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Description

CHAPTER 1 Introduction Chapter 1 Multiple Choice 1

Forensic science is the application of science to: a

Crime-scene reconstruction

Civil laws

Criminal laws

Both civil and criminal laws

Answer: d'Objective: Define forensic science and list the major disciplines it encompasses

Page number: 2 Level: Basic 2

The fictional character of Sherlock Holmes was created by: a

Answer: b Objective: Recognize the major contributors to the development of forensic science

Page number: 7 Level: Basic 3

Who is known as the “father of forensic toxicology”

Orfila b

Locard c

Osborn d

Lattes Answer: a Objective: Recognize the major contributors to the development of forensic science

Page number: 5 Level: Intermediate 4

Who developed the system known as anthropometry

Goddard b

Gross c

Bertillon d

Galton Answer: c'Objective: Recognize the major contributors to the development of forensic science

Page number: 5 Level: Basic

Who undertook the first definitive study of fingerprints as a method of personal identification

Gross b

Lattes c

Locard d

Galton Answer: d'Objective: Recognize the major contributors to the development of forensic science

Page number: 5 Level: Basic 6

Who devised a technique for determining the blood group of a dried bloodstain,

which he applied to criminal investigations

Lattes b

Gross c

Locard d

Bertillon Answer: a Objective: Recognize the major contributors to the development of forensic science

Page number: 8 Level: Basic 7

Who established the comparison microscope as the indispensable tool of the modern firearms examiner

Goddard b

Lattes c

Gross d

Galton Answer: a Objective: Recognize the major contributors to the development of forensic science

Page number: 8 Level: Basic 8

Who wrote the first treatise describing the application of science to the field of criminal investigation

Locard b

Osborn c

Gross d

Galton Answer: c'Objective: Recognize the major contributors to the development of forensic science

Page numbers: 5–6 Level: Intermediate 9

Who established the first workable crime laboratory

Osborn b

Locard 2

Bertillon d

Galton Answer: b Objective: Recognize the major contributors to the development of forensic science

Page number: 8 Level: Intermediate 10

What is the oldest forensic laboratory in the United States

New York City Police Department b

Federal Bureau of Investigation c

Secret Service d

Los Angeles Police Department Answer: d'Objective: Recognize the major contributors to the development of forensic science

Page number: 11 Level: Difficult 11

Which entity maintains the largest crime laboratory in the world

Scotland Yard b

Royal Canadian Mounted Police c

Federal Bureau of Investigation d

Los Angeles Police Department Answer: c'Objective: Recognize the major contributors to the development of forensic science

Page number: 11 Level: Difficult 12

Which of the following would not be included in the work of the biology unit of a crime lab

Blood typing b

Comparison of hairs c

DNA profiling d

Fingerprint analysis Answer: d'Objective: Describe the services of a typical comprehensive crime laboratory in the U

Page number: 15 Level: Difficult 13

Which unit is responsible for examining body fluids and organs for the presence of drugs and poisons

Toxicology unit b

Physical science unit c

Biology unit d

Trace evidence unit Answer: a

Objective: Describe the services of a typical comprehensive crime laboratory in the US criminal justice system

Page number: 16 Level: Difficult 14

Which one of the following people did not make a contribution to forensic toxicology

Valentin Ross b

Alphonse Bertillon c

Carl Wilhelm Scheele d

Mathieu Orfila Answer: b Objective: Recognize the major contributors to the development of forensic science

Page number: 5 Level: Difficult 15

In Kumho Tire Co

Carmichael,

the US Supreme Court ruled that the “gatekeeping” role of a trial judge: a

Was restricted to scientific testimony

Applied only to cases involving capital crimes

Was subject to appeal by a higher court

Applied to all expert testimony

Answer: d'Objective: Compare and contrast the Frye and Daubert decisions relating to the admissibility of scientific evidence in the courtroom

Page number: 22 Level: Intermediate 16

The concept of “general acceptance” of scientific evidence relates to what

Frye standard b

Exclusionary rule c

First Amendment d

Miranda warnings Answer: a Objective: Compare and contrast the Frye and Daubert decisions relating to the admissibility of scientific evidence in the courtroom

Page number: 20 Level: Intermediate 17

Which of the following makes a false statement

? An expert witness must be able to demonstrate: a

Education in his/her area of expertise

A formal degree in forensic science

Significant experience in a relevant field

Working knowledge of the subject matter

Answer: b Objective: Explain the role and responsibilities of the expert witness

Page numbers: 22–23 Level: Difficult 18

Who is the final evaluator of forensic evidence

Police b

Accused d

Media Answer: b Objective: Explain the role and responsibilities of the expert witness

Page number: 21 Level: Difficult 19

Bite marks would be least likely to be found in cases involving: a

Sexual abuse b

Murder c

Arson d

Assault Answer: c'Objective: List the specialized forensic services,

aside from the crime laboratory,

that are generally available to law enforcement personnel

Page number: 17 Level: Intermediate 20

Forensic odontology refers to the study of which of the following

Teeth b

Drugs c

Bones d

Rocks Answer: a Objective: List the specialized forensic services,

aside from the crime laboratory,

that are generally available to law enforcement personnel

Page number: 17 Level: Intermediate 21

The case of Coppolino v

State highlights issues dealing with what

Search and seizure b

Admissibility of the polygraph c

Acceptability of new scientific tests d

Warrantless searches Answer: c'Objective: Compare and contrast the Frye and Daubert decisions relating to the admissibility of scientific evidence in the courtroom

Page number: 22 Level: Difficult

The scientific method requires that scientific evidence be validated by what means

Formulating pertinent questions b

Formulating hypotheticals c

Performing experiments d

All of the above Answer: d'Objective: Define forensic science and list the major disciplines it encompasses

Page number: 20 Level: Intermediate 23

Which of the following services does not normally lie within the expertise of the forensic scientist

Drug identification b

Wood comparisons c

Document examination d

Polygraph examination Answer: d'Objective: Define forensic science and list the major disciplines it encompasses

Page number: 16 Level: Difficult 24

What judicial case set forth the most current guidelines for determining the admissibility of scientific examinations in the federal courts

United States b

Daubert v

Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals c

Coppolino v

State d

United States Answer: b Objective: Compare and contrast the Frye and Daubert decisions relating to the admissibility of scientific evidence in the courtroom

Page number: 21 Level: Difficult 25

The effectiveness of an expert’s testimony is almost always dependent on: a

The ability of the expert to talk in clear,

The educational background of the expert

The scientific validity of the tests used

All of the above Answer: d'Objective: Explain the role and responsibilities of the expert witness

Page numbers: 22–23 Level: Intermediate 26

The dramatization of forensic science on television has led to a phenomenon known as what

NCIS effect b

NYPD effect 6

CSI effect d

LAPD effect Answer: c'Objective: Explain the role and responsibilities of the expert witness

Page number: 4 Level: Basic 27

The lay witness provides testimony that relies on what

Scientific education b

Personal opinions c

Personal knowledge d

Scientific experience Answer: c'Objective: Explain the role and responsibilities of the expert witness

Page number: 24 Level: Intermediate 28

Supreme Court case made it necessity for the forensic scientist to appear in court

Melendez-Diaz v

Massachusetts b

Crawford v

Washington c

Coppolino v

State d

United States Answer: a Objective: Compare and contrast the Frye and Daubert decisions relating to the admissibility of scientific evidence in the courtroom

Page number: 24 Level: Basic 29

What area of forensic science examines the relationship between human behavior and legal proceedings

Forensic psychology b

Forensic sociology c

Forensic pathology d

Forensic psychiatry Answer: d'Objective: List the specialized forensic services,

aside from the crime laboratory,

that are generally available to law enforcement personnel

Page number: 17 Level: Basic 30

What area of forensic science is concerned with failure analysis,

and causes and origins of fires or explosions

Forensic engineering b

Forensic psychiatry c

Forensic anthropology 7

Forensic odontology Answer: a Objective: List the specialized forensic services,

aside from the crime laboratory,

that are generally available to law enforcement personnel

Page number: 17 Level: Basic 31

The current system of crime laboratories in the United States can best be described as which of the following

Centralized b

Regional c

Decentralized d

National Answer: c'Objective: Account for the rapid growth of forensic laboratories in the past forty years

Page number: 13 Level: Intermediate 32

Approximately how many crime labs are currently operating in the United States (including federal,

Page number: 12 Level: Difficult 33

Which of the following can be said to explain the rapid growth of crime labs during the last forty years

Supreme Court decisions in the 1960s b

A staggering increase in crime rates in the United States c

The advent of DNA profiling d

All of the above Answer: d'Objective: Account for the rapid growth of forensic laboratories in the past forty years

Page number: 12 Level: Basic 34

In the case of Daubert v

Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals,

the US Supreme Court advocated that a “gatekeeper” determine the admissibility and reliability of scientific evidence

Who is this gatekeeper

Expert witness b

Prosecutor c

Trial judge Answer: d'Objective: Compare and contrast the Frye and Daubert decisions relating to the admissibility of scientific evidence in the courtroom

Page number: 21 Level: Difficult 35

The eleven sections of the American Academy of Forensic Science include all of the following except: a

General b

Arson/explosives c

Jurisprudence d

Criminalistics Answer: b Objective: Describe the services of a typical comprehensive crime laboratory in the criminal justice system

Page number: 2 Level: Intermediate Chapter 1 True-False 1

Karl Landsteiner and Leone Lattes are associated with the area of blood typing

Answer: True Objective: Recognize the major contributors to the development of forensic science

Page numbers: 7–8 Level: Basic 2

Colin Pitchfork was the first individual exonerated using DNA profiling

Answer: False Objective: Recognize the major contributors to the development of forensic science

Page number: 9 Level: Intermediate 3

Walter C

McCrone made significant contributions to forensic science involving microscopy

Answer: True Objective: Recognize the major contributors to the development of forensic science

Page number: 8 Level: Basic 4

The increase in crime rates in the United States has led to an increase in the number of crime laboratories

Answer: True Objective: Account for the rapid growth of forensic laboratories in the past forty years

Page number: 12 Level: Intermediate 5

All illicit drug seizures must be sent to a forensic laboratory for confirmatory analysis

Answer: True Objective: Describe the services of a typical comprehensive crime laboratory in the criminal justice system

Page number: 12 Level: Intermediate 6

It is the responsibility of the forensic investigator to determine innocence or guilt

Answer: False Objective: Define forensic science and list the major disciplines it encompasses

Page number: 24 Level: Difficult 7

The Bureau of Alcohol,

Tobacco,

Firearms,

and Explosives is a state-run agency

Answer: False Objective: Account for the rapid growth of forensic laboratories in the past forty years

Page number: 13 Level: Intermediate 8

The current system of crime laboratories in the United States is decentralized

Answer: True Objective: Account for the rapid growth of forensic laboratories in the past forty years

Page number: 13 Level: Difficult 9

Forensic odontologists look at bones to identify victims

Answer: False Objective: List the specialized forensic services,

aside from the crime laboratory,

that are generally available to law enforcement personnel

Page number: 17 Level: Intermediate 10

The principle of “general acceptance” comes from Frye v

United States

Answer: True

Objective: Compare and contrast the Frye and Daubert decisions relating to the admissibility of scientific evidence in the courtroom

Page number: 20 Level: Basic 11

The American Academy of Forensic Sciences is the largest forensic science organization in the world

Answer: True Objective: Define forensic science and list the major disciplines it encompasses

Page number: 2 Level: Intermediate 12

Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s Sherlock Holmes had a large influence on popularizing scientific crime-detection methods

Answer: True Objective: Recognize the major contributors to the development of forensic science

Page number: 7 Level: Basic 13

The United States does not have a national system of forensic laboratories

Answer: True Objective: Account for the rapid growth of forensic laboratories in the past forty years

Page number: 13 Level: Difficult 14

One major problem in the forensic DNA community is the backlog of unanalyzed DNA samples

Answer: True Objective: Account for the rapid growth of forensic laboratories in the past forty years

Page number: 13 Level: Intermediate 15

Regional laboratories have diminished the accessibility of a crime laboratory to many local law enforcement agencies

Answer: False Objective: Account for the rapid growth of forensic laboratories in the past forty years

Page number: 13 Level: Difficult 16

Soil analysis is performed by the biology unit

Answer: False Objective: Describe the services of a typical comprehensive crime laboratory in the criminal justice system

Page number: 15 Level: Intermediate 17

The firearms unit may also analyze tool marks

Answer: True Objective: Describe the services of a typical comprehensive crime laboratory in the criminal justice system

Page number: 15 Level: Basic 18

A voiceprint transforms a visual graphic display into speech

Answer: False Objective: Describe the services of a typical comprehensive crime laboratory in the criminal justice system

Page number: 16 Level: Difficult 19

The five units of a basic a crime lab are the physical science unit,

the document examination unit,

Answer: True Objective: Describe the services of a typical comprehensive crime laboratory in the criminal justice system

Page numbers: 14–15 Level: Intermediate 20

Physical evidence is subject to bias

Answer: False Objective: Describe the services of a typical comprehensive crime laboratory in the criminal justice system

Page number: 20 Level: Basic 21

One of the earliest crime laboratories was founded by Albert Osborn

Answer: False Objective: Recognize the major contributors to the development of forensic science

Page number: 8 Level: Difficult

The case of Frye v

United States deals with the legal issue of general acceptance of scientific principles

Answer: True Objective: Compare and contrast the Frye and Daubert decisions relating to the admissibility of scientific evidence in the courtroom

Page number: 20 Level: Difficult 23

Performing a polygraph examination is not normally within the expertise of the forensic scientist

Answer: True Objective: Describe the services of a typical comprehensive crime laboratory in the criminal justice system

Page number: 16 Level: Intermediate 24

The effectiveness of an expert’s testimony does not usually depend on the educational background of the expert

Answer: False Objective: Explain the role and responsibilities of the expert witness

Page number: 23 Level: Basic 25

Forensic science is the application of science to criminal laws only

Answer: False Objective: Define forensic science and list the major disciplines it encompasses

Page number: 2 Level: Basic 26

Locard’s exchange principle states that,

whenever two objects come into contact with one another,

there is exchange of materials between them

Answer: True Objective: Recognize the major contributors to the development of forensic science

Page number: 8 Level: Basic 27

In 1972,

New York began creating an integrated network of state-operated forensic laboratories consisting of regional and satellite facilities

Answer: False Objective: Recognize the major contributors to the development of forensic science

Page number: 11 Level: Difficult 28

The increase in US crime rates since the 1960s has not had any effect on the growth of crime laboratories

Answer: False Objective: Account for the rapid growth of forensic laboratories in the past forty years

Page number: 12 Level: Basic 29

The federal government has no single law enforcement or investigative agency that has unlimited jurisdiction throughout the country

Answer: True Objective: Account for the rapid growth of forensic laboratories in the past forty years

Page number: 13 Level: Difficult 30

Differences in local laws have no effect on the types of services offered by crime labs in different communities

Answer: False Objective: Describe the services of a typical comprehensive crime laboratory in the criminal justice system

Page number: 14 Level: Basic 31

The comparison of hairs and fibers would be performed in the biology unit

Answer: True Objective: Describe the services of a typical comprehensive crime laboratory in the criminal justice system

Page number: 15 Level: Intermediate 32

The examination of garments and other objects in order to detect firearm discharge residues would be performed in the biology unit

Answer: False Objective: Describe the services of a typical comprehensive crime laboratory in the criminal justice system

Page number: 15 Level: Intermediate 33

Providing expert testimony is not one of the main functions of a forensic scientist

Answer: False Objective: Explain the role and responsibilities of the expert witness

Page numbers: 20,

An expert witness gives testimony on events or observations that arise from personal knowledge

Answer: False Objective: Explain the role and responsibilities of the expert witness

Page number: 24 Level: Difficult 35

A lay witness’s testimony cannot usually contain the personal opinions of the witness

Answer: True Objective: Explain the role and responsibilities of the expert witness

Page number: 24 Level: Difficult 36

The physical science unit is responsible for examining burned or charred documents

Answer: False Objective: Describe the services of a typical comprehensive crime laboratory in the criminal justice system

Page numbers: 14–15 Level: Intermediate 37

The toxicology unit would determine the amount of alcohol consumed by an individual

Answer: True Objective: Describe the services of a typical comprehensive crime laboratory in the criminal justice system

Page number: 16 Level: Intermediate Chapter 1 Fill in the Blank 1

Forensic science is the application of science to the _____

Answer: Law Objective: Define forensic science and list the major disciplines it encompasses

Page number: 2 Level: Basic

The Chinese manuscript _____ is one of the earliest records of the application of forensics to criminal cases

Answer: Yi Yu Ji Objective: Recognize the major contributors to the development of forensic science

Page number: 4 Level: Difficult 3

In 1828,

_____ invented the polarizing microscope

Answer: William Nichol Objective: Recognize the major contributors to the development of forensic science

Page number: 5 Level: Difficult 4

Fingerprinting replaced ____ as a method of personal identification

Answer: Anthropometry Objective: Recognize the major contributors to the development of forensic science

Page number: 5 Level: Intermediate 5

The principle that states that a cross-transfer of materials occurs when two objects come into contact with each other is known as _____

Answer: Locard’s exchange principle Objective: Recognize the major contributors to the development of forensic science

Page number: 8 Level: Basic 6

Goddard’s work helped to establish the _____ as the indispensible tool of the firearms examiner

Answer: Comparison microscope Objective: Recognize the major contributors to the development of forensic science

Page number: 8 Level: Difficult 7

Four major federal crime laboratories are those of the Drug Enforcement Administration,

the Federal Bureau of Investigation,

Tobacco,

Firearms,

Answer: US Postal Inspection Service Objective: Recognize the major contributors to the development of forensic science

Page number: 13 Level: Intermediate 16

The _____ unit applies principles and techniques of chemistry,

and geology to the identification and comparison of crime-scene evidence

Answer: Physical science Objective: Describe the services of a typical comprehensive crime laboratory in the criminal justice system

Page number: 14 Level: Basic 9

The document examination unit studies the handwriting and _____ on questioned documents to ascertain their authenticity and/or source

Answer: Typewriting Objective: Describe the services of a typical comprehensive crime laboratory in the criminal justice system

Page number: 15 Level: Basic 10

The _____ unit analyzes telephoned threats and audio-recorded messages

Answer: Voiceprint analysis Objective: Describe the services of a typical comprehensive crime laboratory in the criminal justice system

Page number: 16 Level: Basic 11

Collecting evidence from a cell phone is an example of forensic _____ and digital analysis

Answer: Computer Objective: Describe the services of a typical comprehensive crime laboratory in the criminal justice system

Page number: 19 Level: Intermediate 12

The forensic scientist should be an advocate only of the _____

Answer: Truth Objective: Define forensic science and list the major disciplines it encompasses

Page number: 24 Level: Difficult 13

_____ help criminal investigators retrieve evidence

Answer: Evidence technicians Objective: Define forensic science and list the major disciplines it encompasses

Page number: 25 Level: Intermediate 14

Extensive information about forensic science can be found on the _____

Answer: Internet Objective: Define forensic science and list the major disciplines it encompasses

Page number: 26 Level: Intermediate 15

The judicial case that set forth the current guidelines for determining the admissibility of scientific examinations in the federal courts is _____

Answer: Daubert v

Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals,

Objective: Compare and contrast the Frye and Daubert decisions relating to the admissibility of scientific evidence in the courtroom

Page number: 21 Level: Difficult 16

_____ is considered to be the “father of forensic toxicology

” Answer: Mathieu Orfila Objective: Recognize the major contributors to the development of forensic science

Page number: 5 Level: Intermediate 17

_____ undertook the first definitive study of fingerprints and developed a methodology of classifying them for filing

Answer: Francis Henry Galton Objective: Recognize the major contributors to the development of forensic science

Page number: 5 Level: Intermediate 18

_____ was the first to use a comparison microscope to analyze bullets to determine whether they were fired from the same gun

Answer: Calvin Goddard Objective: Recognize the major contributors to the development of forensic science

Page number: 8 Level: Difficult 19

The fee-for-service concept has encouraged the creation of a number of _____ laboratories

Answer: Private

Objective: Describe the services of a typical comprehensive crime laboratory in the criminal justice system

Page number: 14 Level: Difficult 20

The _____ unit performs DNA profiling of dried bloodstains and other body fluids

Answer: Biology Objective: Describe the services of a typical comprehensive crime laboratory in the criminal justice system

Page number: 15 Level: Basic 21

The _____ unit examines body fluids and organs to determine the presence or absence of drugs and poisons

Answer: Toxicology Objective: Describe the services of a typical comprehensive crime laboratory in the criminal justice system

Page number: 16 Level: Basic 22

The _____ unit dispatches specially trained personnel to the crime scene to collect and preserve physical evidence that will later be processed at the crime laboratory

Answer: Crime-scene investigation Objective: Describe the services of a typical comprehensive crime laboratory in the criminal justice system

Page number: 17 Level: Intermediate 23

The case of _____ assigned the trial judge the task of ensuring that an expert’s testimony rests on a reliable foundation and is relevant to the task at hand

Answer: Daubert v

Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals,

Objective: Compare and contrast the Frye and Daubert decisions relating to the admissibility of scientific evidence in the courtroom

Page number: 21 Level: Difficult 24

The _____ witness evaluates evidence that the court lacks the expertise to do

Answer: Expert Objective: Explain the role and responsibilities of the expert witness

Page number: 22 Level: Intermediate 19

A _____ witness must give testimony on events or observations that arise from personal knowledge

Answer: Lay Objective: Explain the role and responsibilities of the expert witness

Page number: 24 Level: Intermediate 26

The _____ unit helps prepare photographic exhibits for courtroom presentation

Answer: Photography Objective: Describe the services of a typical comprehensive crime laboratory in the criminal justice system

Page number: 15 Level: Basic Chapter 1 Matching Match the word in the first column to its definition in the second column

Each answer can be used only once

[[COMP: DO NOT SET THE BORDERS AROUND THE CELLS IN THIS TABLE

Expert witness a

A systematic procedure that involves taking a series of body measurements as a means of distinguishing one individual from another 2

Locard’s exchange principle b

A process that uses strict guidelines to ensure careful and systematic collection,

Scientific method c

Lie detector 4

Forensic science d

An individual who the court has determined possesses a particular skill in or knowledge of a trade or profession that is not expected of the average layperson and that will aid a court in determining the truth of a matter at trial 5

Anthropometry e

Visual graphic display of speech 6

Polygraph f

Application of science to the laws 7

Voiceprint g

Describes the services of a crime laboratory 8

Criminalistics h

States that,

when two objects come into contact with each other,

a cross-transfer of materials occurs 1

g (page 3) Level: Basic Chapter 1 Essay 1

List four major reasons for the increase in the number of crime laboratories in the United States since the 1960s

Answer: • The requirement to advise criminal suspects of their constitutional rights and their right of immediate access to counsel has almost eliminated confessions as a routine investigative tool • The staggering increase in crime rates in the United States • The fact that all illicit-drug seizures must be sent to a forensic laboratory for confirmatory chemical analysis before the case can be adjudicated in court • The advent of DNA profiling Objective: Account for the rapid growth of forensic laboratories in the past forty years

Page numbers: 12–13 Level: Intermediate 2

List three advantages of having regional crime laboratories that operate as part of a statewide system

Answer: • Increases the accessibility of local law enforcement agencies to a crime laboratory • Minimizes duplication of services • Ensures maximum interlaboratory cooperation through sharing of expertise and equipment Objective: Recognize the major contributors to the development of forensic science

Page number: 13 Level: Intermediate 3

List the three basic functions of a forensic scientist

Answer: • Analyzing physical evidence • Providing expert testimony • Furnishing training in the proper recognition,

and preservation of physical evidence Objective: Define forensic science and list the major disciplines it encompasses

Page number: 20 Level: Basic 21

Discuss the major outcomes of the trials Frye v

United States and Daubert v

Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals,

Answer should include points such as the following: In Frye v

United States,

in order for expert testimony to be admitted at trial,

or principle must be “generally accepted” by a meaningful segment of the relevant scientific community

In Daubert v

Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals,

Supreme Court charged the trial judge with ensuring that an expert’s testimony rests on a reliable foundation and is relevant to the case

Objective: Compare and contrast the Frye and Daubert decisions relating to the admissibility of scientific evidence in the courtroom

Page numbers: 20,

What is the main difference between the testimony given by an expert witness and that given by a lay witness

? Answer should include points such as the following: The ordinary or lay witness must give testimony that does not contain the personal opinions of the witness

The expert witness may express his or her personal opinion as to the significance of specific findings

Objective: Explain the role and responsibilities of the expert witness

Page number: 24 Level: Intermediate 6

Describe the advantages of incorporating an evidence collection unit into the organizational structure of the crime laboratory

Answer should include points such as the following: Evidence technicians under the continuous direction of the crime laboratory are more likely to have received thorough training in the gathering of evidence at the crime site

Evidence technicians who are continually exposed to the problems and techniques of the forensic scientist are better prepared to adopt new procedures or modify existing procedures to improve evidence collection

Evidence technicians working out of the forensic laboratory will have at their disposal all the proper tools and supplies for proper collection and packaging of evidence for future scientific examination

Objective: Describe the services of a typical comprehensive crime laboratory in the criminal justice system

Page number: 25 Level: Intermediate Chapter 1 Critical Thinking

Describe the evidence to be collected and the specialists or crime laboratory units that would be needed to properly analyze the following crime scene to answer the given questions

On Monday,

September 26,

a small airplane believed to be transporting members of a Mexican drug cartel and a shipment of drugs and firearms of unknown type or size recorded a short “mayday” call at 8:05 a

before crashing into a farmhouse in Laredo,

Local police report that the abandoned farmhouse is frequented by homeless individuals,

and there may have been several inside at the time of impact

On impact,

the airplane’s nearly full gas tank caused a fire that incinerated those within the plane and those within the farmhouse

The investigators need to deduce the following: a

How did the airplane malfunction to cause the crash

Who was on the airplane and in the farmhouse

What were the contents of the airplane’s cargo

? Answer should include points such as the following: All evidence should be collected by the crime-scene unit or trained personnel

All available portions of the airplane should be collected and analyzed by a forensic engineer to acquire information about potential causes of the crash

The mayday signal should be recorded and analyzed by the voiceprint analysis unit to acquire information about potential causes of the crash

Samples of gasoline should be collected and analyzed by the physical science unit to to acquire information about potential causes of the crash

Any discovered remains should be collected and analyzed by a forensic odontologist to acquire information about the victims

Tissue from discovered remains should be collected and analyzed by the biology unit for blood type or DNA to acquire information about the victims

All available portions of the cargo materials should be collected

Potential drug evidence should be analyzed by the physical science unit,

and potential firearms evidence should be analyzed by the firearms unit to acquire information about the contents of the airplane’s cargo

Objective: Describe the services of a typical comprehensive crime laboratory in the criminal justice system

Page numbers: 14–17 Level: Intermediate 2

For each of the early forensic science methods listed here,

state the more recent technology or discipline that has taken its place in forensic science inquiry

Identification via anthropometry b

Firearms bullet and cartridge analysis via unassisted vision c

Identification via blood typing d

Poison identification via stomach content analysis e

Collections and analysis of evidence via untrained police officers

Answer: a

Fingerprinting Comparison microscope DNA Toxicology Crime-scene unit and crime laboratories

Objective: Recognize the major contributors to the development of forensic science

Page numbers: 5,

CHAPTER 2 Securing and Searching the Crime Scene Chapter 2 Multiple Choice 1

After providing medical assistance for the injured and arresting any suspects on the scene,

the first officer should immediately: a

Search the scene

Secure the scene

Photograph the scene

Make a rough sketch of the scene

Answer: b Objective: Discuss the responsibilities of the first police officer who arrives at the crime scene

Page number: 34 Level: Intermediate 2

The center of the crime scene,

which is always included within the crime scene’s boundary,

The area where the first responder entered the scene

The area where the witnesses were located

The area where the command center will be located

The area where the crime occurred

Answer: d'Objective: Describe the conditions of the crime scene that should be given particular notice

Page number: 34 Level: Basic 3

The conditions at a crime scene can be compromised by all of the following actions except: a

Taking photographs at the crime scene

Eating food at the crime scene

Turning on a faucet on the crime scene

Smoking at the crime scene

Answer: a Objective: Describe the conditions of the crime scene that should be given particular notice

Page number: 35 Level: Difficult 4

What is the initial survey of the crime scene that is carried out by the lead investigator called

Spiral search b

Initial survey c

Walk-through d

Crime-scene search Answer: c'Objective: Comprehend the role of the lead investigator in coordinating the crime-scene search

Page number: 36 Level: Basic 25

Which of the following may give clues about the timing of an incident

Presence or absence of a television b

Position of the day’s newspaper inside or outside the house c

Position of the victim’s vehicle d

Whether a door is locked or unlocked Answer: b Objective: Appreciate the necessity of documenting all initial observations and evidence collected

Page number: 36 Level: Basic 6

The size and location of the crime scene as well as the events that occurred there will determine: a

The kind of evidence that will be missing

The time at which the crime scene is searched

The kind of search pattern that will be used to located evidence

The number of personnel who will process the evidence at the crime laboratory

Answer: c'Objective: Understand the various search patterns investigators can use to systematically search the crime scene for evidence

Page number: 38 Level: Difficult 7

Which crime-scene search pattern does not require more than one investigator

Wheel b

Zone Answer: b Objective: Understand the various search patterns investigators can use to systematically search the crime scene for evidence

Page number: 38 Level: Intermediate 8

Which search pattern would be best for a crime scene where many investigators are available to search a large area

Spiral b

Zone Answer: d'Objective: Understand the various search patterns investigators can use to systematically search the crime scene for evidence

Page number: 39 Level: Intermediate 26

The types of evidence commonly found during a vehicle search include all of the following except which

Questioned documents b

Fibers c

Paint evidence d

Broken glass Answer: a Objective: Understand the various search patterns investigators can use to systematically search the crime scene for evidence

Page number: 39 Level: Difficult 10

The purpose of the crime-scene search is to locate what

DNA evidence b

Physical evidence c

Fingerprint evidence d

Bloodstain evidence Answer: b Objective: Understand the various search patterns investigators can use to systematically search the crime scene for evidence

Page number: 39 Level: Basic 11

Once the lead investigator determines that all pertinent evidence at the crime scene has been located,

the investigators must perform what

The walk-through b

The initial survey c

The final survey d

The crime-scene search Answer: c'Objective: Comprehend the role of the lead investigator in coordinating the crime-scene search

Page number: 39 Level: Basic 12

To formulate a successful strategy for recovering relevant physical evidence at crime scenes,

what must the investigator ultimately rely on

Reference material b

Experience c

Training d

The lead investigator Answer: b Objective: Understand the various search patterns investigators can use to systematically search the crime scene for evidence

Page number: 40 Level: Intermediate 27

What is the name of the search pattern in which one or two investigators start at the boundary at one end of the scene and walk straight across to the other side

Quadrant d

Wheel Answer: a Objective: Understand the various search patterns investigators can use to systematically search the crime scene for evidence

Page number: 38 Level: Intermediate 14

What search pattern employs two people performing line searches that originate from adjacent corners

Spiral d

Wheel Answer: b Objective: Understand the various search patterns investigators can use to systematically search the crime scene for evidence

Page number: 38 Level: Intermediate 15

Which of the following is a disadvantage of the spiral search pattern

Evidence could be missed

It requires several investigators

It does not work for outdoor scenes

It is dependent on the boundaries of the scene

Answer: a Objective: Understand the various search patterns investigators can use to systematically search the crime scene for evidence

Page number: 38 Level: Difficult 16

Which search pattern employs several people moving from the boundary straight toward the center of the scene (inward) or from the center straight to the boundary (outward)

Quadrant b

Spiral d

Wheel Answer: d'Objective: Understand the various search patterns investigators can use to systematically search the crime scene for evidence

Page number: 39 28

Level: Intermediate 17

Which of the following acts is permissible for officers at the scene

Drink c

Smoke d

None of the above Answer: d'Objective: Describe the conditions at the crime scene that should be given particular notice

Page number: 35 Level: Basic 18

Which search pattern is most reliant on the boundaries established

Spiral c

Wheel d

Quadrant Answer: a Objective: Understand the various search patterns investigators can use to systematically search the crime scene for evidence

Page number: 38 Level: Difficult 19

Officers should attempt to locate tool marks at the point of entry during the investigation of what type of crime

Homicide b

Burglary c

Hit and run d

Assault Answer: b Objective: Understand the various search patterns investigators can use to systematically search the crime scene for evidence

Page number: 39 Level: Basic 20

The first responding officer at the crime scene must make attempts to detain and question whom

Witnesses b

Unauthorized personnel c

Suspects d

Both a and c

Answer: d'Objective: Discuss the responsibilities of the first police officer who arrives at a crime scene

Page number: 34 Level: Basic

Police barricades and the strategic positioning of guards are used prohibit access to the crime scene by whom

Civilians only b

Civilians and media personnel c

All law enforcement personnel d

All unauthorized personnel Answer: d'Objective: Explain the steps to be taken to thoroughly record the crime scene

Page number: 34 Level: Basic Chapter 2 True-False 1

Evidence can be found on the walls and ceiling as well as on the floor at a crime scene

Answer: True Objective: Describe the conditions at the crime scene that should be given particular notice

Page number: 36 Level: Basic 2

The first responding officer at the crime scene should not make attempts to detain and question unauthorized personnel

Answer: False Objective: Discuss the responsibilities of the first police officer who arrives at the crime scene

Page number: 34 Level: Difficult 3

Failure to protect a crime scene properly may result in the destruction or altering of evidence

Answer: True Objective: Discuss the responsibilities of the first police officer who arrives at the crime scene

Page number: 34 Level: Basic 4

The first priority of the first officer responding to a crime scene is securing the crime scene

Answer: False Objective: Discuss the responsibilities of the first police officer who arrives at the crime scene

Page number: 34 Level: Difficult 5

The boundaries of an indoor crime scene are usually more difficult to determine than an outdoor crime scene

Answer: False 30

Objective: Discuss the responsibilities of the first police officer who arrives at the crime scene

Page number: 34 Level: Intermediate 6

When possible,

an outdoor scene that occurs at night should be taped off and left undisturbed and guarded until daylight

Answer: True Objective: Discuss the responsibilities of the first police officer who arrives at the crime scene

Page number: 39 Level: Basic 7

Unauthorized personnel include friends and family of the victim

Answer: True Objective: Discuss the responsibilities of the first police officer who arrives at the crime scene

Page number: 34 Level: Intermediate 8

Tool marks are not usually significant when found in vehicle searches

Answer: False Objective: Understand the various search patterns investigators can use to systematically search the crime scene for evidence

Page number: 39 Level: Intermediate 9

Investigators should take an inventory of all evidence collected so nothing is lost or left behind

Answer: True Objective: Appreciate the necessity of documenting all initial observations and evidence collected

Page number: 39 Level: Basic 10

Statements made by the victim on the way to hospital cannot be recorded and included in notes

Answer: False Objective: Appreciate the necessity of documenting all initial observations and evidence collected

Page number: 34 Level: Difficult 11

The officer charged with protecting the scene has the authority to exclude fellow officers

Answer: True Objective: Discuss the responsibilities of the first police officer who arrives at the crime scene

Page number: 35 Level: Difficult 12

It is permitted for officers at the scene to alter temperature conditions by changing the position of windows or doors or adjusting the heat or air-conditioning

Answer: False Objective: Describe the conditions at the crime scene that should be given particular notice

Page number: 35 Level: Intermediate 13

The investigators should follow a direct path to the center of the scene

Answer: False Objective: Comprehend the role of the lead investigator in coordinating the crime-scene search

Page number: 36 Level: Difficult 14

The command center must be located outside the taped-off boundary of the scene

Answer: True Objective: Comprehend the role of the lead investigator in coordinating the crime-scene search

Page number: 37 Level: Basic 15

When possible,

it is advisable to have two people supervising and coordinating the collection of evidence

Answer: False Objective: Comprehend the role of the lead investigator in coordinating the crime-scene search

Page number: 37 Level: Intermediate 16

The obligation to maintain the integrity of evidence belongs to the first police officer at the scene only

Answer: False Objective: Discuss the responsibilities of the first police officer who arrives at a crime scene

Page number: 34 Level: Intermediate 17

The line and spiral search patterns can be performed effectively by one person

Answer: True Objective: Understand the various search patterns investigators can use to systematically search the crime scene for evidence

Page number: 38 Level: Intermediate 18

The first critical step in crime-scene investigation is securing and isolating the crime scene

Answer: True Objective: Discuss the responsibilities of the first police officer who arrives at a crime scene

Page number: 34 Level: Basic 19

The areas searched by crime-scene investigators must include all probable points of entry and exit used by the criminal

Answer: True Objective: Understand the various search patterns investigators can use to systematically search the crime scene for evidence

Page number: 37 Level: Basic Chapter 2 Fill in the Blank 1

_____ and the strategic positioning of guards will prohibit unauthorized access to the crime scene

Answer: Police barricades Objective: Discuss the responsibilities of the first police officer who arrives at the crime scene

Page number: 34 Level: Difficult 2

The _____ scene is the one at which the original incident occurred

Answer: Primary Objective: Comprehend the role of the lead investigator in coordinating the crime-scene search

Page number: 37 Level: Basic 3

Members of the investigative team will receive their assignments,

and meet to discuss aspects of the case at the _____

Answer: Command center Objective: Comprehend the role of the lead investigator in coordinating the crime-scene search

Page number: 37 Level: Intermediate 33

Medical workers should approach the body by a(n) _____ route to minimize the possibility of disturbing evidence

Answer: Indirect Objective: Discuss the responsibilities of the first police officer who arrives at the crime scene

Page number: 34 Level: Difficult 5

An accurate _____ of everyone who enters or leaves the scene should be kept

Answer: Log Objective: Appreciate the necessity of documenting all initial observations and evidence collected

Page number: 34 Level: Basic 6

The first step in a _____ is to establish the perpetrator’s path of entry and exit

Answer: Walk-through Objective: Comprehend the role of the lead investigator in coordinating the crime-scene search

Page number: 36 Level: Intermediate 7

The _____ scene is a location that became part of the crime by activities after the initial incident

Answer: Secondary Objective: Comprehend the role of the lead investigator in coordinating the crime-scene search

Page number: 37 Level: Basic 8

When searching a vehicle,

an investigator must avoid touching surfaces that may contain _____

Answer: Fingerprints Objective: Understand the various search patterns investigators can use to systematically search the crime scene for evidence

Page number: 39 Level: Intermediate 9

In the case of homicide,

the investigator’s search will be centered on the _____ as well as any type of evidence left as a result of contact between the victim and the assailant

Answer: Weapon

Objective: Understand the various search patterns investigators can use to systematically search the crime scene for evidence

Page number: 39 Level: Difficult 10

The officer should initially denote the _____ of the scene using crime-scene tape,

Answer: Boundaries Objective: Discuss the responsibilities of the first police officer who arrives at the crime scene

Page number: 34 Level: Basic Chapter 2 Matching Match the word in the first column to its definition in the second column

Each answer can be used only once

Command center 2

Grid search

Line/strip search 4

Primary scene 5

Quadrant/zone search

Secondary scene

Spiral search

Walk-through

The crime scene at which the original criminal act was perpetrated b

A search method employed by several people moving from around the boundary straight toward the center of the scene (inward) or from the center straight to the boundary (outward) c

A search method employed by two or more people overlapping separate line searches to form a grid d

A secure site outside the boundaries of a crime scene where equipment is stored,

The initial survey of the crime scene carried out by the lead investigator during which he or she gains an overview of the scene in order to formulate a plan for processing the scene f

A crime scene separate from the primary scene that became part of the crime by its involvement in activities after the initial criminal act was perpetrated g

A search method in which the investigator(s) move in an inward spiral from the boundary to the center of the scene or in an outward spiral from the center to the boundary of a scene

A search method in which one or two investigators walk in straight lines across the crime scene

Wheel/ray search

A search method in which the crime scene is divided into smaller sections and team members are assigned to search each section

Each of these sections can be subdivided into smaller sections for smaller teams to search thoroughly

b (page 39) Level: Basic Chapter 2 Essay 1

Describe the basic functions of a command center

What kind of equipment must a command center contain

? Answer should include points such as the following: A command center is the place where members of the investigative team receive their assignments,

and meet to discuss aspects of the case

The command center can be a center for communication between investigators at multiple crime scenes

The command center must contain the basic equipment needed to photograph,

Objective: Comprehend the role of the lead investigator in coordinating the crime-scene search

Page number: 37 Level: Basic 2

Describe the steps the crime-scene investigation team takes during its final survey of a crime scene

Answer should include points such as the following: The team makes a visual overview of all parts of the scene,

takes an inventory of all evidence collected so nothing is lost or left behind,

and verifies that any threats to health or safety at the scene have been or will be dealt with properly

Objective: Comprehend the role of the lead investigator in coordinating the crime-scene search

Page number: 39 Level: Difficult

List two possible consequences of failure to protect a crime scene properly

Answer should include points such as the following: • Evidence may be detroyed or altered

• The search for the perpetrator may be hindered because investigators are mislead about the true facts of the incident

Objective: Discuss the responsibilities of the first police officer who arrives at the crime scene

Page number: 34 Level: Intermediate Chapter 2 Critical Thinking 1

State which crime-scene search pattern(s) would be best utilized in each of the following situations

One investigator must search a small classroom at a community college

Five investigators must search a large cornfield

Two investigators must search a walled-in Little League baseball field

One investigator must search a small muddy backyard,

looking specifically for footprint evidence

Answers: a

Quadrant/zone

Objective: Understand the various search patterns investigators can use to systematically search the crime scene for evidence

Page numbers: 38–39 Level: Basic 2

Discuss what information,

can be gleaned from the state of the following searched crime scenes

A young woman is found dead near the front door of her home

She had not reported to work at 8 a

The morning newspaper is on the kitchen table next to a clean,

The decedent is found wearing pajamas and messy hair

Burned toast is found in the toaster

A backpack and empty lunchbox belonging to a missing child is found on a couch in a mobile home owned by a 47-year-old single man with no family in the area

backpack contains blank homework assigned to the child that day in school

The search reveals action movie posters,

and drawers filled with candy bars

Answer should include points such as the following: a

The state of the scene suggests the young woman was killed in the morning hours before 8 a

while she was preparing for work

This is suggested by the pajamas,

the day’s paper having been brought in,

and breakfast (or a portion of it) having been prepared

The contents of the backpack and the empty lunchbox suggest the objects were placed there after the child left school,

because the lunch within the lunchbox had been eaten and homework was present but not yet worked on

The presence of objects which would appeal to children are out of place in the man’s mobile home and should lead to further investigation

Objective: Describe the conditions at the crime scene that should be given particular notice

Page numbers: 36–37 Level: Intermediate

CHAPTER 3 Recording the Crime Scene Chapter 3 Multiple Choice 1

The most common methods of crime-scene recording do not include which one of the following

Note taking b

Photographs c

Sketches d

Infrared analysis Answer: d'Objective: Explain the steps to be taken to fully record the crime scene

Page number: 51 Level: Basic 2

Which statement about note taking is not true

The name of the individual who packaged and marked items of evidence should be recorded

Note taking is done after all crime-scene processing has been completed

Notes should include location of each item of physical evidence that is recovered

Disposition of items after collection must be included

Answer: b Objective: Describe the proper format and content of crime-scene notes

Page number: 51 Level: Intermediate 3

The advantages of recording crime-scene notes on an audio-recording device include all of the following except: a

The notes can be recorded at the crime laboratory instead of at the crime scene

The investigator’s hands are free to carry out other tasks while recording the notes

Detailed notes can be spoken much faster than they can be written

The notes are recorded as the observations are made

Answer: a Objective: Explain the steps to be taken to fully record the crime scene

Page number: 52 Level: Difficult 4

Crime-scene photography must produce examination-quality photographs,

which are photographs that can be easily interpreted by whom

The judge b

Investigators at the crime laboratory c

Everyone involved in the case d

The jury Answer: c'39

Objective: Understand the basic features of film and digital cameras in order to produce examination-quality photographs

Page number: 53 Level: Difficult 5

The “speed” of film is a measurement of what

Number of silver halide grains that are located on the film b

Rate at which the film reacts with light c

Length of time that the film is exposed to light d

Rate at which the film reflects light Answer: b Objective: Understand the basic features of film and digital cameras in order to produce examination-quality photographs

Page number: 53 Level: Intermediate 6

In digital photography,

light is recorded as a specific charge on millions of tiny what

Silver halide grains b

Charge coupled devices c

Semi-conductors d

Pixels Answer: d'Objective: Understand the basic features of film and digital cameras in order to produce examination-quality photographs

Page number: 54 Level: Intermediate 7

The number of pixels contained in a digital camera is directly related to the detail and sharpness of the image,

Resolution b

White balance c

Grain d

Contrast Answer: a Objective: Understand the basic features of film and digital cameras in order to produce examination-quality photographs

Page number: 54 Level: Difficult 8

Which lens would be best suited to photographing the details of a small but detailed tool mark found at a crime scene

Telephoto lens b

Macro lens c

Normal lens d

Wide-angle lens Answer: b 40

Objective: Understand the basic features of film and digital cameras in order to produce examination-quality photographs

Page number: 55 Level: Intermediate 9

The camera’s aperture is commonly adjusted on the SLR and DSLR cameras by adjusting what

F-stop b

Resolution c

Shutter speed d

White balance Answer: a Objective: Understand the basic features of film and digital cameras in order to produce examination-quality photographs

Page number: 55 Level: Basic 10

What feature of a digital camera’s “night mode” allows the camera to gather as much light as possible to create the image

High shutter speed b

Low shutter speed c

High f-stop d

Low aperture Answer: b Objective: Understand the basic features of film and digital cameras in order to produce examinat