PDF- -Automotive Data Acquisition & In- - CAN LIN Flexray Automotive Seminar

Description

Automotive Low Speed Serial Bus Analysis with Tektronix Oscilloscopes

Automotive Serial Bus Overview I2C SPI CAN FlexRay USB (Infotainment: UserDevice Access)

MOST 50 / 150 (Infotainment: Network) Ethernet (BroadR-Reach® PHY ,

Broadcom) MIPI (D-Phy,

DSI / CSI) HDMI / MHL

Trace Data Flow Through an Automotive Network Trace serial data flow between nodes through a network – Simultaneously display messages at transmitter and receiver to verify continuity and propagation delays

Trace serial data flow between network segments separated by a gateway – Simultaneously display messages from multiple buses,

or even different bus standards LIN

Diagnostic

Engine Control Right Door

Gear Box

Left Door

CAN Gateway

Seat Control

Climate Control

Mobile Phone

Air Bag

Car Radio

ABS Multi Media Module

Automotive Bus Technology

Data Backbone for ADAS (Active Driver Assistance Systems)

Data Interchange with other specific automotive bus systems (CAN/Flexray)

Source: www

Midrange Scope Portfolio

MSO/DPO2000

MSO/DPO3000

MSO/DPO4000B

MSO/DPO5000

DPO7000C

5 – 2

- 5 GS/s

- 5 GS/s

1M Samples Max

- 100 MHz

Tektronix Confidential

MS WIN 7

Debugging Serial Buses with the MSO/DPO Series Automated Trigger,

Decode and Search for Serial Buses

Bandwidth

500 MHz,

350 MHz

500 MHz,

300 MHz,

100 MHz

200 MHz,

100 MHz

Channels

Record Length

5 M points

1 M points

Serial Bus Analysis

SPI CAN,

LIN RS-232/422/485/UART

# of Simultaneous Decoded Buses

SPI USB Ethernet CAN,

FlexRay RS-232/422/485/UART I2S/LJ/RJ/TDM MIL-STD-1553

SPI CAN,

LIN RS-232/422/485/UART I2S/LJ/RJ/TDM

Speed debug of serial buses with the MSO/DPO5000 Series

MSO/DPO5000 Series 350 MHz to 2 GHz Up to 250 M record length Comprehensive verification including compliance with jitter and eye validation Physical layer testing for USB 2

trigger and search support for: – I2C – SPI – UART/RS-232 – USB 2

Automated Decode,

Trigger,

Search and Eye Diagram Analysis 7

In-Depth Analysis of Serial Buses with the DPO7000 Series Automated Decode,

Trigger,

Search and Eye Diagram Analysis

DPO7000 Series 500 MHz to 3

Ethernet and MIPI Serial data characterization with jitter and eye analysis Supported serial buses: – I2C – SPI – CAN – LIN – FlexRay – UART/RS-232 – MOST 50 / 150

New bus standards support Improvements to Visual Trigger New “mark all trigger events” Search capability Improved Zoom and Cursor button operation Measurements on digital channels MATLAB and MS Visual Studio math plug-in functionality

Performance improvements – Faster MSO/DPO5k operation – FastFrame and long record length speed increased

Defect fixes for many customer-reported bugs Larger HDD and SSD New PS2 power bundle

Available end of June 2012 – Available for all demo units now

! – New one-step complete update with “deployment package”

New Standards Support CAN/LIN/FlexRay (trigger/decode/search) MIL-STD-1553B (trigger/decode/search) PCI Express gen 1/2/3 (trigger (70k)/decode/search)

SPI 2-wire (trigger/decode/search) 8b/10b added to MSO/DPO5k and DPO7kC (decode/search) MIPI D-PHY added to MSO/DPO5k (decode/search)

Electrical Compliance Measurements – MOST 50 and 150 electrical compliance – Thunderbolt

LSS Trigger/Decode/Search CAN/LIN/FlexRay: SR-AUTO MIL-STD-1553: SR-AERO 2-Wire SPI added to SR-EMBD

CAN Bus: SR-AUTO

MIL-STD-1553: SR-AERO 2-Wire SPI: SR-EMBD

How do I probe serial digital buses

? Digital buses are not digital Digital signals do not necessarily have only two discrete levels

Digital probes are not digital Everything you know about analog probing still applies – Minimize DC and AC loading

– Voltage measurements are always differential – Minimize lead inductance

Bus and Waveforms display of I2C signal

The real signal must be delivered to the oscilloscope’s hardware or software comparator,

where it can be compared to the digital threshold value(s) 12

What do the probing and acquisition architectures look like

P6616 passive probe

Digital input circuit (logic analyzer ASIC) front-panel connector

2pF 3pF

Acquisition System

Digital Acquisition System

MSO/DPO4000B / 5000 Series and P6616 Digital Probe Specification Maximum Sample Rate Maximum Input Toggle Rate DC Input Voltage Range Maximum Input Voltage Swing Input Impedance Input Capacitance Threshold Range Minimum Input Swing Minimum Detectable Pulse

MSO4000

MSO4000B

MSO5000

500MS/s 16

5GS/s with MagniVu

500MS/s 16

5GS/s with MagniVu

500MS/s 16

5GS/s with MagniVu

350 MHz

500 MHz

500 MHz

± 15 V

± 42 Vpeak

± 42 Vpeak

20 kOhm

100 kOhm

100 kOhm

± 40 V

± 40 V

500 mVp-p

400 mVp-p

400 mVp-p

P6616 16-channel digital probe matched to the digital acquisition system

high end digital specification 14

I2C (Inter-Integrated Circuit) Used for chip-to-chip communication between microcontrollers and A/Ds,

bi-directional signals: clock and data (Half Duplex) Any I2C device can be attached to the bus Data rates: – Standard Mode (100 kbps) – Fast Mode (400 kbps) – High Speed Mode (3

4 Mbps)

I2C (Physical Part) +V Pull-up resistors

SDA SCL Master

Device 3

Device 4

Input Source Selection (example: I2C) CH1 – CH4

D0 – D15 (MSO) View different busses simultaneously Channel Labeling

I2C Message Structure

Start: Indicates the device is taking control of the bus and a message will follow

Address: 7-bit or 10-bit number representing the device address to read or write Data: Integer number of bytes read from or written to the device Acknowledge: 1-bit from the slave device acknowledging the master’s actions Stop: Indicating the message is complete and the master has released the bus

Serial Debug

Manually Decoding Serial Bits Engineers must manually count each bit and determine if it is a 1 or a 0

1010000 1

00010100

00100110

Serial Debug

Manually Decoding Serial Bits Engineers must then convert the data to an understandable format

First three bits are most significant digit of a 7-bit address Next four bits are least significant digit of a 7-bit address Read or Write Most significant digit of 8-bit byte Least significant digit of 8-bit byte

1010000 1

00010100

00010110

= Read data 14 and 16 from Address 50 1 4 1 6 5 0 R

Serial Debug

Serial Triggering and Decode I2C Decoding is done by oscilloscope for the engineer

There must be a better way…

I2C Message Flow Control Acknowledge/No Acknowledge – Indicates success or failure of a data transmission or the continuation of a transfer – Generated by holding the SDA low on the 9th clock pulse

ACK SCL

NACK SCL

I2C Solution on Tektronix Oscilloscope

SPI (System Peripheral Interface) Used primarily to communicate between microcontrollers and their immediate peripheral devices Typical configuration has four signals: SCLK,

SS – Data is simultaneously transmitted and received – SS line used to specify slave device – Each unique device on bus has its own SS signal from master

Multiple bus configurations are allowed – Network can use 2-,

Data rates up to 50 Mbps SS – enables slave device to accept data

MOSI – data from the master to a slave

MOSI (n bits) MSB

MISO – data from a slave to the master SCLK – serial clock driven by Master

LSB MISO (n bits)

LSB SCLK

SPI (System Peripheral Interface) Single Master Multiple Slaves

Single Master hardwired to Single Slave

SPI Bus Hardware Configurations

Serial Debug

Serial Triggering and Decode

There is more than just decoding – – – –

Trigger on packet content Search and mark packet content View data in an Event Table format View two buses simultaneously

I2 C RS-232

FlexRay 26

CAN (Controller Area Network) Used for system-to-system communication in Automotive,

Industrial Automation,

and Medical Equipment Serial asynchronous,

layered communication network – Sophisticated error detection and error handling mechanisms – Flexible signaling support for low-cost implementation – Messages are broadcast to all nodes on the network

Physical bus is single-wire or dual-wire,

and fault tolerant Data rates from 5 kbps to 1 Mbps CAN Bus Bit Rate Table

CAN High Speed Differential Bus Signal

Tx CAN Controller

Rx CAN_H

Electronic Control Unit

CAN Physical Layer

CAN-L recessive

CAN Pulse Width

CAN Bit Rate

800 Kbps

25 s

500 Kbps

250 Kbps

125 Kbps

12 s

16 s

50 Kbps

20 s

30 s

20 Kbps

50 s

10 Kbps

100 s

CAN is a differential BUS CAN High Speed Differential Bus Signal

Tx CAN Controller

Rx CAN_H

CAN Physical Layer

dominant Electronic Control Unit

5V CAN-L recessive

In-Depth Analysis of Network Performance 40 meters Node 10

CAN Network

Near End

Far End

Locate and analyze signal integrity problems with eye diagrams

Characterize different oscillator tolerances and propagation delays between nodes for synchronizing the network Monitor bus utilization to ensure efficient use of the network 29

Eye diagram measurements Fast Data Rates,

More HF Loss Clean,

logical 1 & 0 at launch from transmitter

Logical 1 & 0 can be hard to distinguish at end of long interconnects

(this is often called a “closed eye”)

edges at transmitter launch Smeared edges at end of long interconnect

Reference Maxim Note HFDN-27

CAN Data and Remote Frame Overview

SOF: begins with a start of frame (SOF) bit Arbitration: Identifier (address) and Remote Transmission Request (RTR) bit Control: 6 bits including Identifier Extension (IDE) bit and Data Length Code (DLC) Data: zero to eight bytes of data CRC: 15-bit cyclic redundancy check code and a recessive delimiter bit

ACK: acknowledge field is two bits long EOF: 7 recessive bits indicate the end of frame (EOF) INT: intermission field of three recessive bits indicates the bus is free 31

Characterize System Timing Characterize timing between bus messages and system operation – Requires waveform displays time-correlated with decoded messages

Characterize timing differences which occur when adding a new network node to an existing network Automotive application example: – Measure worst-case time from crash sensor output to airbag activation – Measure variations in timing of airbag activation with varying levels of CAN bus traffic

CAN Bus

DPO7000 CAN Trigger

CAN Bus

DPO7000 CAN Analysis Application Select Function : • Decoding • Timing Analysis

CAN Bus

DPO7000 CAN Analysis Application Configure : • Trig

-Source • Bus-Source

CAN Bus

DPO7000 CAN Analysis Application Trig

-Configure : • Field Type • Field Value

CAN Bus

DPO7000 CAN Analysis Application Decoding Results : • Field Value • Timing Result

CAN Bus

DPO7000 CAN Analysis Application Decoding Results : • Correlation to Acq

Characterizing Oscillator Tolerance and Propagation Delay Oscillator tolerance of a CAN node – Specify the specific ID for trigger condition – Result will include ACK and without ACK bit – With ACK bit,

shows the impact of receiving CAN node oscillator tolerance on transmitting node

Propagation Delay – Connect two channels to any two CAN nodes – Result is directly available

Monitoring CAN Traffic for Bus Utilization Measure at specific ID,

error frame or overload frame Specifies percentage of time traffic present in the CAN bus Type of traffic can be analyzed – Frame count

Tektronix DPO7000 Series with TDSVNM option 40

CAN Trigger Overview

FlexRay 2

or shielded twisted pair to improve EMC performance FlexRay is a differential serial bus configured in three recurring segments: Header,

Payload,

and Trailer Each frame contains a static and dynamic segment,

and bus idle time concludes each frame Transmitted data rates up to 10 Mbps Automotive Manufacturers are finding that existing automotive serial standards

such as CAN and LIN do not have the speed,

or redundancy required to address X-by-wire applications such as brake-by-wire or steer-by-wire

FlexRay Frame Structure

Header Segment –

Payload Segment –

Contains data transferred by the frame

Maximum payload length is 127 words (254 bytes)

Trailer Segment –

Contains Indicator Bits,

Frame ID,

Payload Length (in words),

Header CRC,

Contains a single 24 bit field [three 8 bit CRC registers] for header and payload protection

FlexRay Terms and Abbreviations FlexRay Bus Decode Terms TSS (Transmission Start Sequence): initiate network connection setup

FSS (Frame Start Sequence): immediately follows TSS Indicator Bits: provides Header Segment preamble information

Frame Id (Frame Identifier): defines to which slot frame is transmitted

Payload Length: indicates data size being transferred in the frame

Header CRC: contains CRC computed from portion of Header Segment

Cycle Count: holds value that increments for each comm

Data (Payload): contains data transferred by frame (254 bytes max

Trailer CRC: protects against improper header and payload modification

FES (End of Frame): immediately follows the Trailer CRC DTS (Dynamic Trailing Sequence): indicates a dynamic frame

CID (Channel Idle Detection): indicates end of comm

(Idle: BP=BM) Data_0: negative differential voltage between BP and BM

Data_1: positive differential voltage between BP and BM

Idle_LP (LowPower): biased to ground

No current to BP or BM

Idle: biased to a voltage

No current to BP or BM

BP (Bus Plus) and BM (Bus Minus) lines used to balance the differential communications network

FlexRay Bus

FlexRay Analysis Application Configure : • Data Source • Probing • Trigger

FlexRay Bus

FlexRay Analysis Application Results : • Decoding • CRC Analysis • Correlation to Acq

FlexRay Bus

FlexRay Analysis Application Results : • Timing Meas

• Eye/Mask Test • TIE • Zoom

FlexRay Bus

FlexRay Analysis Application • Real Signals • MASK violation • could be ID related

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