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FORENSIC MEDICINE & TOXICOLOGY Forensic medicine: is the application of medical and paramedical knowledge in the administration of law and justice

Legal medicine and state medicine are other names for it

Medical jurisprudence:

duties and obligations of medical

Points to remember 1

Pin – point pupils = Opium 2

Dilatation of pupils = Dhatura,

Cyanide 3

Constriction of pupils = Opium,

Cumulative poisons are: Barbiturates,

Habit forming poisons are: Caffeine and Nicotine

Addiction drugs are: Alcohol,




Chloral hydrate,


Hemodialysis is good value in: Salicylate,

and aspirin (except kerosene oil and diazephem) 8

Increased anion gap is seen in Salicylate poisoning,

Ideal suicide poison = Cyanide 11

Ideal homicide poison = Thallium,

Commonly used homicidal poisons: Arsenic,

Commonly used suicidal poisons: Endrine,


Organophosphorus compounds

Poison resembling cholera = Arsenic 15

Poison resembling tetanus = Strychnine 16

Poison resembling natural death = Thallium 17

Poison resembling fading measles = Arsenic 18

Poison resembling thyrotoxicosis = Bi-nitro compounds

Tests for detecting poisons: Arsenic = Marsh’s test,

Reinsch’s test Opium = Marquis test Alcohol = Mc’evan’s test Datura = Mydriatic test Phenol = Green urine


The Percentage of blood alcohol in the stage of "dead drunk" is 0

Pisiform gets ossified by 12 yrs of age

By 14 yrs

Anterior fontanelle closes by 18 months of age

The height of a child is double of birth height by 4 years of age,

Under IPC,

a person below 7 years is not criminally responsible

Fatal period of Datura poisoning is 24 hours

In India,

rigor mortis sets within 1-2 hours

While dispatching blood and urine for chemical analysis,

sodium fluoride is added as preservative in concentration of 50 mg/10ml

Critical level of alcohol in blood is 0

The minimum age for giving consent for surgery is 18 years

In fractured ends of bone,

soft provisional callus is formed by 15 hours

The minimum time required for adipocere formation in a dead body is 21 days

Indian Medical Council Act was enacted in 1956

Mental retardation is I

Below 70

Ratio between ethyl alcohol in blood to urine is 1:1

Gas rigidity appears after 72 hours

Marbling is noticed by 36 hours

Full development of rigor mortis takes about 12 hours

In exhumation,

Intercourse with wife below 15 years of age is considerable rape

Fatal period of aconite isusually 1-5 hours

Cooling of body is gradual upto 1-3 hours

Hypostasis is mottled within first 3 hours of death

Killing range of a militry rifle is 3000 yards

Juvenile offender is a person under 16 years

The dispersion of pellets is seen usually at distance beyond 10 feet

In a gunshot wound,

the presence of singeing of hair or charring of skin denotes a fire up to 18 inches

Dispersion of pellets in shotgun injury is calculated as dispersion in inches = 1

An infant born before 210 days is not legally considered capable of maintaining a separate existence

A bruise showing bluish black discolouration is 4 days old

The upper limit of safety for carbon monoxide in air is 0

Rh positivity in India is 93%

In an abrasion,

the scab usually dries and falls between 4-6 days

Fatal dose of opium is 2 gm

The range of an air rifle is about 90 yards

Mixed dentition is seen in children between 6-12 years of age

Basisphenoid unites the basi-occiput at the age to 22 years

First permanent molar appears at age of 6-7 years

Judicial first class Magistrate can pass a sentence of imprisonment upto 3 years

Age of maturity for those under court of wards is 21 years

In India,

sexual maturity is gained at 14 years of age

The degree of accuracy in determining sex from long bones is 80%

Fatal period of sulphuric acid poisoning is 18-24 hours

Multiplying factors for estimating stature from humerus and femur in males are 55

3 and 3

Colliquative liquefaction is seen within 1 week after death

A contusion assumes green colour by 6 days

Marriage age for boys and girls are 21 years and 18 years respectively

Internal organs take 24 hours to cool

A person becomes major at the age of 18 years

Eruption of temporary teeth is completed by 2 to 2

5 years

Foetal parts can be detected on plain X-ray usually by 16 weeks

Child below 12 years is not required to take an oath

Xiphoid process unites with sternum at age of 40 years

Cranial capacity is 10% less in females

Nuclear features persist in decomposition for a period of 2-3 years

Precipitin test is positive to be opium in dead body upto 10 years

After death,

benzidine test is positive upto 150 years

Bones begin to decompose after death in 3-10 years

Less than 7 aminoacids in bone suggest age of bone after death as more than 100 years

The rate of cooling of body in first 6 hours is 2

5°F and in next 6 hours as 1

Victim of drowning in a state of suspended animation can be revived as long as 10-20 minutes

Centre of ossification for pisiform bone appears at an age of 10-12 years

The floatation time in summer for a dead body after drowning is one day

The age of 15 years old female is best determined by the radiography of upper end of radius and ulna

Maggots in a dead body do not appear before 48 hours

Hairs become loose after 72 hours of death

Epiphyseal union of sternal end of clavicle occurs at age of 22 years

Washer woman's hands and feet usually occur within 12-18 hours

Saponification in drowning occurs in about 5 weeks

Death ensues in about 5 mts

MN systems the exclusion of Paternity is about 50%

Estimation of Age from eruption of teeth is possible upto 17 to 21 years of age

Gustafson's method for estimation age of adult over 21 years

In poisoning by salicylates,

the Gastric lavage is useful upto 24 hours

The age of consent for medical examination in cases of rape is minimum 12 years

If a person is absent from his usual haunts,

and has not been heard for 7 hears,

Infanticide means unlawful destruction of child below 1 year of age


MN systems the exclusion of Paternity is about 50%

Estimation of Age from eruption of teeth is possible upto 17 to 21 years of age

In poisoning by salicylates,

the Gastric lavage is useful upto 24 hours

The age of consent for medical examination in cases of rape is minimum 12 years

In sin of Gomorrah,

buccal swabs are useful upto 9 hours In most countries,

breath alcohol concentration 35 mg/100 ml is considered an offence After absorption,

the ratio of alcohol in blood and urine is constant and is 1:1

reticulum fibres in an abrasion are seen on 8 days

Widmark's formula for urine analysis of alcohol is 3/4 prq

Pancreas constitute 0

Punishment for false evidence is given under section 193 of IPC

Length of a female larynx is about 3

Calcification of third molar begins at 8-10 years

Lip prints on cheiloscopy are divided into 8 patterns

?gm tablet of aluminium phosphide is able to liberate 1

The diameter of "human hair at 15 years of age is 0

053 ram *

Alcohol gaze nystagmus is produced at an average blood levels of 80 mg%

87 88 89

The residual alcohol in mouth takes about 20 min to disappear and within this period breath analyser test may be false positive Skeletal muscles constitute about 29% of body weight Term 'under the influence' of alcohol is used when blood concentration is 80100mg%

Statutory rape is rape under 15 years of age

Weight for occluding internal jugular vein hanging is 2 kg

Majority of deaths due to Aluminium phosphide occurs in within 24 hours

During sleep,

0°C lower

Drowned body floats in about 12-18 hours in summer S

Bones constitute about 12% of body weight Absence of III molar tooth indicates that the person is definitely under the age of 17 years

In a dead body,

maggots in rainy day are seen in 6 hours


Aconite and Dhatura are generally used as homicidal poisons

Ricin is the active principle of croton oil seed

Abrin is the active principle of abrus precatorius

Soneryl is a coloured babriturate

Breath alcohol can be measured by Alcometer or Drunkometer

The fatal dose of Dhatura is about one grain

Physostigmine can be regarded as the specific antidote of Dhatura

Amygdaline is the glucosides of vegetable origin found in cyanides

The process of putrefaction can be retarded by carbon monoxide gas

Euthanasia means "Mercy killing"

Joule burn is seen in electrocution

Amyl nitrate is an antidote for poisoning due to hydrocyanic acid

Olive green discoloration of urine on exposure to air is seen in poisoning due to carbolic acid

Overlying is a type of smothering

Optic atrophy is the characteristic feature of poisoning by methyl alcohol

Dryness of mouth,

dilated pupils and delirium are symptoms of Dhatura poisoning

The first permanent tooth to erupt is first molar

Dying declaration can be recorded by a medical officer

Presence of fine white leathery froth in mouth and nostrils is seen in drowning

Privation of any member of joint is a grievous hurt

Pugilistic attitude is seen in burn death due to coagulation of proteins

Dying declaration should be recorded by Magistrate

Nalorphine is an antidote for morphine

Locard's principle states that every contact leaves a trace

The strongest corrosive poison is sulphuric acid

Arborescent markings are seen in lightening

Before performing Postmortem examination,

body should be identified by Policemen

Warrant case means a case relating to an offence punishbale with death,

imprisonment for life or for a term exceeding two years

In civil cases,

a reasonable sum for travelling expenses is generally tendered when the summons is served

This is known as conduct money

It is paid by the party that has called his as a witness

Hair cells are of special interest in cell sexing since both Barr body and Y chromosome can be demonstrated

hairs and long bones are preserved in cases of chronic arsenic poisoning

Postmortem fibrinous clots in heart are known as "Cardiac polyp"

The surest sign of death is putrefaction

The rigor mortis start first at upper eye-lids

Dribbling of saliva from the angle of the mouth is generally considered as the surest sign of hanging

Presence of soot in respiratory tract is the surest sign of burn

Strong sulphuric acid when thrown on the face of a person is known as "Vitreol throwing"

Black gun powder consists of potassium nitrate,

136 137

Nitrocellulose or Nitroglycerine is used as a smokeless gun powder

Richochette bullet is one which strikes any other surface before striking the

The pulmonary lesion in the injury of air blast is called "Blast lung"

Loss of virginity is called defloration

The Buccal coitus is called "Sin of Gomorrah"

The commission of sexual assalut upon a dead body is called "Necrophily"

"Testamentary capcity" is the capacity of a person to make a valid will

Malpraxis is defined as want of reasonable skill and or willful negligence on the part of doctor resulting in deterioration of patients' health or his death

Copper sulphate is used as an antidote to phsophorus

'Gyroget' are cartridges or miniature rockets driven by solid fuel,

which produces considerable heat and smokeless gas on burning

Forensic means courts of law

Deposition means a statement on oath made by a witness in a judicial proceeding

It is taken down in writing and signed by the witness and magistrate

Document means any matter expressed or described upon any substance by means of letters,

or by more than one of these means

Evidence includes all legal means which help to prove or disprove any matter of fat,

the truth of which is submitted to judicial investigation

It can be oral (direct,

Hurt is defined as bodily pain,

disease or infirmity caused to any person

Injury includes every inquiry other than a trial,

conducted by a Magistrate or court

Investigation includes all the proceedings for the collection of evidence conducted by a Police officer or by any person other than a magistrate who is authorised by a magistrate on his behalf

Jury means a body of persons sworn to render verdict in a court of justice

It is composed of uneven number and not less than 7 and more than 9 persons

Metropolitan area means any area in the state comprising a city or a town whose population exceeds one millin

Offence means any act of omission made punishable by law for the time being in force

Perjury means wilful utterance of falsehood under oath

Plantiff is one who brings an action in a court of law

Summons case means a case relating to an offence punishable with imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years Testimony means the evidence,

Warrant means a written authority under "hand and seal"

It is used for the arrest of persons or for their forcible production in a court of law Traumatic rupture of hymen is seen on posterolateral aspect

Taylor gave a formula on rate of decomposition of dead body in air,

Most reliable method of determining personal identity is Dactylography

Contre-Coupe injury is seen in head injury

Strychnine acts on anterior horn cells

Last organ to putrefy in mate is prostate whereas in female it is ungravid uteus

In Carboluria,

urine turns green on exposure to air

Cyanide poisoning produces cherry red colour

McEwen's sign is seen in alcoholism

Cutis anserina is seen in drowning

Shaking palsy or 'mad Hatters' is seen with mercury poisoning

Poison which can be detected in burnt bodies in arsenic

Cepahlic index helps in identification of race

Tentative cuts are seen in suicides

Pugilistic attitude is seen in antemortem or postmortem burns

Death in police custody is investigated by Magistrate

Precipitin test is used to identify human blood in stains

Gelsimium is a spinal cord poison

Desferroxamine is antidote used in iron poisoning

Spalding's sign is seen in maceration

Impotence is inability to perform the sexual act

Smack is crude form of heroin

Ganja is obtained from flowering tops

Stomach may be greenish in poisoning due to nitric acid

Lines of Zahn are present in antemortem clots

Conium is a peripheral poison

Emphysema aqueosum is seen in wet drowning

Formication (Magnan's symptom) is seen in cocaine dependence

Rigor mortis is simulated by cadaveric spasm

Thorn apple is Datura stramonium

Dirt collar is seen in fire arm entry wound

Apoplexy is cerebral congestion

Feminine of impotence is frigidity

In oath taking,

a medical man does not require to keep his hands on a holy book

Thanatology is science that deals with death

Number of hours since death is calculated by multiplying the fall in rectal temperature with 0

Dichotomy is related to splitting of fees

Fracture of hyoid bone in a case of strangulation is commonly seen in the greater horn

In a fresh case of death due to ventricular fibrillation,

heart at postmortem will be flabby

Punctate basophilia is seen in lead poisoning

Felony is a category of rape,

Testamentary capacity is related to will

McNaughten was an accused

Accepted procedure of first aid for cafe coronary is Heimlich manoeuvre

Mode of death from obstruction of air passages from within is anoxic anoxia

Brain may be preserved in normal saline or rectified spirit

CSF is preserved in poisoning due to alcohol

Long bones are preserved inpoisoning due to arsenic,

Exhumation is usually done in the early morning

In India,

Exhumation is done for Mohammadans and Christians

Macroscopically and microscopically,

there will not be any change to the heart in case of myocardial infarction death up to 8 hours

Foamy liver is due to bubbing up of gas

Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase level is low in CML

The essential lesion of coronary atherosclerosis is found in intima

The classical site of ischaemic colitis is splenic flexure

The rigor mortis disappears in the order of eyelids,

lower lumbs (in the order of appearance)

Primary relaxation is stage of somatic death

After death,

the onset of putrefaction is in the stage of secondary relaxation

219 220

Species of origin of blood is determined by precipitin test

It is a criminal offence in India,

for a person to drive a motor vehicle after consuming alcohol

Dum dum bullet is so called because tip is chiselled off

Cyanides mainly affect Cytochrome oxidase

In electrocution,

death is most often due to ventricular fibrillation

Le facies sympathique is seen in hanging

The characteristic sign of Korsakoff psychosis is amnesia

Aconite is most commonly used as a homicidal poison

Alcohol is maximally absorbed from small intestine

Absolute alcohol has 99

Visceras obtained from a body due to death from alcoholic intoxication are preserved is suprasaturated saline

In strychnine poisoning,

rigor mortis sets in early and lasts shortly

A short barreled rifle is called carbine

The most fragile bone in skull to get fractured is temporal

The most common type of skull fracture is fissure

Rigor mortis sets early in cases with deaths due to apoplexy

In cadaveric spasm,

stage of primary relaxation is missing

Heat stiffening is due to exposure of body to temperature above 75°C

237 238

The presence of blackening,

tatooing and scortching in a shotgun injury indicates distance of fire upto 3 feet

Lucid interval is seen in extradural haemorrhage and insanity

In forgeries,

oxalic acid is used as ink remover solution

Pond fracture (of skull) is found in children

Blasting effect is usually seen in a firearm injury from point blank range

Olive oil is used in stomach wash in carbolic acid poisoning

Fracture of middle cranial fossa causes injury to VII and VIII cranial nerves

Histologically amyloid deposits always begin intercellularly

Ischiopubic index is significantly more in females

Unconsciousness occurs immediately after head injury due to concussion

A female has more sternal index,

ischiopubic index and sciatic notch index

Ewings postulates refer to accidents as a cause of death

Loss of muscular coordination and staggering gait are seen in patient with blood alcohol concentration of 150-300

Dinitro compounds poisoning resembles thyrotoxicosis

Aconite is known as Sweet poison

CuSO4 is antidote of Phosphorus

Foder's test compares weight of lungs to the body

Diaphanus test denotes that after death,

finger webs lose their lusture

Gaping of deep incised wound is dependent on cleavage lines of Langer

When a patient is injured or dies due to some unintentional act during treatment by a doctor or agent of the doctor or known as therapeutic misadventure

Glass blowers shakes are seen with poisoning due to mercury

'Run amok' is sometimes seen with cannabis

Abrus is viper-like poison

Bluish green hypostasis is seen in H2S poisoning

Marquis test is used in opium poisoning

Datura is also known as 'Road poison'

Marsh's test and Reinsch test are used in arsenic poisoning

Exposure to nickel causes carcinoma nasopharynx

Best test for seminal stain is Florence test

Fall of a tooth is grievous injury

267 268

To conduct a postmortem,

an authorisation letter is necessary from police officer,

A consent is invalid of obtained from a person who is intoxicated,

In India,

Colour changes of putrefaction are first observed in iliac fossa

Dipsomania is seen with alcohol

Subpoena is a seen kind of document

In exhumated bodies,

the poison likely to be detected most significantly is arsenic

Postmortem in a newborn is done by opening first the abdominal cavity

Tests for circulation are Magnus,

Diaphanous and Icard's

Compressed air is used to fire lead slugs in air rifle

Most important sign of defloration is ruptured hymen

Cafe coronary occurs when a person is intoxicated

Overlying is a type of smothering

Death in fresh water in comparison to salt water is earlier

Bevelling of inner table of skull is seen in fire arm entry wound

In burking,

cause of death is traumatic asphyxia

Bansdola is a form of homicidal strangulation

Convincing proof of burial alive is sand in trachea and bronchi

In India

Coroner's courts are held in Bombay

Corpus delict deals with body of crime

Burking is a name derived from person

Bullet is picked up with hands

The process which causes the drying up of tissues and internal viscera to a sufficient degree to halt putrefaction is called

The most important cause of temporary impotence is fear

Minimum quantity of blood required to be preserved to mineral poisoning

Superimposition is technique most useful for identification from skull

Brown atrophy of heart is seen in starvation deaths

Most common type of finger impression is loop

Lead poisoning is common in children

Presence of alveolar duct membrane in foetal autopsies in indicative of live birth

The science of finger print was first demonstrated by Francis

Karl Pearson formula is used to calculate stature of the individual from long bones

Filigree burns are due to lightening

The commonest homicidal poison used in India is Arsenic

BAL is contraindicated in liver damage

KCN is ineffective as a poison if kept for long time,

patient takes excess of carbohydrate or suffers from achlorhydria

Inquiry into circumstances of death is called inquest report

Non-poisonous pure metals are mercury,

Phossy Jaw is produced by chronic white phosphorus poisoning

Ptysalism is seen in copper poisoning

Chloral hydrate is also called knockout drops or Micky Finn

Chromodacryorrhoea is sometimes preapilated by organophosphorus

Rape is a cognizable offence

To make a positive identification with the help of a partial finger print,

the points of similarity should be at least 16

The most striking symptoms of pregnancy is cessation of menstruation

The most reliable chemical test for blood is benzidine test

The position colour of tests for blood are —Benzidine test (Blue),

Guiacum test (deep blue),

Kastle Meyer test,

Leucomalachite test (Peacock blue),

Haemin Crystal (dark brown)

Takayama reagent is used in haemochromogen test

Heat stiffening is due to coagulation of albumin

Term immerssion foot is used for cases with frost bite

Boxer's attitude is seen in persons dying of burns

III and IV degree of burns are most painful

Smokeless gun powder is composed of nitrocellulose

Gunshot wound is a type of perforated wound

Supreme Court is purely an appellate Court

Police inquest can be done by a person not below the rank of sub-inspector

Haemodilution occurs in fresh water drowning

In chronic mercury poisoning,

Wrist drop and foot drop may be seen in poisoning with lead

After taking cyanide,

patient first feels numbness in extremities

Nux vomica seeds contain 2 alkaloids,

Lynching is a form of homicidal hanging

'Arrow poison' is nux vomical (also called Kuchila)

Commonest industrial metal poisoning is by lead

Haemorrhagic spots are found in poisoning by thallium

Amyl nitrate is antidote of cocaine poisoning

In sea water drowning,

there is steep rise in Na+ and Mg++

Cadaveric spasm occurs immediately after death

Least common type of finger prints is composite

Preauricular sulcus is useful for identification of sex

338 339

Seminal emission is common in hanging

In methyl alcohol poisoning treatment recommended is ethyl alcohol and sodium bicarbonate

The presence of fine white leathery froth in mouth indicates drowning

Lower end of femur can help to determine the age

Resipsa Loquitur means evidence speaks for itself

Resorption elution technique is used for detection of blood stains

In females,

obturator foramen is triangular shaped

Absorption of lead is mainly through lung

346 347

Incised like lacerated wound appears at forehead

Medical jurisprudence is the subject concerned with knowledge of law in relation to the practice of medicine

In a nutshell,

it deals with legal aspects of medical practice

348 349

Crime means a social harm which has been defined and made punishable by law

No conduct money is paid in criminal cases,

provision is made by the Govt under sec

The body is exhumed only when there is a written order issued by 1st class Chief Judicial or Executive magistrate or the Coroner

There is not time limit for exhumation in India

Puterfaction is the surest sign of death

The earliest sign is manifested as greenish discoluration in the right ilic fossa

Heat stiffening is due to coagulation of albumin and muscle proteins

Cold stiffening is due to solidfication of fats when body is exposed to very low temperatures Presence of blood stained froth in the air passage and diatoms in internal visceras and bone marrow is considered surest sign of drowning

The chief post mortem finding in case of starvation is distended gall bladder

Heat exhaustion is caused by dehydration and salt deficiency

Presence of soot in the respiratory passage is the surest sign of ante-mortem burn

Diatoms resist putrefaction

About 1900 cals is the minimum daily dieteic requirement below which manifestations of starvation appear

For estimating surface area in burnt patient "Wallace's Rule of Nine" has been employed

The Taser Gun is a device for immoblizing vicitims by using electric current without causing death or serious injury

In drowning,

Paltauf 's haemorrhages are seen subpleurally in the lungs

Molecular death is more significant medico-legally than somatic death

364 365

Semen contains more than double quantity of CPK than any other body fluid

Levels over 400 units are almost diagnostic

The enzyme is stable and can be demonstrated as late as 6 months after soiling

Hanging is one of the common forms of suicide among men

Judicial hanging is the official method of execution of death sentence

The dislocation often takes place between the 2nd & 3rd cervical vertebra

Dribbling of saliva is the vital sign of ante-mortem hanging and is due to stimulation of salivary glands by ligature

Lynching is homicidal hanging where several persons acting jointly overpower an individual and hang him by means of a rope to a tree or like object

Strangulation is almost always homicidal

In strangulation,

ligature completely encricles the neck horizontally below thyroid cartilage

Injury to carotid arteries common

Bleeding from nose,

Emphysematous patches on lungs are commonly seen during postmortem examination,

fracture of hyoid bone commonly occurs in throttling (near the greater cornua)

Smothering is a form of asphyxia caused by mechanical occlusion of the external air passages viz

the nose and the mouth by hands,

Overylaying or compression suffocation results due to compression of the chest so as to prevent breathing

It is common method of infanticide

Burking is a method of homicidal smothering and traumatic asphyxia

Drowning is a form of asphyxia due to aspiration of fluid into air passage,

caused by submersion in water or other fluid

Death ensues rapidly in fresh water than in salt water or sea water

The fine froth at the mouth and nose in pathognomonic of drowning

Cutis anserina or goose skin has no value as a diagnostic sign of death from drowning

Diatoms test is negative in dead bodies thrown in water or in dry drowning

In a typical case of drowning,

diatoms are found in brains and bone marrow

Drowning is one of the commonest form of suicide amongst females

Buccal coitus is Sin of Gomorrah

Strychnine poisoning resembles tetanus / epilepsy / hysteria

Thallium resembles natural death

Exhumation is done: In presence of police officer

In the supervision of Medical Officer

Written order from 1st class Magistrate or coroner

Most common mode of death in strangulation is Asphyxia

The common mode of choking is Accidental

Caffey syndrome is Battered baby syndrome

In judicial hanging,

fracture/dislocation of the vertebrae at the level of C3 and C4 vertebra

In Asphyxia,

the place where the Tardieu spots occur in lung is interlobar fissures

Forensic thanatology deals with Medicolegal study of death

In dental fluorosis,

the teeth are characterised by mottled enamel

Wreden's test—for deleting the presence of air in middle ear for determining live birth or dead foetus

The rules for criminal responsibility of Insane:

Mc Naughten's rule

Durham's rule

Current's rule

Blood group of Parents,

Child group possible:

§ OxO i

§ A x B i

All are possible

§ OxA i

Macerated body of a foetus indicates—dead-born

Cadaveric spasm (Instantaneous rigor) affects voluntary muscles only

401 402

The most dependent means of identification of persons is finger prints

If a person survives after giving dying declaration,

it can be used as corroborative evidence

Paraffin test or dermal nitrate test detects Gunpowder residue on hands

Knockout agents: Chloral hydrate,

Potassium bromide

Saturday night paralysis due to pressure on the Radial nerve

Leading questions are permissible in cross-examination

Preservation used to preserve the urine for chemical analysis is Thymol crystals

In Arsenic poisoning,

Arsenic is employed for embalming of Cadaver

410 411

Subendocardial haemorrhages in Arsenic poisoning

The poison which is found in maximum quantities in various organs in Postmortem is —Arsenic

Poisoning resembling fading measles — Arsenic

Optic atrophy occurs in Methyl Alcohol poisoning

Minimum Alcohol consumed by person,

estimated by — Widmarks formula

415 416

Widmark's formula,

to determine — Quantity of Alcohol consumed

The preservative used for viscera in Alcohol poisoning—Saturated sodium chloride solution

Barbiturates increase the toxicity of Alcohol by Synergism

Methylated spirit contains—95% Rectified spirit and 5% Methyl alcohol

The common preservative for viscera—Rectified spirit

The organs that resist putrefaction—uterus (Non pregnant)


The poisons which Resist putrefaction—Arsenic,



Thick and leathery stomach wall in —Phenol poisoning

Ochronosis (Pigmentation of skin and cartilages) in — Phenol poisoning

424 425

In Phenol poisoning —Urine is green coloured

Delicate and reliable test for Blood stains—Takayama's test (Hemochromogen crystal test)

Teichman test for blood stains is —Haemin Crystal test

Extremely delicate test for Blood stains—Phenophthalein test (Kastle-Mayer test)

The best test for Blood stains—Chromatography absorption spectroscopy

Leukomalachite green test is a chemical test for —Blood

In severe burns,

remnant indicative of Male sex—Inguinal canal

431 432

Carbonaceous soot particles in Respiratory tract suggesive of—Antemortem burns

Lichetenberg's flowers or filigree burns or Arborescent markings is seen in Lightening

In chemical burns by Corrosives—Vesication does not occur

Paltauf's haemorrhages (usually in lower lobes of lungs) in —Drowning

Immersion syndrome is due to—Vagal inhibition

Froth may be absent in case of death due to — Dry drowning

The specimen used for Diatom's test—Sternal bone marrow

Salt water drowning —Increased

Postmortem staining:

Usually mistaken for —Contusion

Can occur before death in —Cholera

§ Hypostasis or cadaveric lividity — Postmortem staining

§ Purple colour in —Asphyxia

§ Blue green colur in —Hydrogen sulphide poisoning

Blue vitreol—Copper sulfate

Verdigris—Copper subacetate

Green line on the gums in —Copper poisoning

Most potent of all preparations of cannabis is —Charas

Stomach wash in opium poisoning,

done with —Potassium permanganate

In opium poisoning,

there is loss of all secretions except sweat

In opium poisoning,

452 453

Methaemoglobinaemia is caused by poisoning due to Nitrates

Antidote used in common types of poisonous shakes,

in India includes polyvalent antisnake venom

Viperbite like poison—Abrus

Sea snake venom—Myotoxic

Diwali poisons are —Mercury,

Nephrotoxic poisons—Phenol,



Blotting paper like stomach in sulphuric acid poisoning

Sodium nitrate looks and tastes like common salt

Tingling of skin and tongue by Aconite poisoning

Tannic acid precipitates alkaloids

Physiological antidote produce symptoms opposite to those of poison is:


Cyanide—Amyl nitrite


In phosphorous poisoning,

avoid oil and fats as they increase absorption

In Endrin poisoning,

Albumin helps to precipitate in Mercury poisoning

Lead poisoning,

In Potassium permanganate poisoning,

lesions resemble Tertiary syphilis

Symptoms of Abrus precautorius poisoning resemble viperine snake bite

Cocaine acts as an Aphrodisiac

473 474

Charas is known as Hashish

In treatment of Nuxvomica poisoning,

Pupils show alternate contraction and dilatation in Aconite poisoning

Charcoal acts as a mechanical Antidote

477 478

Potassium ferrocyanide solution is used as gastric lavage solution of poisoning due to copper sulphate

Skin and mucous membranes are colored yellow in poisoning due to nitric acid

Delayed poisoning by oxalic acid is characterised by —Uraemia

Large amount of water is contraindicated in —Oxalic acid poisoning

Hypocalcemia can occur in —Oxalic acid poisoning

Hypocalcemia can occur in —Oxalic acid poisoning

Oxalic acid resembles—Magnesium sulfate

Coffee ground vomitus is seen in Oxalic acid poisoning

Datura seeds look like—Brinjal seeds capsicum seeds or Tomato seeds

Physiological antidote for Datura poisoning—Pilocarpine

Stupefying poison—Datura

Road poison—Datura

If a person survives after giving dying declaration,

it can be used as corroborative evidence Arsenic is employed for embalming of Cadaver Subendocardial haemorrhages are seen in Arsenic poisoning The poison which is found in maximum quantities in various organs in Postmortem is

Barbiturates increase the toxicity of Alcohol by Synergism

Methylated spirit contains 95% Rectified spirit and 5% Methyl alcohol

The poisons which Resist putrefaction are— Arsenic,



Thick and leathery stomach wall is seen in Phenol poisoning

Ochronosis (Pigmentation of skin and cartilages) is seen in Phenol poisoning

Extremely delicate test for Blood stains

The best test for Blood stains is Chromatography absorption spectroscopy

502 503

In severe burns,

remnant indicative of Male sex is inguinal canal Lichetenberg's flowers or filigree burns or Arborescent markings are seen in Lightening

In chemical burns by Corrosives Vesication does not occur

Immersion syndrome is due to Dry drowning

Rule of House is used for calculating age of the fetus-

PM staining usually mistaken for


PM staining can occur before death in

- Cholera

Most potent of ail preparations of cannabis is Charas

Amenorrhoea and infertility can occur in Chronic lead poisoning

If a person is absent from his usual haunts,

and has not been heard for at least 7 years,

In opium poisoning there is loss of all secretions except sweat

In opium poisoning,

Strongest corrosive poison is sulphuric acid

Antidote used in common types of poisonous snakes in India includes polyvalent antisnake venom

Viperbite like poison is Abrus

Sea snake venom is Myotoxic

Diwali poisons are

- Mercury,

Blotting paper like stomach is seen in sulphuric acid poisoning

Spinal poisoning may be mistaken commonly for Tetanus

Sodium nitrate looks and tastes like common salt

Tingling of skin and tongue is seen in Aconite poisoning

In phosphorous poisoning,

avoid oil and fats as they increase absorption

In Endrin poisoning,

Albumin helps to precipitate poison in Mercury poisoning

Lead poisoning causes constipation

In Potassium permanganate poisoning,

lesions resemble Tertiary syphilis

Cocaine acts as an Aphrodisiac In treatment of Nux vomica poisoning,

injection Barbiturates Pupils show alternate contraction and dilatation in Aconite poisoning Charcoal acts as a mechanical antidote

Delayed poisoning by oxalic acid is characterised by Uraemia Large amount of water is contraindicated in Oxalic acid poisoning Hypocalcemia can occur in Oxalic acid poisoning

Coffee ground vomitus is seen in Oxalic acid poisoning

Datura seeds look like- Brinjal seeds,

Antidote for chlorpyriphos poisoning is

Prussian blue is used in poisoning by thallium

In gastric lavage,

tube is passed upto 50 cm mark

Oleander causes heart block

Puppe's rule is used for bullet injuries

Wredin's test detects changes in middle ear

Rain drop pigmentation of skin is seen is arsenic poisoning

Algor mortis refers to cooling of body

American Law Institute Test is related to criminal responsibility

Poroscopy was described by Locard

Burrowed servant doctrine is related to vicarious liability

Wax-drippings or bone pearls are due to thermal injuries

Lichtenberg's flowers refers to Filigree burns

Cutis anserina is due to exector pilae

Cupping' is a method of criminal abortion

Crocodile flash burns are due to antemortem electric burns

Hospital providing defective equipment or drugs is causing Corporate,

negligence Contusion collar is a proof of Gun shot entrance In 'Commando punch',

injury usually occur in neck Blast lung is seen due to air explosion Thereapeutic orphans result due to experimentation

Thee name hatters shake is given because it is common in hat making industry

Trotter and Glesser's formulae are used for estimating stature

Rachiotomy saw is used to remove spinal cord

In cases of increased intracranial pressure,

Kernhan's notch is seen on midbrain In artificial insemination of Donor without husband's consent,

if the legal presumption of legitimacy be rebutted,

parental rights will be vested in mother only Agonal period is period between lethal occurrence and death K master is responsible for the faults of his servants is known as Vicarious liability,

Biliard ball ricochet effect is seen in firearm injuries

Cavett test is used for determing blood alcohol

Dactylography was first used in India by Sir W


Huffling is common solvent abuse

Sewer gas contains CO2,

Stomach-bowel test' is used for knowing if infant respiration occurred

‘Swallow tails’ are seen in lacerated wound

Most common type of abrasions of grazes

Osteometric board is used to estimate stature

Skull is square in Mongolians

In human head hair,

bar bodies are found in hair follicles in a proportion of 29± 5% in females and 6+2% males

Curator bonis is person appointed to manage the affairs of mentally incompetent

"Crib deaths' are due to asphyxia

Commoriants' literally means dying together

For identification,

palatoprints are taken from anterior part

Pink teeth are seen in death due to asphyxia

The order of appearance of rigor mortis follows Nysten's law

Postmortem lividity in a case of hanging is most prominent over lower extremities

Postmortem staining of a dead body lying undisturbed persists till it merges with discolouration of putrefaction

Bleeding from nostrils,

mouth and ears is relatively common in strangulation

Contre coup injury is seen in brain

In deep incised wounds,

Langer's lines determine gaping

Mugging by definition is homicidal

Ligature mark in hanging is an example of imprint abrasion

Immediate cause of death in burns is neurogenic shock

Common cause of death in crush syndrome is acute renal failure

Abrasion is seen in injury with rifled arm

Spermin in semen is detected by Barberio test

The impotent quoad is impotent to a particular woman

Seminal fluid choline originates from Leydig cell

To establish diagnosis of feigned insanity,

the person can be observed for a maximum period of 30 days

Incessant sexual desire is known as satyriasis

Dhatura poisoning is due to intake of seeds

Mercury damages glomeruli and renal tubules

Cyanide poisoning kit contains amyl nitrite,

Sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate

Chromolachryorrhoea in organophosphorus poisoning is due to porphyrin

A green line in gums in copper poisoning is Clepten line

In Eonism,

Garrotting is used as a method of execution in some countries

Tardieu spots are numberous in thymus,

AV junction and conjunctiva

In body packer syndrome,

person dies of abused drug overdose

In drowning,

emphysema aquosum is seen in 80% cases

In embalming fluid,

the concentration of formaldehyde and methyl alcohol are 40% and 10% respectively

Emmenagogues are used for criminal abortion

McNaughten rule has been included in India in section 84 of IPC

Hydrocution is another term for immersion syndrome

Diminished responsibility is a term used for borderline mental state

Minisatellite or stutters are terms used for DNA finger printing

Section 312 IPC is related to abortion

609 610

Sankya or somalkhar is a compound of lead The compounds used for taking finger prints are French chalk,

'Central pocket loop' is a variety of Composite finger print

Reaction phenomenon is seen drowning

Alcoholic palimpsests are a type of blackout

Arsenic poisoning may lead to thrombocytopenia,

In arsenic poisoning,

bands of opacity in finger nails are called Aldrich-Mees lines

Affiliation cases are related to paternity dispute

617 618

Kennedy phenomenon results due to surgical alteration Incineration,

dismembement and advanced putrefaction are methods of effacement of identity

Moletova cocktail is a bomb

Medullary index is used to determine sex

Harrison and Gilroy test is used for firearm injury After respiration,

the weight of lungs increases by about 30 gm The most characteristic defence injuries are those sustained during an attack by knife

Ploucquet's test is used to estimate live birth

Weight of pineal gland is 0

In smothering,

there is abrasion on the inner side of upper lip

Death during anaesthesia,

Privileged communication may be used by a doctor to blackmail his patients Repeated intentional advertisement by a doctor in newspaper is professional misconduct Oath taking in the court is court formality The inquiry into the circumstances of death is inquest report 16 years age of female is an age to give valid consent for lawful sexual intercourse

Age of consent for medical examination is after eruption of III molar

Fragmentary medulla is seen in Negroid

For saliva,

test used is alpha amylase test

Rule of Haase is used for estimation of foetal age

Wilson's classification is used to classify burns

Drugs interfering in blood grouping are barbiturate,

Phenol also retards putrefaction

640 641

In strangulation,

neck muscle rupture is common In fresh water poisoning,

hemolysis and ventricular fibrillation

Brain stem death occurs in encephalomyelitis

Postmortem examination is done for all organ of the body

644 645

Historical milestones

Code of Hammurabi—oldest known medico-legal code

Hippocrates (father of Medicine)

—discussed lethality of wounds

Manu law's — medical ethics— many sexual matters — most scientifically discussed

Justinian code

650 651

—regulated the practice of medicine & surgery

— established the function of the medical expert for legal procedure

Bartolomeo De Varignana — first medicolegal autopsy done by him in Italy

Paulus Zacchias — written "medico-legal questions",

" Fortunato Fedele—written first book on Forensic medicne

Orfil—considered as father of Modern Toxicology

In the 18th century,

study in legal Medicine as a subject was established by appointing professorship in Germany

In England Me Naughten's (who was aschizophrenic) rule has been established to deal with legal matters in cases of insanity or like situations whatsoever

658 659

Sec 118 IPC—Concealing design to commit offence punishable with death or improsonment for life

Sec 176,

IPC—Omission to give notice or information to public servant by person legally bound to give it

Sec 177 IPC—Furnishing false information

Sec 182 IPC—False information with intent to cause public servant to use lawful power to the injury of another person

Sec 192 IPC—Fabricating false evidence

Sec 193 IPC—Punishment for false evidence

Sec 194 IPC—Giving or fabricating false evidence with intent to procure conviction of capital offence

Sec 195 IPC — Giving or fabricating false evidence with intent to procure conviction of offence punishable with imprisonment for life or imprisonment

Sec 197 IPC—Issuing or signing false certificates

Sec 201 IPC—Causing disappearance of evidence of offence,

or giving false information to screen offenders

Sec 203 IPC—Giving false information respecting an offence committed

Sec 204 IPC—Destruction of document to prevent its production as evidence

Sec 284 IPC —Negligent conduct with respect to poisonous substances

Sec 304 IPC—Causing death by negligence

Sec 309 IPC—Attempt to commit suicide

Sec 313 IPC—Causing miscarriage without woman's consent

Sec 318 IPC—Concealment of birth by secret disposal of dead body

Sec 319 IPC—Hurt

Sec 320 IPC—Grievous hurt

Sec 351 IPC—Assault

Sec 362 IPC—Abduction

Sec 375 IPC —Rape

Sec 376 IPC—Punishment for rape

Sec 377 IPC—Unnatural offences

Sec 497 IPC—Adultery

Sec 39 Cr

C—Every person,

aware of the commission of or of the intention of any other person to commit any offence is punishable under I

shall forthwith give information to the nearest magistrate of police officer of such commission or intention

Sec 84 IPC—Nothing is an offence which is done by a person who at the time of doing it,

by reason of unsoundness of mind,

is incapable of knowing the nature of the act or what he is doing is either wrong or contrary to law

Confabulation—Pathological loss of memory,