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FORESTRY – IFS MATERIAL – INDIAN FOREST SERVICE

I joined Sikkim Forest Department on 23rd Aug 1980 as an IFS

Feb 22, 2017 CANDIDATES APPLYING FOR INDIAN FOREST SERVICE Environment, Forests and Climate Change in the Gazette of India (v) making statements which are incorrect or false or suppressing material information, or In pursuance of rule 8 of the Indian Forest

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FORESTRY – IFS MATERIAL – INDIAN FOREST SERVICE

Wildlife Management & Conservation

Wildlife management is the process of keeping some wildlife species at desirable levels as determined by the wildlife managers and includes game keeping,

wildlife conservation and pest control

Wildlife management has become an integrated science using disciplines such as mathematics,

climatology and geography to gain the best results

Wildlife conservation takes into consideration ecological principles and environmental conditions such as carrying capacity,

disturbance and succession with the aim of balancing the needs of wildlife with the needs of people

Most wildlife conservation is concerned with the preservation and improvement of habitats though increasingly reinstatement is being used

Techniques can include reforestation,

nitrification and denitrification,

Game keeping is the management or control of wildlife for the wellbeing of game birds may include killing other animals which share the same niche or predators to maintain a high population of the more profitable species,

such as pheasants introduced into woodland

Aldo Leopold,

one of the pioneers of wildlife management as a science,

the art of making land produce sustained annual crops of wild game for recreational use," in his 1933 book titled: Game Management

[Full citation needed] Pest control is the control of real or perceived pests and can be for the benefit of wildlife,

game keepers or safety reasons

In the United States,

wildlife management practices are often implemented by a governmental agency to uphold a law,

such as the Endangered Species Act of 1973

Many wildlife managers are employed by the U

Fish and Wildlife Service and by state governments

In the United Kingdom,

wildlife management undertaken by several organizations including government bodies such as the Forestry Commission,

Charities such as the RSPB and The Wildlife Trusts and privately hired gamekeepers and contractors

Legislation has also been passed to protect wildlife such as the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981

History The profession of wildlife management was established in the United States in the interwar period (1920s-1930s) by Aldo Leopold and others who sought to transcend the purely restrictive policies of the previous generation of conservationists,

such as anti-hunting activist William T

Hornaday

Leopold and his close associate Herbert Stoddard,

who had both been trained in scientific forestry,

argued that modern science and technology could be used to restore and improve wildlife habitat and thus produce abundant "crops" of ducks,

The institutional foundations of the profession of wildlife management were established in the 1930s,

when Leopold was granted the first university professorship in wildlife management (1933,

University of Wisconsin,

Madison),

when Leopold's textbook 'Game Management' was published (1933),

when The Wildlife Society was founded,

when the Journal of Wildlife Management began publishing,

and when the first Cooperative Wildlife Research Units were established

Conservationist

planned many projects throughout the 1940's

Some of which included the harvesting of female mammals such as deer to decrease rising populations

Others included waterfowl and wetland research

The Fish and Wildlife Management Act was put in place to urge farmers to plant food for wildlife and to provide cover for them

Wildlife management grew after World War II with the help of the GI Bill and a postwar boom in recreational hunting

Since the tumultuous 1970s,

when animal rights activists and environmentalists began to challenge some aspects of wildlife management,

the profession has been overshadowed by the rise of conservation biology

Although wildlife managers remain central to the implementation of the ESA and other wildlife conservation policies,

Conservation biologists have shifted the focus of conservation away from wildlife management's concern with the protection and restoration of single species and toward the maintenance of ecosystems and biodiversity

Types of wildlife management There are two general types of wildlife management: Manipulative management acts on a population,

either changing its numbers by direct means or influencing numbers by the indirect means of altering food supply,

This is appropriate when a population is to be harvested,

or when it slides to an unacceptably low density or increases to an unacceptably high level

Such densities are inevitably the subjective view of the land owner,

and may be disputed by animal welfare interests

Custodial management is preventive or protective

The aim is to minimize external influences on the population and its habitat

It is appropriate in a national park where one of the stated goals is to protect ecological processes

It is also appropriate for conservation of a threatened species where the threat is of external origin rather than being intrinsic to the system

Opposition Wildlife management has been criticized by animal rights/animal welfare activists,

and others who oppose hunting or other forms of direct human intervention into wild animal populations or habitats

Animal welfare critics object to the cruelty involved in some forms of wildlife management

Ecological critics of wildlife management note that habitat manipulation and predator control are often used to increase populations of valuable game animals or birds (including introduced exotics) without regard to the ecological integrity of the habitat

Management of hunting seasons Wildlife management studies,

research and lobbying by interest groups help designate times of the year when certain wildlife species can be legally hunted,

allowing for surplus animals to be removed

In the United States,

hunting season and bag limits are determined by guidelines set by the US Department of Interior,

Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) for migratory game such as waterfowl and other migratory game birds

The hunting season and bag limits for state regulated game species such as deer are usually determined by State game Commissions,

which are made up of representatives from various interest groups,

Open and closed season on Deer in the UK is legislated for in the Deer act 1991 and the Deer Act(Scotland) 1996]] Open seasonOpen season is when wildlife is allowed to be hunted by law and is usually not during the breeding season

Hunters may be restricted by sex,

for instance there may be an open season for any male deer with 4 points or better on at least one side

Limited entryWhere the number of animals taken is to be tightly controlled,

managers may have a type of lottery system called limited

Many apply,

These hunts may still have age,

Closed seasonClosed season is when wildlife is protected from hunting and is usually during its breeding season

Closed season is enforced by law,

any hunting during closed season is punishable by law and termed as illegal hunting or poaching

Forest Conservation

The conservation movement also known as nature conservation is a political,

scientific movement that seeks to protect natural resources including plant and animal species as well as their habitat for the future

The early conservation movement included fisheries and wildlife management,

soil conservation and sustainable forestry

The contemporary conservation movement has broadened from the early movement's emphasis on use of sustainable yield of natural resources and preservation of wilderness areas to include preservation of biodiversity

Some say the conservation movement is part of the broader and more far-reaching environmental movement,

while others argue that they differ both in ideology and practice

Chiefly in the United States,

conservation is seen as differing from environmentalism in that it aims to preserve natural resources expressly for their continued sustainable use by humans

In other parts of the world conservation is used more broadly to include the setting aside of natural areas and the active protection of wildlife for their inherent value,

as much as for any value they may have for humans

Early worldwide conservation movement The nascent conservation movement slowly developed in the 19th century,

starting first in the scientific forestry methods pioneered by the Germans and the French in the 17th and 18th centuries

While continental Europe created the scientific methods later used in conservationist efforts,

British India and the United States are credited with starting the conservation movement

Foresters in India,

managed forests using early climate change theories (in America,

George Perkins Marsh) that Alexander von Humboldt developed in the mid 19th century,

and tried to keep the "house-hold" of nature

This was an early ecological idea,

in order to preserve the growth of delicate teak trees

The same German foresters who headed the Forest Service of India,

such as Dietrich Brandis and Berthold Ribbentrop,

traveled back to Europe and taught at forestry schools in England (Cooper's Hill,

These men brought with them the legislative and scientific knowledge of conservationism in British India back to Europe,

where they distributed it to men such as Gifford Pinchot,

which in turn helped bring European and British Indian methods to the United States

Philosophy of early American conservation movement During the nineteenth century,

Americans developed a deep and abiding passion for nature

The early evolution of the conservation movement began through both public and private recognition of the relationship between man and nature often reflected in the great literary and artistic works of the nineteenth century

Artists,

painted powerful landscapes of the American West during the mid nineteenth century,

which were incredibly popular images representative of the unique natural wonders of the American frontier

Likewise,

Frederic Edwin Church painted "Twilight in the Wilderness",

which was an artistic masterpiece of the era that explored the growing importance of the American wilderness

Many American writers also romanticized and focused upon nature as a subject matter

However,

the most notable literary figure upon the early conservation movement proved to be Henry David Thoreau

Throughout his work,

Walden,

Thoreau detailed his experiences at the natural setting of Walden Pond and his deep appreciation for nature

In one instance,

he described a deep grief for a tree that was cut down

Thoreau went on to bemoan the lack of reverence for the natural world: "I would that our farmers when they cut down a forest felt some of that awe which the old Romans did when they came to thin,

As he states in Walden,

Thoreau "was interested in the preservation" of nature

In 1860,

Henry David Thoreau delivered a speech to the Middlesex Agricultural Society in Massachusetts

entitled "The Succession of Forest Trees",

explored forest ecology and encouraged the agricultural community to plant trees

This speech became one of Thoreau's "most influential ecological contributions to conservationist thought"

The early conservation movement in the United States was also successful due to the hard work of John Muir

Muir was a former carriage worker who was nearly blinded by an accident at work

After almost losing his sight,

Muir decided to see "America's natural wonders"

Based upon his travels throughout Yosemite and the Sierra Nevada Mountains,

Muir wrote a collection of articles for Century magazine,

entitled "Studies in the Sierra"

In 1892,

John Muir joined forces with the editor of "Century" Magazine,

Robert Underwood Johnson,

an organization designed to protect America's natural resources and public parks

Early Americans recognized the importance of natural resources and the necessity of wilderness preservation for sustained yield harvesting of natural resources

In essence,

the preservation of wilderness and landscapes were recognized as critical for future generations and their continued subsistence in a healthy environment

The foundation of the conservation movement is grounded during this period between 1850 and 1920

Ultimately,

historical trends and cultural mind-sets were united,

which influenced ideas and policy towards the early history of the conservation movement in the United States

Early American conservation movement America had its own conservation movement in the 19th century,

most often characterized by George Perkins Marsh,

The expedition into northwest Wyoming in 1871 led by F

Hayden and accompanied by photographer William Henry Jackson provided the imagery needed to substantiate rumors about the grandeur of the Yellowstone region,

and resulted in the creation of Yellowstone National Park,

Travels by later

President Theodore Roosevelt through the region around Yellowstone provided the impetus for the creation of the Yellowstone Timberland Reserve in 1891

The largest section of the reserve was later renamed Shoshone National Forest,

and it is the oldest National Forest in the U

But it was not until 1898 when German forester Dr

Schenck,

and Cornell University founded the first two forestry schools,

Bernard Fernow,

founder of the forestry schools at Cornell and the University of Toronto,

was originally from Prussia (Germany),

and he honed his knowledge from Germans who pioneered forestry in India

He introduced Gifford Pinchot,

the "father of American forestry",

to Brandis and Ribbentrop in Europe

From these men,

Pinchot learned the skills and legislative patterns he would later apply to America

Pinchot,

in his memoir history Breaking New Ground,

credited Brandis especially with helping to form America's conservation laws

“ Conservation means the greatest good to the greatest number for the longest time

Pinchot wrote that the principles of conservation were: 1

Development: "the use of the natural resources now existing on this continent for the benefit of the people who live here now

There may be just as much waste in neglecting the development and use of certain natural resources as there is in their destruction

… The development of our natural resources and the fullest use of them for the present generation is the first duty of this generation

Conservation: "…the prevention of waste in all other directions is a simple matter of good business

The first duty of the human race is to control the earth it lives upon

Protection of the public interests: "The natural resources must be developed and preserved for the benefit of the many,

and not merely for the profit of a few

Congress passed the Forest Reserve Act,

which allowed the President of the United States to set aside forest lands on public domain

A decade after the Forest Reserve Act,

Cleveland,

and McKinley had transferred approximately 50,000,000 acres (200,000 km2) into the forest reserve system

However,

President Theodore Roosevelt is credited with the institutionalization of the conservation movement in the United States

For President Roosevelt,

the conservation movement was not about the preservation of nature simply for nature itself

After his experiences traveling as an enthusiastic,zealous hunter,

Roosevelt became convinced of "the need for measures to protect the game species from further destruction and eventual extinction"

President Roosevelt recognized the necessity of carefully managing America's natural resources

According to Roosevelt,

"We are prone to speak of the resources of this country as inexhaustible

Nonetheless,

Roosevelt believed that conservation of America's natural resources was for the successful management and continued sustain yield harvesting of these resources in the future for the benefit and enjoyment of the American people

Roosevelt took several major steps to further his conservation goals

In 1902,

Roosevelt signed the National Reclamation Act,

which allowed for the management and settlement of a large tract of barren land

President Roosevelt helped to create the United States Forest Service and then appointed respected forester,

Gifford Pinchot,

as the first head of the agency

Theodore Roosevelt,

in partnership with Gifford Pinchot,

had successfully increased the number of national parks as well as added area to existing forest reserves

Despite these advancements,

the American conservation movement did have difficulties

In the early 1900s the conservation movement in America was split into two main groups: conservationists,

who were utilitarian foresters and natural rights advocates who wanted to protect forests "for the greater good for the greatest length",

the founder of the Sierra Club

Important differences separated conservationists like Roosevelt and Pinchot from preservationists like Muir

As a preservationist,

Muir envisioned the maintenance of pristine natural environments where any development was banned

preservationists wanted forest to be preserved for natural beauty,

scientific study and recreation

The differences continue to the modern era,

with sustainable harvest and multiple-use the major focus of the U

Forest Service and recreation emphasized by the National Park Service

Legislation lobbied by hunters Hunters have worked closely with local and federal governments to enact legislation to protect wildlife habitats

The following examples represent hunter-advocated legislation enacted to generate funds for preserving and establishing habitats

(Hunters Rule) The Ontario Federation of Anglers and Hunters successfully lobbied to prevent cuts in funding for the Community Fisheries and Wildlife Involvement Program by 50%

Pittman-Robertson Wildlife Restoration Act of 1937 In 1937,

hunters successfully lobbied Congress to pass the Pittman-Robertson Wildlife Restoration Act,

which placed an 11% tax on all hunting equipment

This self-imposed tax now generates over $700 million each year and is used exclusively to establish,

restore and protect wildlife habitats

It is named for Nevada Senator Key Pittman and Virginia Congressman Absalom Willis Robertson

Federal Duck Stamp Program On March 16,

which requires an annual stamp purchase by all hunters over the age of sixteen

The stamps are created on behalf of the program by the U

Postal Service and depict wildlife artwork chosen through an annual contest

They play an important role in habitat conservation because 98% of all funds generated by their sale go directly toward the purchase or lease of wetland habitat for protection in the National Wildlife Refuge System

In addition to waterfowl,

it is estimated that one third of the nation's endangered species seek food and shelter in areas protected using Duck Stamp funds

Since 1934,

the sale of Federal Duck Stamps has generated $670M and helped to purchase or lease 5

The stamps serve as a license to hunt migratory birds,

an entrance pass for all National Wildlife Refuge areas and are also considered collectors items often purchased for aesthetic reasons outside of the hunting and birding communities

Although non-hunters buy a significant number of Duck Stamps,

Distribution of funds is managed by The Migratory Bird Conservation Commission (MBCC)

Conservation organizations founded by hunters There are a number of organizations founded by hunters and by those interested in preserving wildlife populations and habitats

One of the oldest and most well-known organizations is Ducks Unlimited

Another internationally recognized hunters' conservation organization is Safari Club International

Modern American conservation movement Ultimately,

the modern conservation movement in the United States continues to strive for the delicate balance between the successful management of society's industrial progress while still preserving the integrity of the natural environment that sustains humanity

In a large part,

today's conservation movement in the United States is a joint effort of individuals,

nongovernmental organizations,

and various government agencies,

such as the United States Forest Service

For the modern era,

Forest Service has noted three important aspects of the conservation movement: the climate change,

and the education of the public on conservation of the natural environment,

In regards to climate change,

Forest Service has undertaken a twenty year research project to develop ways to counteract issues surrounding climate change

However,

some small steps have been taken regarding climate change

As rising greenhouse gases contribute to global warming,

reforestation projects are seeking to counteract rising carbon emissions

In Oregon,

the Department of Forestry has developed such a small reforestation program in which landowners can lease their land for one hundred years to grow trees

In turn,

these trees offset carbon emissions from power companies

Moreover,

reforestation projects have other benefits: reforested areas serve as a natural filter of agricultural fertilizers even as new wildlife habitats are created

Reforested land can also contribute to the local economy as rural landowners also distribute hunting leases during the years between harvests

In essence,

create a viable market of eco-friendly services mutually beneficial to landowners,

Nonetheless,

such creative plans will be necessary in the near future as the United States struggles to maintain a positive balance between society and the finite natural resources of the nation

Ultimately,

eco-friendly practices of land management,

and efforts to educate the public regarding the necessity of conservation,

those individuals dedicated to American conservation seek to preserve the nation's natural resources

Problem areas Deforestation and overpopulation are issues affecting all regions of the world

The consequent destruction of wildlife habitat has prompted the creation of conservation groups in other countries,

some founded by local hunters who have witnessed declining wildlife populations first hand

it was highly important for the conservation movement to solve problems of living conditions in the cities and the overpopulation of such places

Boreal forest and arctic

The idea of incentive conservation is a modern one but its practice has clearly defended some of the sub Arctic wildernesses and the wildlife in those regions for thousands of years,

especially by indigenous peoples such as the Evenk,

Inuit and Cree

The fur trade and hunting by these peoples have preserved these regions for thousands of years

Ironically,

the pressure now upon them comes from non-renewable resources such as oil,

sometimes to make synthetic clothing which is advocated as a humane substitute for fur

(See Raccoon Dog for case study of the conservation of an animal through fur trade

hunting and fur trade were thought to bring about the animal's demise,

when in fact they were an integral part of its conservation

For many years children's books stated and still do,

that the decline in the beaver population was due to the fur trade

In reality however,

the decline in beaver numbers was because of habitat destruction and deforestation,

as well as its continued persecution as a pest (it causes flooding)

In Cree lands however,

where the population valued the animal for meat and fur,

The Inuit defend their relationship with the seal in response to outside critics

In other regions of the Arctic,

Russia and the Evenk in Siberia,

indigenous peoples and their traditional hunting and fur trade are making a clear stand against the more "modern" resource exploitation

In Canada the Boreal Forest Conservation Framework is a multi-stakeholder initiative,

which includes the Aboriginal peoples in the Canadian north

Eighty percent of the worlds furs are produced in these regions either through farming by groups such as SAGA or 22% by indigenous peoples

Fur and hunting it appears,

as indeed Greenpeace are finding out in the Sami forests,

is an economic barrier to development,

The WWF has established areas of traditional hunting and animal use in Siberia and these sable reserves are clearly based on the principles of "incentive conservation"

Latin America (Bolivia) The Izoceño-Guaraní of Santa Cruz,

Bolivia is a tribe of hunters who were influential in establishing the Capitania del Alto y Bajo Isoso (CABI)

CABI promotes economic growth and survival of the Izoceno people while discouraging the rapid destruction of habitat within Bolivia's Gran Chaco

They are responsible for the creation of the 34,000 square kilometre Kaa-Iya del Gran Chaco National Park and Integrated Management Area (KINP)

The KINP protects the most biodiverse portion of the Gran Chaco,

an ecoregion shared with Argentina,

Paraguay and Brazil

In 1996,

the Wildlife Conservation Society joined forces with CABI to institute wildlife and hunting monitoring programs in 23 Izoceño communities

The partnership combines traditional beliefs and local knowledge with the political and administrative tools needed to effectively manage habitats

The programs rely solely on voluntary participation by local hunters who perform selfmonitoring techniques and keep records of their hunts

The information obtained by the hunters participating in the program has provided CABI with important data required to make educated decisions about the use of the land

Hunters have been willing participants in this program because of pride in their traditional activities,

encouragement by their communities and expectations of benefits to the area

Because of their spiritual beliefs,

many hunters indigenous to this area used conservative approaches to hunting even before population declines were noted

Common self-imposed conservation techniques followed by this tribe include

seasonal rotation of hunting areas

not hunting excessively beyond the needs of ones family

not hunting vulnerable species

and the substitution of other activities during certain seasons (fishing/farming)

Africa (Botswana) In order to discourage illegal South African hunting parties and ensure future local use and sustainability,

indigenous hunters in Botswana began lobbying for and implementing conservation practices in the 1960s

The Fauna Preservation Society of Ngamiland (FPS) was formed in 1962 by the husband and wife team: Robert Kay and June Kay,

environmentalists working in conjunction with the Batawana tribes to preserve wildlife habitat

The FPS promotes habitat conservation and provides local education for preservation of wildlife

Conservation initiatives were met with strong opposition from the Botswana government because of the monies tied to big-game hunting

In 1963,

BaTawanga Chiefs and tribal hunter/adventurers in conjunction with the FPS founded Moremi National Park and Wildlife Refuge,

the first area to be set aside by tribal people rather than governmental forces

Moremi National Park is home to a variety of wildlife,

and covers an area of 3,000 square kilometers

Most of the groups involved with establishing this protected land were involved with hunting and were motivated by their personal observations of declining wildlife and habitat

Forest Management

Forest Management is the branch of forestry concerned with the overall administrative,

and social aspects and with the essentially scientific and technical aspects,

This includes management for aesthetics,

and other forest resource values

Management can be based on conservation,

Techniques include the extraction timber,

planting and replanting of various species,

cutting roads and pathways through forests,

In developed countries,

the environment has increased public awareness of natural resource policy,

As a direct result,

primary concerns regarding forest management have shifted from the extraction of timber to other forest resources including wildlife,

This shift in public values has also caused many in the public to mistrust resource management professionals

Community Forestry Community Forestry has been considered one of the most promising options of combining forest conservation with rural development and poverty reduction objectives

Community Forestry is implemented firstly through the establishment of a legal and institutional framework including the revision of legal norms and regulations for forest management,

the development of National Forest Plans and the strengthening of decentralization processes to sub-national levels of government

The second principle line of action is the implementation of pilot projects to demonstrate the feasibility of the Community Forestry Framework

However,

a study by the Overseas Development Institute shows that the technical,

managerial and financial requirements stipulated by the framework are often incompatible with local realities and interests

A successful legal and institutional framework will incorporate the strengthening of existing institutions and enable the dissemination of locally appropriate practices as well as the local capacity for regulation and control

Forest farming is an agroforestry practice characterized by the four "I's"- Intentional,

Integrated,

Intensive and Interactive management of an existing forested ecosystem wherein forest health is of paramount concern

It is neither forestry nor farming in the traditional sense

Forest farm management principles constitute an ecological approach to forest management through efforts to find a balance between conservation of native biodiversity and wildlife habitat within the forest and limited,

judicious utilization of the forest's varied resources

It attempts to bring secondary growth forests that have been overused and whose ecosystems have become so fragmented that their natural processes are out of equilibrium,

back into ecological balance through careful,

intentional manipulation over time,

emulating natural processes to restore original,

natural diversity of species and ecosystem stability

In some instances,

the intentional introduction of native or native-related species for use as botanicals,

medicinals or food products is accomplished,

utilizing the existing forest ecosystem to aid in support of their growth

The tree cover,

landform and other site characteristics determine what species will thrive,

as opposed to field-grown crop plantings

Developing an understanding of species/site relationships as well as understanding the site limitations is necessary in order to utilize these resources for current needs,

while conserving adequate resources for the health of the forest today and for the future

Forest farm management methods may include: Intensive,

yet cautious thinning of overstocked,

suppressed tree stands such that no individual species is decimated and such that the crown cover is never depleted leaving the forest floor exposed to excessive sun,

multiple Integrated entries to accomplish thinnings so that the systemic shock is not so great

and Interactive management to maintain a cross-section of healthy trees and shrubs of all ages and species,

rather than a monoculture of timber species

Caution is used to ensure that physical disturbance to the surrounding area is minimized in order for the forest ecosystem to recover more quickly

Forest farm management is a type of forest stewardship ethic whose philosophy is that the term "sustainable" means what is sustainable for the earth,

not what is sustainable for man's demand,

and its objective is to restore and maintain the health of the forest land's many and varied ecosystems

In recent years,

the concept of ecosystem services has been developed to satisfy the human demand for a means of participating actively in support of ecosystem health and appreciation of the earth's natural assets

This movement is taking many physical forms- the planting of trees

the leaving of timber to grow older

the protection of forest habitat for animal species

Forest health is already a priority and is currently undertaken on forest farms as part of the management program

This positions them well to respond to this societal need,

of conservation-minded individuals who are willing to provide monetary support for the program

Social forestry in India

The term ‘Social forestry’ first used in 1976 by The National Commission on Agriculture,

Government of India

It was then that India embarked upon a social forestry project with the aim of taking the pressure off the forests and making use of all unused and fallow land

Social forestry programme Government forest areas that are close to human settlement and have been degraded over the years due to human activities needed to be afforested

Trees were to be planted in and around agricultural fields

Plantation of trees along railway lines and roadsides,

and river and canal banks were carried out

They were planted in village common land,

Government wasteland and Panchayat land

Involvement of common people Social forestry also aims at raising plantations by the common man so as to meet the growing demand for timber,

thereby reducing the pressure on the traditional forest area

This concept of village forests to meet the needs of the rural people is not new

It has existed through the centuries all over the country but it was now given a new character

With the introduction of this scheme the government formally recognised the local communities’ rights to forest resources,

and is now encouraging rural participation in the management of natural resources

Through the social forestry scheme,

the government has involved community participation,

as part of a drive towards afforestation,

and rehabilitating the degraded forest and common lands

Need of social forestry This need for a social forestry scheme was felt as India has a dominant rural population that still depends largely on fuelwood and other biomass for their cooking and heating

This demand for fuel wood will not come down but the area under forest will reduce further due to the growing population and increasing human activities

Yet the government managed the projects for five years then gave them over to the village panchayats (village council) to manage for themselves and generate products or revenue as they saw fit

Social forestry scheme can be categorized into groups farm forestry,

extension forestry and agro-forestry

Farm forestry At present in almost all the countries where social forestry programmes have been taken up,

both commercial and non commercial farm forestry is being promoted in one form or the other

Individual farmers are being encouraged to plant

trees on their own farmland to meet the domestic needs of the family

In many areas this tradition of growing trees on the farmland already exists

Non-commercial farm forestry is the main thrust of most of the social forestry projects in the country today

It is not always necessary that the farmer grows trees for fuelwood,

but very often they are interested in growing trees without any economic motive

They may want it to provide shade for the agricultural crops

soil conservation or to use wasteland

Community forestry Another scheme taken up under the social forestry programme,

is the raising of trees on community land and not on private land as in farm forestry

All these programmes aim to provide for the entire community and not for any individual

The government has the responsibility of providing seedlings,

fertilizer but the community has to take responsibility of protecting the trees

Some communities manage the plantations sensibly and in a sustainable manner so that the village continues to benefit

Some others took advantage and sold the timber for a short-term individual profit

Common land being everyone’s land is very easy to exploit

Over the last 20 years,

large-scale planting of Eucalyptus,

making it a part of the drive to reforest the subcontinent,

and create an adequate supply of timber for rural communities under the augur of ‘social forestry’

Extension forestry Planting of trees on the sides of roads,

along with planting on wastelands is known as ‘extension’ forestry,

increasing the boundaries of forests

Under this project there has been creation a of wood lots in the village common lands,

government wastelands and panchayat lands

Schemes for afforesting degraded government forests that are close to villages are being carried out all over the country

Agro-forestry In agroforestry silvicultural practices are combined with agricultural crops like leguminous crop,

along with orchard farming and live stock ranching on the same piece of land

In a lay man language agroforestry could be understood as growing of forest tree along with agriculture crop on the same piece of land

In a more scientific way agroforestry may be defined as a sustainable land use system that maintains or increases the total yield by combing food crop together with forest tree and live stock ranching on the same unit of land ,using management practices that takes care of the social and culture characteristic of the local people and the economic and ecological condition of the local area

Objectives of social forestry and environment wing Social forestry,

schemes that have been started all over the country have made a considerable difference in overall forest cover in a short time

Afforestation outside the conventional forest area for the benefit of rural and urban communities

The main objective is to :1

Improve the environment for protecting agriculture from adverse climatic factors,

Increase the supply of fuel wood for domestic use,

small timber for rural housing,

Increase the natural beauty of the landscape

create recreational forests for the benefit of rural and urban population,

Provide jobs for unskilled workers and 5

Reclaim wastelands

Finally,

its object is to raise the standard of living and quality of life of the rural and urban people

Mission

institutional or private ownership

Agro forestry

Agro forestry is an integrated approach of using the interactive benefits from combining trees and shrubs with crops and/or livestock

It combines agricultural and forestry technologies to create more diverse,

healthy and sustainable land-use systems

Definitions "Agro forestry is a collective name for land use systems and practices in which woody perennials are deliberately integrated with crops and/or animals on the same land management unit

The integration can be either in a spatial mixture or in a temporal sequence

There are normally both ecological and economic interactions between woody and non-woody components in agro forestry"

trees or shrubs are intentionally used within agricultural systems,

or non-timber forest resources are cultured in forest settings

Knowledge,

careful selection of species and good management of trees and crops are needed to optimize the production and positive effects within the system and to minimize negative competitive effects

In some areas,

a narrow definition of agroforestry might be defined as simply: trees on farms

farm forestry and family forestry can be broadly understood as the commitment of farmers,

towards the establishment and management of forests on their land

Where many landholders are involved the result is a diversity of activity that reflects the diversity of aspirations and interests within the community

Impacts Agroforestry systems can be advantageous over conventional agricultural and forest production methods through increased productivity,

social outcomes and the ecological goods and services provided

Biodiversity in agroforestry systems is typically higher than in conventional agricultural systems

Agroforestry incorporates at least several plant species into a given land area and creates a more complex habitat that can support a wider variety of birds,

Agroforestry also has the potential to help reduce climate change since trees take up and store carbon at a faster rate than crop plants

Alley cropping Alley cropping,

sometimes referred to as 'sun systems',

and can be applied by farmers as a strategy to combat soil erosion,

to increase the diversity of farmland,

as a means for crop diversification and to derive other integrated benefits

In this practice,

crops are planted in strips in the alleys formed between rows of trees and/or shrubs

The potential benefits of this design include the provision of shade in hot,

dry environments (reducing water loss from evaporation),

increase in the structural diversity of the site and wildlife habitat

The woody perennials in these systems can produce fruit,

or trimmings to be made into mulch

Forest Farming Forest farming,

also known as 'shade systems',

integrated cultivation of both timber and non-timber forest products in a forest setting

Forest farming is separate and distinct from the opportunistic exploitation / wild harvest of non-timber forest products

Successful forest farming operations produce: mushrooms,

native plants used for landscaping and floral greenery (e

medicinal and pharmaceutical products (e

Silvopasture Silvopastures combine livestock grazing on forage crops or pastures within actively managed tree or shrub crops

Cattle,

sheep and goats are the most common livestock incorporated into silvopasture systems and they may be deployed entirely within a private farm/woodlot silvopasture or through collaborative arrangements between forest licensees and livestock producers on public lands (e

sheep grazing is used as a vegetation management tool in young forest plantations)

Riparian Buffers and Integrated Riparian Management Riparian buffers are managed forest and shrubs belts in areas bordering lakes,

Integrated riparian management systems are used to enhance and protect aquatic and riparian resources as well as generating income from timber and non-timber forest products

Similar to shelter and timberbelts,

integrated riparian management

systems can employ a wide variety of tree and shrub species,

with specific plantings tailored to suit the specific growing conditions and production opportunities

Other Uses Agroforestry practices may also be employed to realize a number of other associated Environmental Services,

Carbon sequestration

Waste water or manure management (e

utilizing urban waste water on intensive,

short rotation forests for wood fibre production)

Green space and visual aesthetics

Enhancement or maintenance of wildlife habitat

Selection Cutting

Selection cutting is the silvicultural practice of harvesting a proportion of the trees in a stand

Selection cutting is the practice of removing mature timber or thinning to improve the timber stand

This system may be used to manage even or uneven-aged stands

Management objectives can include the protection of forest soils,

maintenance or improvement of wildlife habitat,

the increase of individual stem productivity,

encouragement of regeneration / species diversity or the improvement of the visual amenity of plantations

Selection cutting may include opening up areas to allow tree species that require greater light intensity to grow but that are not large enough to meet the legal definition of a clearcut

Invalid Term Selection cutting it is not recognized as a valid silvilcultural term since it does not define the objectives of cutting,

to improve the quality of trees in the residual stand (also known as an "intermediate treatment"),

or for the purposes of regenerating the stand (also known as a "regeneration treatment')

The term,

Often the term is used to 'sell' the concept of harvesting to reluctant owners who usually then discover

Used correctly,

the term 'selection silviculture' implies the use of an uneven-aged method

a stand usually to more late-successional,

Anyone who uses the term "selection cutting" or "selective harvesting" should be challenged to define his or her terms and,

to identify the overall silvicultural purpose of harvesting trees

Single-Tree Selection The most common type of selection system is Single Tree Selection ,

in which scattered individual trees are marked and harvested

Typically,

trees are selected for harvest using the Arbogast Method (after the method's creator)

This is also known as the DBq method

Under this method,

a harvest is specified by defining a maximum

The q-ratio is the ratio of the number of trees in a diameter class to the number of trees in the next larger class

Typically diameter classes are either 4 centimeters or 2 inches

Given the required DBq,

This tells the forester how many trees in each size-class should remain in the stand

An inventory of the stand is conducted,

and excess trees are marked for harvest

The goal here is to regulate the diameter distribution into a form that is known to be sustainable

A distribution is sustainable if enough trees remain post-harvest that they can grow back all that was harvested before the next harvest

Sustainable distributions can provide a steady even-flow of timber over an infinitely long time-horizon

Conducting a full stand inventory is rarely practical,

and tracking the number of trees in small size-classes is tedious in the field

A typical single-tree selection harvest will involve an inventory from a number of sample plots,

which is used to estimate which size-classes contain excess trees

Based on this estimate,

and the smooth residual curve,

a marking-guide is constructed based on larger,

On the ground,

the forester will use the techniques of Bitterlich Sampling to determine the basal area around a fixed point

If it is higher than the desired residual,

trees are marked to bring it down

Whenever possible,

they are marked from the surplus classes indicated on the marking guide

The result matches very closely the one given by a full inventory,

but is much faster and more practical

If production of high-quality sawlogs is a management goal,

then crop tree management may be an appropriate technique

Under this method the highest grade trees are selected and then "released" by removing lower grade trees which would otherwise compete with the selected tree for sunlight and water

The selected tree is frequently pruned to grow logs with maximum value

A similar approach,

known as the 'Frame Tree' system,

A number of high quality stems are identified at an early stage of the stand development and successive thinning interventions are aimed at releasing the growth potential of these trees

Commonly the final crop trees are harvested when they reach a specified size in order to maximize the financial return to the grower

Throughout the process natural regeneration is encouraged to infill the ground that has been opened up

This "continuous cover" approach can be seen as an alternative to clearfelling

Another common but sometimes controversial method of selection is diameter limit,

the removal of all trees above a certain diameter

Poorly planned diameter limit cutting is considered high-grading by some

Group Selection A popular variation of Single-Tree selection is Group Selection

Under this system,

a number of 'group openings' are created in addition to the harvest of scattered individual trees

If the groups created are large enough,

and if seed-bed conditions are favorable,

this can allow species which are intolerant of shade to regenerate

Under typical single-tree selection,

it is rare for shade-intolerant species to do well

Sometimes these group openings can be quite large,

prompting critics to say that group selection is tantamount clearcut

Overstory removal Overstory removal or shelterwood cutting is a variation of selection cutting

In this method all the large trees are taken

and the understory of saplings and smaller trees are left for regeneration

Overstory removal requires care be used to avoid residual stand damage

At least in the midwest region of the US,

it is typical for shelterwood cuts to be a two-step process

The first step is a thinning down to ~75% crown cover

This provides growing space for new and vigorous regeneration,

without removing the benefits of a forest-floor micro-climate and abundant seed source

After the new regeneration layer is well established (25-30 years),

the residual overstory from the first step is removed

Once this new tree layer reaches maturity,

The retained trees can be damaged by and otherwise impede the logging operation,

necessitating a higher density of logging roads and skid trails

Depending on the regional topography,

it is sometimes economical to use cable logging or helicopter logging as an alternative to skidding logs

High-Grading The practice of high-grading,

which targets only the highest-quality trees,

is commonly confused with Selection System Silviculture

This gives higher income at first but lowers the quality of the remaining forest by leaving undesirable tree species standing,

as well as poorly formed trees from desirable species

This can create conditions where no substantial quality timber will naturally grow for many decades

High-grading most often occurs when foresters employed by the logging company mark the stand or in cases where no forester is employed

The logging company gets more profit from a higher-volume harvest,

so it is in their economic best interest to take as much as they can

A small minority of logging companies operate this way

However,

the effects of this mistreatment are long-lasting,

so only a few 'rogue' companies can do quite a bit of damage to the landscape

One way to avoid high-grading is to contract with an independent forester to mark the stand

Typically marking contracts pay the forester a flat-fee for any marking job

This removes the economic incentive to over-harvest a stand

More than that,

there's an economic incentive to practice responsible management so that the forester might receive another contract the next time a particular stand is harvested

Planatation

A plantation is a large farm or estate,

usually in a tropical or subtropical country,

where crops that are not consumed for food are grown for sale in distant markets,

rather than for local consumption

Such crops include cotton,

and variou oil seeds and rubber trees

Farms that produce alfalfa,

Lespedeza,

and other forage crops are usually not called plantations

The term "plantation" has usually not included large orchards,

but has included the planting of trees for lumber

A plantation is always a monoculture over a large area and does not include extensive naturaly occurring stands of plants that have economic value

The use of the term is governed by the linguistic conventions of natural language and does not have the rigorous consistency of formal language

One of the earliest examples of a plantation was the latifundia

In antiquity,

these produced large quantities of wine and olive oil for export

A plantation efficiently produces its crop because of economy of scale

Protectionist policies and natural comparative advantage have contributed to determining where plantations have been located

Plantation agriculture grew rapidly with the increase in international trade and the development of a worldwide economy that followed the expansion of European colonial empires

Like every economic activity,

Earlier forms of plantation agriculture were associated with large disparities of wealth and income,

foreign ownership and political influence,

exploitative social systems such as indentured labor,

an especially pernicious form of slavery

The history of the environmental,

social and economic issues relating to plantation agriculture are covered in articles that focus on those subjects

Industrial plantations Industrial plantations are established to produce a high volume of wood in a short period of time

Plantations are grown by state forestry authorities (for example,

the Forestry Commission in Britain) and/or the paper and wood industries and other private landowners (such as Weyerhaeuser and International Paper in the United States,

Asia Pulp & Paper (APP) in Indonesia)

Christmas trees are often grown on plantations as well

In southern and southeastern Asia,

and more recently teak plantations have replaced the natural forest

Industrial plantations are actively managed for the commercial production of forest products

Individual blocks are usually even-aged and often consist of just one or two species

The plants used for the plantation are often genetically improved,

the seeds used may originate from seed orchards

These species can be exotic or indigenous

Industrial plantations are usually large-scale

Wood production on a tree plantation is generally higher than that of natural forests

While forests managed for wood production commonly yield between 1 and 3 cubic meters per hectare per year,

plantations of fast-growing species commonly yield between 20 and 30 cubic meters or more per hectare annually

a Grand Fir plantation at Craigvinean in Scotland has a growth rate of 34 cubic meters per hectare per year (Aldhous & Low 1974),

and Monterey Pine plantations in southern Australia can yield up to 40 cubic meters per hectare per year (Everard & Fourt 1974)

In 2000,

while plantations accounted for 5% of global forest,

it is estimated that they supplied about 35% of the worlds roundwood

Growth cycle In the first year,

the ground is prepared usually by some combination of burning,

and/or cultivation and then saplings are planted by human crew or by machine

The saplings are usually obtained in bulk from industrial nurseries,

which may specialize in selective breeding in order to produce fast growing disease- and pest-resistant strains

In the first few years until the canopy closes,

the saplings are looked after,

and may be dusted or sprayed with fertilizers or pesticides until established

After the canopy closes,

with the tree crowns touching each other,

the plantation is becoming dense and crowded,

and tree growth is