

otherwise you will use your observations of how tree shapes are deformed (wind pruned) and the amount of wear on buildings

Every windbreak should be designed to work many ways,

and to yield a variety of products such as mulch,

It should be noted that a line of pine trees is not an efficient windbreak

Once the lower branches fall off,

the wind velocity under the trees is increased

the long black shadows cast by the trees reduce the land’s productivity

How windbreaks work There must be some movement of air through a windbreak or the wind forms into eddies,

which can be quite destructive,

on the other side of the barrier

The principle is to create the equivalent of the forest “edge” which will lift the wind up and over the area you wish to protect

The wind can then be “shaped” so it tapers off at the ends and wind velocity is reduced

The most effective shape for a windbreak planting is a boomerang or parabola shape

This allows the wind to be diverted around the site

In addition these windbreaks work as suntraps

How to design your windbreak The design is based on the concept of succession

You start off your windbreak with smaller-growing plants and nurse species which prepare the environment for the final (climax) species

Plants with the following characteristics should be included in the windbreaks: Hardy species with deep anchoring root systems

Plants with fibrous stems and fleshy leaves- these are more likely to be wind and fire resistant

Plants with fast early growth,

Nitrogen-fixing plants

Self-mulching plants,

e plants which have good leaf fall

Windbreaks for orchards: Several parabola-shaped windbreaks can be planted in the orchard to protect individual trees or small groups of fruit trees

Windbreaks for small areas: These are very important an need not be permanent

For example,

Jerusalem artichokes make an excellent summer windbreak or suntrap in cool climate- they may be just what is required to collect and focus sun on ripening tomatoes

Even knee-high windbreaks,

such as small hedges or herbs,

can provide protection for plants growing nearby

Unit 7:


To establish a forest of a desirable kind where it does not at present exist may require three steps: (1) clear-cutting of an existing stand,

and (3) reproduction by direct seeding of planting

Clear-cutting allows for establishment of new trees without their being influenced by previously existing trees,

and the resulting stand will be even-aged

Having a clear-cut site may be unintentional because complete destruction of all or a large portion of a stand may occur naturally from insects,

In the event that brush,

or grass are present on the land to be planted,

site preparation of some kind may be desirable to reduce the future competition for sunlight and moisture

Preparing the site for new growth is important

Three steps in site preparation are the following: 1

Control of non-tree plant species that may compete with the future crop or modify its environment


or pilling of debris (slash) left after a previous stand of trees has been felled

Preparation of the soil

All these operation may be accomplished through the use of herbicides and heavy machines that both break down dead or living organic material and turn over the soil

The debris left after a logging operation may be physically detrimental to tree reproduction or to the operations required to make and tend a new stand of trees

It may also be a fire hazard,

because the small pieces of wood,

and leaves dry quickly and may burn readily

Fires have been used for site preparation,

since natural fires have been observed to create good conditions for regeneration and growth of new forests

Forest managers must be careful in using fire

It is not safe in some locations because of fuel conditions or because the terrain is too steep or irregular for proper control of a fire

Mechanical site preparation may be practiced in these cases

Logging operations can also aid in site preparation,

because through the use of skidding equipment the log movement can eliminate vegetation and break down the debris left from the felling of the trees

I/ Find out the word that means: 1

makes changes in (paragraph 2) 8

scattered broken pieces of wood (paragraph 2) 10

things needed for a purpose (paragraph )

II/ Find out an appropriate word to fill the blank 1

The working…………………of the workers has been much improved


The logs have been……………………

Thanks to the project funded by UNDP,

the tissue culture laboratory has been equipped with some modern……………

In Thailand,

elephants are used to…………

The erosion has been worse because the hills there are very……………

Forest destruction is very……………

A large………………

…of timber of Malaysia is exported to Japan

It is very difficult to………………

The reforestation programme of Vietnam has been assisted………………

III/ Comprehension 1

In the establishment of a new forest stand,

Clear-cutting helps the establishment of new trees…………

free from damage caused by insects B

free from destruction by storms C

free from influence of previous existing trees D

If the land to be planted has got brush,

increases the moisture of the land C

decreases the future competition for sunlight and moisture 4

Site preparation goes through………

The debris left after a logging operation should be put away because they……

reduce the moisture of the land 6

On the other stand,

the regeneration and growth of new forests

attention should be paid to the use of fire for site preparation

Little B

Generally speaking,

it may be said that there are………

IV/ Comprehension questions 1

How many steps are required in the establishment of a new forest stand

What are the advantages of clear cutting

When is site preparation needed

What are the three steps of site preparation

How are all the operations of site preparation accomplished

Where can fires be used for site preparation

Where should not fires be used for site preparation

Can logging operations promote site preparation

Where should a bedding plow be used

V/ Grammar 1

Defining or Non-Defining Relative Clauses Look at these: +The water which can be taken up by the plant roots is called the available water

+The amount of water which is then retained by the soil is called the field capacity

The clauses in italics define the kind of water: they are defining relative clauses

which may be filled with air or water or bot,

is a network of spaces or channels

which have nitrogen as the main food element,

The clauses in italics gives us additional information about the pore space and fertilizer

They are non-defining relative clauses

They are separated from the rest of the sentences by commas

Use the relative clauses to combine each pair of sentences into a single sentence

In each case say whether the relative clause is defining or non-defining: 1

The amount of water depends on a number of factors

The amount of water is required for irrigation

Soil texture is the characteristic of soil

Soil texture determined by the amount of silt,

The top soil or the surface soil is a layer about 4-45cm deep

Most of the plant roots are found in the topsoil

A compost is a mixture of partly broken down material

This material is usually made up leaves or grass cutting

Organic matter is broken down most rapidly in warm,

The soils are well limed and well aerated

The amount of humus formed is greatest from plants

Plants have a lot of strengthening (lignified) tissues (e

Fungi attack the aerial parts of the crop,

Fungi can be controlled by means of chemical substances

These chemical substances are known as fungicides

Fertilizers or manure is required for rice cultivation

The quantity of fertilizer or manure depends on the fertility of the soil and the nutrients

The nutrients are released from the rooted weeds and stubble

The weeds and stubble are ploughed in during cultivation

Short-Form Relative Clauses Relative clauses often appear in a shortened form

The relative pronoun and the form of verb to be can be omitted and with,

adjective or noun may be used instead

Example: Viruses are very small organisms transmitted by means of insects

Rewrite the following sentences using the short form of relative clauses: 1

Fungi are microscopic organisms

These organisms produce tread-like growths

These growths are known as hyphae

Nematodes are small worms in the soil that enter tree roots

They cause serious losses in some crops,

The types of disease organisms are fungi and bacteria

They are found in the soil

They attack the roots of trees and they cause root wilt and rot

A soil will contain quite a high proportion of calcium

Such a soil has a pH value of 6

5 or more

A compost is a mixture of partly broken down material

This material is usually made up leaves or grass cutting

Organic matter is broken down most rapidly in warm,

The soils are well limed and well aerated

The amount of humus formed is greatest from plants

Plants have a lot of strengthening (lignified) tissues (e

Fungi attack the aerial parts of the crop,

Fungi can be controlled by means of chemical substances

These chemical substances are known as fungicides

Unit 8:


Sometimes trees are cut simply for stand improvement

More often cutting takes place as a harvesting operation,

with close attention paid at the same time to stand renewal and improvement

The cutting methods employed in forest management are regarded as a part of silviculture

If proper cutting methodology is employed in the management of a forest stand,

reproduction of desirable tree species may be obtained,

as well as control of tree density,

The number of years between the establishment of a crop or stand of trees and its final cutting at a specified stage of maturity is known as the rotation period of tree growth

This number of years will vary widely for various species and locations,

and will depend upon many factors

Clear-cutting: As a method of harvesting,

clear-cutting has some advantages

wood chips and pulpwood are often so valuable that everything cut can be sold,

and an excellent stage is set for stand removal

Adequate reproduction may be obtained by beginning the harvest at about the time seed fall begins in a good seed year


the most certain way to obtain reproduction is to plant a desired species after cutting

Site preparation often is necessary for the establishment of desirable reproduction

Seed- tree cutting: Scattered groups or individual trees are left standing in the cut-over area to provide seed

Even-aged stands result from this style of harvesting

The seed trees should be carefully selected to be the best of the stand and be well distributed over the cut area

Site preparation is often necessary before and after cutting to ensure adequate reproduction

Shelter-wood cutting: The mature stand is cut in a series of two or three partial cuttings,

which provide spaces for reproduction

Fairly even-aged stands result from this procedure

In southern pine,

prescribed burning as site preparation often is necessary prior to cutting to ensure establishment of reproduction

Selective cutting: Selective cutting is the annual or periodic removal of trees,

particularly the mature individuals or small groups from an uneven-aged stand,

in order to get a better yield

The oldest and largest trees are removed periodically,

with reproduction becoming established in the openings made