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Glossika Mass Sentences


Complete Fluency Course Michael Campbell Shirakawa

Levels Intro Fluency Expression

Fluency 2

GMS INTENSIVE METHOD Glossika Mass Sentences

GSR RELAXED METHOD Glossika Spaced Repetition

Features: Sound files have A/B/C formats

Features: Our sound files include an algorithm that introduces 10 sentences every day,

for a total of 1000 sentences in 104 days

Requires less than 20 minutes daily

A Files


B Files


- space

C Files

Target language only 1x

Useful for students with more time to dedicate

Useful for people with busy schedules and limited study time

HOW TO USE ❶ To familiarise yourself with IPA and spelling,

Glossika recommends using the book while listening to A or C sound files and going through all 1000 sentences on your first day

Then you can start your training

It's your choice,

We recommend completing the following four steps

Training Step 1: Try repeating the sentences with the same speed and intonation in the A sound files

You can listen to a single GSR file daily or even double up

One book typically takes 3-4 months to complete

❸ You can accompany with the GMS training when you have extra time to practice

Training Step 2: Dictation: use the C sound files (and pausing) to write out each sentence (in script or IPA or your choice)

Use the book to check your answers

Training Step 3: Recording: record the sentences as best you can

We recommend recording the same sentences over a 3-day period,

and staggering them with new ones

Training Step 4: Use the B sound files to train your interpretation skills

Say your translation in the space provided

Reminder Don't forget that if you run into problems,

! Keep working through the sentences all the way to the end and don't worry about the ones you don't get

You'll probably get it right the second time round


one practice session separated by *one* sleep session yields the best results

Glossika Mass Sentence Method Japanese Fluency 2 This GMS Fluency Series accompanies the GMS recordings and is a supplementary course assisting you on your path to fluency

This course fills in the fluency training that is lacking from other courses

Instead of advancing in the language via grammar,

GMS builds up sentences and lets students advance via the full range of expression required to function in the target language

GMS recordings (sold separately) prepare the student through translation and interpretation to become proficient in speaking and listening

Glossika Spaced Repetition (GSR) recordings are strongly recommended for those who have trouble remembering the content

Through the hundred days of GSR training,

all the text in each of our GMS publications can be mastered with ease

Glossika Series The following languages are available in the GMS or GSR Series (not all are published in English): Afroasiatic ●AR Arabic-Standard,

●HA Hausa Altaic (+JK) ●TU Turkish,

●KR Korean Austronesian ●XSY Saisiyat,

●Malay Dravidian ●KAN Kannada,

●TEL Telugu IE: Baltic ●LIT Lithuanian,

●LAV Latvian IE: Celtic ●CYM Welsh IE: Germanic ●DE German,

●IS Icelandic IE: Indo-Iranian ●KUR Kurmanji Kurdish,

●BEN Bengali IE: Romance ●PT Portuguese,

●RO Romanian IE: Slavic ●RU Russian,

●BUL Bulgarian IE: Other ●EL Greek,

●EU Basque Kartuli ●KA Georgian Mon-Khmer ●KH Khmer,

●VNS Viet (South) Niger-Congo ●SW Swahili,

●YO Yoruba Sino-Tibetan ●ZH Chinese Standard,


●MY Burmese Tai-Kadai ●TH Thai,

●LO Lao Uralic ●FI Finnish,

Many of our languages are offered at different levels (check for availability): Intro Level ● Pronunciation Courses ● Introductory Course

Fluency Level ● Fluency Modules ● Daily Life Module ● Travel Module ● Business Intro Module

Expression Level ● Business Courses ● Intensive Reading ● Extensive Reading (Novels)

Glossika Mass Sentences

Japanese Fluency 2 Complete Fluency Course Michael Campbell Shirakawa

Glossika Mass Sentences Japanese Fluency 2 First published 2015 via license by Nolsen Bédon,


Taiwan Authors: Michael Campbell,

Shirakawa Chief Editor: Michael Campbell Translator: Michael Campbell,

Shirakawa Recordings: Michael Campbell,

Shirakawa Editing Team: Chia-Yi Lin,

Claudia Chen Consultant: Percy Wong Programming: Edward Greve Design: Kara Li © 2015 Michael Campbell All rights reserved

No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic,

now known or hereafter invented,

or in any information storage or retrieval system,

without permission in writing from the publisher

Trademark notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks,

and are used only as samples of language use without intent to infringe

Paperback ISBN: 978-986-5621-60-5 Ebook ISBN: 978-986-5621-57-5 GMS MP3 ISRC: TWY811331241-TWY811331300 GSR MP3 ISRC: TWY811331301-TWY811331404 www

Contents What is Glossika

? Glossika Levels Glossika Publications 4 Secrets of the Mass Sentences Method How to Use GMS and GSR Supplementary Sentence Mining Transformation Drills Substitution Drills Memory,

The Brain,

and Language Acquisition Introduction to Japanese Glossika Mass Sentences Sentence 1100 Sentence 1200 Sentence 1300 Sentence 1400 Sentence 1500 Sentence 1600 Sentence 1700 Sentence 1800 Sentence 1900 Sentence 2000 Japanese Index Kanji Index

What is Glossika

? From the creation of various linguists and polyglots headed by Michael Campbell,

Glossika is a comprehensive and effective system that delivers speaking and listening training to fluency

It’s wise to use Glossika training materials together with your other study materials

Don’t bet everything on Glossika

Always use as many materials as you can get your hands on and do something from all of those materials daily

These are the methods used by some of the world’s greatest polyglots and only ensures your success

If you follow all the guidelines in our method you can also become proficiently literate as well

But remember it’s easier to become literate in a language that you can already speak than one that you can’t

Most people will feel that since we only focus on speaking and listening,

that the Glossika method is too tough

It’s possible to finish one of our modules in one month,

in fact this is the speed at which we’ve been training our students for years: 2 hours weekly for 4 weeks is all you need to complete one module

Our students are expected to do at least a half hour on their own every day through listening,

If you follow the method,

you will have completed 10,000 sentence repetitions by the end of the month

This is sufficient enough to start to feel your fluency come out,

but you still have a long way to go

This training model seems to fit well with students in East Asia learning tough languages like English,

because they are driven by the fact that they need a better job or have some pressing issue to use their English

This drive makes them want to succeed

Non-East Asian users of the Glossika Mass Sentence (GMS) methods are split in two groups: those who reap enormous benefit by completing the course,

and others who give up because it’s too tough to stick to the schedule

If you feel like our training is too overwhelming or demands too much of your time,

then I suggest you get your hands on our Glossika Spaced Repetition (GSR) audio files which are designed for people like you

So if you’re ambitious,

If you’re too busy or can’t stick to a schedule,

Glossika Levels The first goal we have in mind for you is Fluency

Our definition of fluency is simple and easy to attain: speaking full sentences in one breath

Once you achieve fluency,

then we work with you on expanding your expression and vocabulary to all areas of language competency

Our three levels correlate to the European standard: * * *

Introduction Fluency Expression

A Levels B Levels C Levels

The majority of foreign language learners are satisfied at a B Level and a few continue on

But the level at which you want to speak a foreign language is your choice

There is no requirement to continue to the highest level,

and most people never do as a B Level becomes their comfort zone

Glossika Publications Each Glossika publication comes in four formats: * Print-On-Demand paperback text * E-book text (available for various platforms) * Glossika Mass Sentence audio files * Glossika Spaced Repetition audio files Some of our books include International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) as well

Just check for the IPA mark on our covers

We strive to provide as much phonetic detail as we can in our IPA transcriptions,

but this is not always possible with every language

As there are different ways to write IPA,

our books will also let you know whether it’s an underlying pronunciation (phonemic) with these symbols: / /,

or if it’s a surface pronunciation (phonetic) with these symbols: [ ]

IPA is the most scientific and precise way to represent the sounds of foreign languages

Including IPA in language training guides is taking a step away from previous decades of language publishing

We embrace the knowledge now available to everybody via online resources like Wikipedia which allow anybody to learn the IPA: something that could not be done before without attending university classes

The editor of our Fluency Series,

Michael Campbell,

grew up using books that taught foreign languages in the traditional

For example,

to say /ü/ (IPA writes it as /y/) those books go into elaborate detail about how to purse your lips together with what sounds

He felt very awkward doing it until he found a native speaker he could mimic

Then he realized it wasn’t such an awkward thing and didn’t need to hold his mouth in awkward positions to get the sounds right

Once he found out what this sound was,

he found it completely unnecessary to re-read these descriptions in each book or language he tried

And then one day he discovered IPA,

and that there was a symbol for this sound / y/

Starting from that point,

he started jotting it and other letters into the pronunciation sections of his various language books meanwhile crossing out their lengthy descriptions

The IPA really is an international code and always has one letter to represent one and the same sound in any language

If you learn what each letter represents,

you can use it to speak any language in the world with a high degree of phonetic accuracy

In fact,

you probably already know most of the common letters in IPA

To get started,

just point your browser to Wikipedia’s IPA page to learn more about pronouncing the languages we publish

Pronunciation—In languages like English,

our words undergo a lot of pronunciation and intonation changes when words get strung together in sentences which is has been well analyzed in linguistics

This may be easy to learn for European students,

but for Asian students it can be really difficult

Likewise it is true with languages like Chinese where the pronunciations and tones from individual words change once they appear in a sentence

By following the intonation and prosody of a native speaker saying a whole sentence,

it’s much easier to learn rather than trying to say string each word together individually

Syntax—the order of words,

will be different than your own language

Human thought usually occurs in complete ideas

Every society has developed a way to express those ideas linearly by first saying what happened (the verb),

or by first saying who did it (the agent),

Paying attention to this will accustom us to the way others speak

Vocabulary—the meanings of words,

and their usage is always different

You always have to learn words in context and which words they’re paired with

These are called collocations

To “commit a crime” and to “commit to a relationship” use two different verbs in most other languages

Never assume that learning “commit” by itself will give you the answer

After a lifetime in lexicography,

Patrick Hanks “reached the alarming conclusion that words don’t have meaning,” but rather that “definitions listed in dictionaries can be regarded as presenting meaning potentials rather than meanings as such

” This is why collocations are so important

Grammar—the changes or morphology in words are always in flux

Memorizing rules will not help you achieve fluency

You have to experience them as a native speaker says them,

repeat them as a native speaker would,

and through mass amount of practice come to an innate understanding of the inner workings of a language’s morphology

Most native speakers can’t explain their own grammar

It just happens

How to Use GMS and GSR The best way to use GMS is to find a certain time of day that works best for you where you can concentrate

It doesn’t have to be a lot of time,

maybe just 30 minutes at most is fine

If you have more time,

Then schedule that time to be your study time every day

Try to tackle anywhere from 20 to 100 sentences per day in the GMS

Do what you’re comfortable with

Review the first 50 sentences in the book to get an idea of what will be said

Then listen to the A files

If you can,

try to write all the sentences down from the files as dictation without looking at the text

This will force you to differentiate all the sounds of the language

If you don’t like using the A files,

you can switch to the C files which only have the target language

After dictation,

check your work for any mistakes

These mistakes should tell you a lot that you will improve on the next day

Go through the files once again,

Then record yourself saying all the sentences


you should record these sentences four to five days in a row in order to become very familiar with them

All of the activities above may take more than one day or one setting,

so go at the pace that feels comfortable for you

If this schedule is too difficult to adhere to,

or you find that dictation and recording is too much,

then take a more relaxed approach with the GSR files

The GSR files in most cases are shorter than twenty minutes,

some go over due to the length of the sentences

But this is the perfect attention span that most people have anyway

By the end of the GSR files you should feel pretty tired,

especially if you’re trying to repeat everything

The GSR files are numbered from Day 1 to Day 100

Just do one every day,

as all the five days of review sentences are built in

It’s that simple

Don’t forget we also provide services at our Glossika Training Center in case you need any more help


Sentence Mining Sentence mining can be a fun activity where you find sentences that you like or feel useful in the language you’re learning

We suggest keeping your list of sentences in a spreadsheet that you can re-order how you wish

It’s always a good idea to keep a list of all the sentences you’re learning or mastering

They not only encompass a lot of vocabulary and their actual usage,

but they give you a framework for speaking the language

It’s also fun to keep track of your progress and see the number of sentences increasing

Based on many tests we’ve conducted,

we’ve found that students can reach a good level of fluency with only a small number of sentences

For example,

each trained 10 times over a period of 5 days,

for a total of 30,000 sentences (repetitions),

can make a difference between a completely mute person who is shy and unsure how to speak and a talkative person who wants to talk about everything

More importantly,

the reps empower you to become a stronger speaker

The sentences we have included in our Glossika courses have been carefully selected to give you a wide range of expression

The sentences in our fluency modules target the kinds of conversations that you have discussing day-to-day activities,

the bulk of what makes up our real-life conversations with friends and family

For some people these sentences may feel really boring,

but these sentences are carefully selected to represent an array of discussing

events that occur in the past,

and whether those actions are continuous or not,

even in languages where such grammar is not explicitly marked—especially in these languages as you need to know how to convey your thoughts

The sentences are transparent enough that they give you the tools to go and create dozens of more sentences based on the models we give you

As you work your way through our Fluency Series the sentences will cover all aspects of grammar without actually teaching you grammar

You’ll find most of the patterns used in all the tenses and aspects,

passive and active (or ergative as is the case in some languages we’re developing),

and finally describing events as if to a policeman

The sentences also present some transformational patterns you can look out for

Sometimes we have more than one way to say something in our own language,

but maybe only one in a foreign language

And the opposite is true where we may only have one way to say something whereas a foreign language may have many


Transformation Drills A transformation is restating the same sentence with the same meaning,

but using different words or phrasing to accomplish this

A transformation is essentially a translation,

A real example from Glossika’s business module is:

? You may not necessarily say “hand” in a foreign language and that’s why direct translation word-for-word can be dangerous

As you can see from these two sentences,

they’re translations of each other,

but they express the same meaning

To express yourself well in a foreign language,

practice the art of restating everything you say in your mother language

Find more ways to say the same thing

There are in fact two kinds of transformation drills we can do

One is transformation in our mother language and the other is transformation into our target language,

By transforming a sentence in your own language,

you’ll get better at transforming it into another language and eventually being able to formulate your ideas and thoughts in that language

It’s a process and it won’t happen over night

Cultivate your ability day by day

Build a bridge to your new language through translation

The better you get,

the less you rely on the bridge until one day,

Translation should never be word for word or literal

You should always aim to achieve the exact same feeling in the foreign language

The only way to achieve this is by someone who can create the sentences for you who already knows both languages to such fluency that he knows the feeling created is exactly the same

In fact,

you’ll encounter many instances in our GMS publications where sentences don’t seem to match up

The two languages are expressed completely differently,

Believe us,

we’ve not only gone over and tested each sentence in real life situations,

we’ve even refined the translations several times to the point that this is really how we speak in this given situation


Substitution Drills Substitution drills are more or less the opposite of transformation drills

Instead of restating the same thing in a different way,

you’re saying a different thing using the exact same way

So using the example from above we can create this substitution drill:

we have replaced the noun with a gerund phrase

The sentence has a different meaning but it’s using the same structure

This drill also allows the learner to recognize a pattern how to use a verb behind a preposition,

especially after being exposed to several instances of this type

We can also combine transformation and substitution drills:

? So it is encouraged that as you get more and more experience working through the Glossika materials,

that you not only write out and record more and more of your own conversations,

but also do more transformation and substitution drills on top of the sentences we have included in the book


The Brain,

and Language Acquisition We encounter a lot of new information every day that may or may not need to be memorized

In fact,

we’re doing it all the time when we make new friends,

remembering faces and other information related to our friends

After some experience with language learning you’ll soon discover that languages are just like a social landscape

Except instead of interconnected friends we have interconnected words

In fact,

looking at languages in this way makes it a lot more fun as you get familiar with all the data

Since languages are natural and all humans are able to use them naturally,

it only makes sense to learn languages in a natural way

In fact studies have found,

and many students having achieved fluency will attest to,

the fact that words are much easier to recognize in their written form if we already know them in the spoken form

Remember that you already own the words you use to speak with

The written form is just a record and it’s much easier to transfer what you know into written form than trying to memorize something that is only written

Trying to learn a language from the writing alone can be a real daunting task

Learning to read a language you already speak is not hard at all

So don’t beat yourself up trying to learn how to read a complicated script like Chinese if you have no idea how to speak the language yet

It’s not as simple as one word = one character

And the same holds true with English as sometimes many words make up one idea,

What is the relationship between memory and sleep

? Our brain acquires experiences throughout the day and records them as memories

If these memories are too common,

they get lost among all the others and we find it difficult to remember one specific memory from the others

More importantly such memories leave no impact or impression on us


a major event like a birth or an accident obviously leaves a bigger impact

We attach importance to those events

Since our brain is constantly recording our daily life,

it collects a lot of useless information

Since this information is both mundane and unimportant to us,

our brain has a built-in mechanism to deal with it

In other words,

our brains dump the garbage every day

Technically speaking our memories are connections between our nerve cells and these connections lose strength if they are not recalled or used again

During our sleep cycles our brain is reviewing all the events of the day

If you do not recall those events the following day,

After three sleep cycles,

consider a memory gone if you haven’t recalled it

Some memories can be retained longer because you may have anchored it better the first time you encountered it

An anchor is connecting your memory with one of your senses or another pre-existing memory

During your language learning process,

this won’t happen until later in your progress

So what can you do in the beginning

? A lot of memory experts claim that making outrageous stories about certain things they’re learning help create that anchor where otherwise none would exist

Some memory experts picture

a house in their mind that they’re very familiar with and walk around that house in a specific pre-arranged order

Then all the objects they’re memorizing are placed in that house in specific locations

In order to recall them,

they just walk around the house

I personally have had no luck making outrageous stories to memorize things

I’ve found the house method very effective but it’s different than the particular way I use it

This method is a form of “memory map”,

and for me personally I prefer using real world maps

This probably originates from my better than average ability to remember maps,

! It’s not for everybody though

It really works great for learning multiple languages

What do languages and maps have in common

? Everything can be put on a map,

and languages naturally are spoken in locations and spread around and change over time

These changes in pronunciations of words creates a word history,

And by understanding how pronunciations change over time and where populations migrated,

it’s quite easy to remember a large number of data with just a memory map

This is how I anchor new languages I’m learning

I have a much bigger challenge when I try a new language family

So I look for even deeper and longer etymologies that are shared between language families,

anything to help me establish a link to some core vocabulary

Some words like “I” (think Old English “ic”) and “me/mine” are essentially the same roots all over the world from Icelandic (Indo-European) to Finnish (Uralic) to Japanese (Altaic

I don’t confuse languages because in my mind every language sounds unique and has its own accent and mannerisms

I can also use my memory map to position myself in the location where the language is spoken and imagine myself surrounded by the people of that country

This helps me adapt to their expressions and mannerisms,

eliminates interference from other languages

And when I mentally set myself up in this way,

the chance of confusing a word from another language simply doesn’t happen

When I’ve actually used a specific way of speaking and I’ve done it several days in a row,

I know that the connections in my head are now strengthening and taking root

Not using them three days in a row creates a complete loss,

however actively using them (not passively listening) three days in a row creates a memory that stays for a lifetime

Then you no longer need the anchors and the memory is just a part of you

You’ll have noticed that the Glossika training method gives a translation for every sentence,

and in fact we use translation as one of the major anchors for you

In this way 1) the translation acts as an anchor,

Pattern recognition is the single most important skill you need for learning a foreign language

A lot of people think that translation should be avoided at all costs when learning a foreign language


based on thousands of tests I’ve given my students over a ten-year period,

I’ve found that just operating in the foreign language itself creates a false sense of understanding and you have a much higher chance of

hurting yourself in the long run by creating false realities

I set up a specific test

I asked my students to translate back into their mother tongue (Chinese) what they heard me saying

These were students who could already hold conversations in English

I found the results rather shocking

Sentences with certain word combinations or phrases really caused a lot of misunderstanding,

like “might as well” or “can’t do it until”,

resulted in a lot of guesswork and rather incorrect answers

If you assume you can think and operate in a foreign language without being able to translate what’s being said,

you’re fooling yourself into false comprehension

Train yourself to translate everything into your foreign language

This again is an anchor that you can eventually abandon when you become very comfortable with the new language


But you have to create the structure of the sponge

Memorizing vocabulary in a language that you don’t know is like adding water to a sponge that has no structure: it all flows out

In order to create a foreign language structure,

you need to create sentences that are natural and innate

You start with sentence structures with basic,

common vocabulary that’s easy enough to master and start building from there

With less than 100 words,

you can build thousands of sentences to fluency,

slowly one by one adding more and more vocabulary

you’re speaking with natural fluency and you have a working vocabulary of several thousand words

If you ever learn new in isolation,

you have to start using it immediately in meaningful sentences

Hopefully sentences you want to use

If you can’t make a sentence with it,

then the vocabulary is useless

Vocabulary shouldn’t be memorized haphazardly because vocabulary itself is variable

The words we use in our language are only a tool for conveying a larger message,

and every language uses different words to convey the same message

Look for the message,

pay attention to the specific words used,

Memorizing words from a wordlist will not help you with this task

Recently a friend showed me his wordlist for learning Chinese,

using a kind of spaced repetition flashcard program where he could download a “deck”

I thought it was a great idea until I saw the words he was trying to learn

I tried explaining that learning these characters out of context do not have the meanings on his cards and they will mislead him into a false understanding,

especially individual characters

This would only work if they were a review from a text he had read,

where all the vocabulary appeared in real sentences and a story to tell,

From a long-term point of view,

I could see that it would hurt him and require twice as much time to re-learn everything

From the short-term point of view,

there was definitely a feeling of progress and mastery and he was happy with that and I dropped the issue

Introduction to Japanese Classification: Writing: Consonants: Vowels: Tones/Pitch: Typology:



Kanji Phonetically realized as [p,

ɰ̃] 5 phonemic vowels /a,

Phonetically realized as [ɑ,

o̞] Pitch Accent Basic Sentence Pattern: Subject-Object-Verb,



Dependent Clause+Head-word

Postpositions at

に へ、に のため と、と共に

Adjectives the same

重要な、大切な、大事な jūyōna,

Interrogatives who

どのぐらい どうして、なぜ、なんで どれ、どっち



Pronouns I



Verbs may,

-te ita

-te shimau

- れる

-te shimau

Adverbs already afterwards,

もう 後で まで まだ 十分

mō atode made mada jūbun

often immediately certainly together

よく すぐに 必ず、きっと 一緒に

unable to yesterday today tomorrow morning afternoon evening last week next week

ことができない 昨日 今日 明日 朝 午後 夕方 先週 来週

koto ga dekinai ashita kyō ashita asa gogo yūgata senshū raishū

Conjunctions also

Glossika Mass Sentences

I saw some of her work last week

先週 私 は 彼女 の 絵 を 少し だけ 見ました。 せんしゅう わたし は かのじょ の え を すこし だけ みまし た。 seɴshū watashi wa kanojo no e o sukoshi dake mimashita

[se̞ɰ̃ɕɯː ɰɑtɑɕi ̥ ɰɑ kɑno̞ʥo̞ no̞ e̞ o̞ sɯ̥ ko̞ɕi ̥ dɑke̞ mimɑɕi ̥tɑ ||]

Brigitte works in a factory,

but she's had a lot of different jobs


Have you seen any of her paintings

? あなた は 彼女 の 絵 を 見た こと が あります か? あなた は かのじょ の え を みた こと が あります か? anata wa kanojo no e o mita koto ga arimasu ka

? [ɑnɑtɑ ɰɑ kɑno̞ʥo̞ no̞ e̞ o̞ mitɑ ko̞to̞ ɡɑ ɑɾimɑsɯ̥ kɑ ||]

EN 日 か


ブリッチさん は 今 工場 で 働いて います が、彼女 は 昔 たくさん 仕事 が ありました。 ブリッチさん は いま こうじょう で はたらいて います が、かのじょ は むかし たくさん しごと が ありました。 buritchisaɴ wa ima kōjō de hataraite imasu ga,

kanojo wa mukashi takusaɴ shigoto ga arimashita

[bɯɾitʨi ̥sɑɰ̃ ɰɑ imɑ ko̞ːʥo̞ː de̞ hɑtɑɾɑite̞ imɑsɯ̥ ɡɑ | kɑno̞ʥo̞ ɰɑ mɯkɑɕi ̥ tɑkɯ̥ sɑɰ̃ ɕiɡo̞to̞ ɡɑ ɑɾimɑɕi ̥tɑ ||] Five years ago she was a waitress in a restaurant

彼女 は 五年前 レストラン の ウエートレス でした。 かのじょ は ごねんまえ レストラン の ウエートレス でし た。 kanojo wa goneɴmae resutoraɴ no uētoresu deshita

[kɑno̞ʥo̞ ɰɑ ɡo̞ne̞mmɑe̞ ɾe̞sɯ̥ to̞ɾɑn no̞ ɯe̞ːto̞ɾe̞sɯ̥ de̞ɕi ̥tɑ ||]

ENJA 1005


その 後、彼女 は 農場 で 働いて いました が、その 仕事 が あまり 好き では ありません でした。 その あと、かのじょ は のうじょう で はたらいて いまし た が、その しごと が あまり すき では ありません でし た。 sono ato,

kanojo wa nōjō de hataraite imashita ga,

sono shigoto ga amari suki dewa arimaseɴ deshita

[so̞no̞ ɑto̞ | kɑno̞ʥo̞ ɰɑ no̞ːʥo̞ː de̞ hɑtɑɾɑite̞ imɑɕi ̥tɑ ɡɑ | so̞no̞ ɕiɡo̞to̞ ɡɑ ɑmɑɾi sɯ̥ kʲi ̥ de̞ɰɑ ɑɾimɑse̞n de̞ɕi ̥tɑ ||] Do you know Jianhong's sister

ジェンホンさん の 妹 を 知って います か? ジェンホンさん の いもうと を しって います か? jeɴhoɴsaɴ no imōto o shitte imasu ka

? [ʥe̞ɰ̃ho̞ɰ̃sɑn no̞ imo̞ːto̞ o̞ ɕi ̥tˀte̞ imɑsɯ̥ kɑ ||]

I've seen her a few times,

After that,

but she didn't enjoy it very much


何回 か 見た こと あります が、彼女 と 話した こと は あ りません。 なんかい か みた こと あります が、かのじょ と はなした こと は ありません。 naɴkai ka mita koto arimasu ga,

kanojo to hanashita koto wa arimaseɴ

[nɑŋkɑi kɑ mitɑ ko̞to̞ ɑɾimɑsɯ̥ ɡɑ | kɑno̞ʥo̞ to̞ hɑnɑɕi ̥tɑ ko̞to̞ ɰɑ ɑɾimɑse̞ɴ ||]

I met her at a party last week

She's very nice


Have you ever spoken to her

? あなた は 彼女 と 話した こと が あります か? あなた は かのじょ と はなした こと が あります か? anata wa kanojo to hanashita koto ga arimasu ka

? [ɑnɑtɑ ɰɑ kɑno̞ʥo̞ to̞ hɑnɑɕi ̥tɑ ko̞to̞ ɡɑ ɑɾimɑsɯ̥ kɑ ||]


私 は 先週 の パーティー で 彼女 と 知り合いました が、結 構 いい 人 でした。 わたし は せんしゅう の パーティー で かのじょ と しりあ いました が、けっこう いい ひと でした。 watashi wa seɴshū no pātī de kanojo to shiriaimashita ga,

[ɰɑtɑɕi ̥ ɰɑ se̞ɰ̃ɕɯː no̞ pɑːtiː de̞ kɑno̞ʥo̞ to̞ ɕiɾiɑimɑɕi ̥tɑ ɡɑ | ke̞kˀko̞ː iː çi ̥to̞ de̞ɕi ̥tɑ ||] Somebody cleans the office every day

> The office is cleaned every day

毎日 誰か が オフィス を 掃除 します。オフィス は 毎日 掃 除 されて います。 まいにち だれか が オフィス を そうじ します。オフィス は まいにち そうじ されて います。 mainichi dareka ga ofisu o sōji shimasu

ofisu wa mainichi sōji sarete imasu

[mɑiniʨi ̥ dɑɾe̞kɑ ɡɑ o̞ɸi ̥sɯ̥ o̞ so̞ːʥi ɕimɑsɯ̥ || o̞ɸi ̥sɯ̥ ɰɑ mɑiniʨi ̥ so̞ːʥi sɑɾe̞te̞ imɑsɯ̥ ||]

ENJA 1011


Butter is made from milk

Oranges are imported into Canada


昨日 誰か が オフィス を 掃除 しました。オフィス は 昨日 掃除 されました。 きのう だれか が オフィス を そうじ しました。オフィス は きのう そうじ されました。 kinō dareka ga ofisu o sōji shimashita

ofisu wa kinō sōji saremashita

[kʲino̞ː dɑɾe̞kɑ ɡɑ o̞ɸi ̥sɯ̥ o̞ so̞ːʥi ɕimɑɕi ̥tɑ || o̞ɸi ̥sɯ̥ ɰɑ kʲino̞ː so̞ːʥi sɑɾe̞mɑɕi ̥tɑ ||]

バター は 牛乳 から 作られて います。 バター は ぎゅうにゅう から つくられて います。 batā wa gyūnyū kara tsukurarete imasu

[bɑtɑː ɰɑ ɡʲɯːnʲɯː kɑɾɑ ʦɯ̥ kɯɾɑɾe̞te̞ imɑsɯ̥ ||]

Somebody cleaned the office yesterday

> The office was cleaned yesterday


カナダ は オレンジ を 輸入 して います。オレンジ は カナ ダ に 輸入 されて います。 カナダ は オレンジ を ゆにゅう して います。オレンジ は カナダ に ゆにゅう されて います。 kanada wa oreɴji o yunyū shite imasu

oreɴji wa kanada ni yunyū sarete imasu

[kɑnɑdɑ ɰɑ o̞ɾe̞nʥi o̞ jɯnʲɯː ɕi ̥te̞ imɑsɯ̥ || o̞ɾe̞nʥi ɰɑ kɑnɑdɑ ni jɯnʲɯː sɑɾe̞te̞ imɑsɯ̥ ||] How often are these rooms cleaned

? どの ぐらい に 一回 部屋 を 掃除 します か? どの ぐらい に いっかい へや を そうじ します か? dono gurai ni ikkai heya o sōji shimasu ka

? [do̞no̞ ɡɯɾɑi ni ikˀkɑi he̞jɑ o̞ so̞ːʥi ɕimɑsɯ̥ kɑ ||]

This house was built one hundred (100) years ago

この 家 は 百年 前 に 建てられ ました。 この いえ は ひゃくねん まえ に たてられ ました。 kono ie wa hyakuneɴ mae ni taterare mashita

[ko̞no̞ ie̞ ɰɑ çʲɑkɯne̞m mɑe̞ ni tɑte̞ɾɑɾe̞ mɑɕi ̥tɑ ||]

These houses were built one hundred (100) years ago

これら の 家 は 百年 前 に 建てられ ました。 これら の いえ は ひゃくねん まえ に たてられ ました。 korera no ie wa hyakuneɴ mae ni taterare mashita

[ko̞ɾe̞ɾɑ no̞ ie̞ ɰɑ çʲɑkɯne̞m mɑe̞ ni tɑte̞ɾɑɾe̞ mɑɕi ̥tɑ ||]

When was the telephone invented

電話 は いつ 発明 されました か? でんわ は いつ はつめい されました か? deɴwa wa itsu hatsumei saremashita ka

? [de̞ɴɰɑ ɰɑ iʦɯ̥ hɑʦɯme̞ː sɑɾe̞mɑɕi ̥tɑ kɑ ||]

We weren't invited to the party last week

I'm never invited to parties

私 は パーティー に 招待 されません でした。 わたし は パーティー に しょうたい されません でした。 watashi wa pātī ni shōtai saremaseɴ deshita

[ɰɑtɑɕi ̥ ɰɑ pɑːtiː ni ɕo̞ːtɑi sɑɾe̞mɑse̞n de̞ɕi ̥tɑ ||]


私達 は 先週 パーティー に 招待 されません でした。 わたしたち は せんしゅう パーティー に しょうたい され ません でした。 watashitachi wa seɴshū pātī ni shōtai saremaseɴ deshita

[ɰɑtɑɕi ̥tɑʨi ̥ ɰɑ se̞ɰ̃ɕɯː pɑːtiː ni ɕo̞ːtɑi sɑɾe̞mɑse̞n de̞ɕi ̥tɑ ||]

ENJA 1020

車 の 事故 で 誰か 怪我 しました か? くるま の じこ で だれか けが しました か? kuruma no jiko de dareka kega shimashita ka

? [kɯɾɯmɑ no̞ ʥiko̞ de̞ dɑɾe̞kɑ ke̞ɡɑ ɕimɑɕi ̥tɑ kɑ ||]

Two people were taken to the hospital

二人 病院 に 運ばれ ました。 ふたり びょういん に はこばれ ました。 futari byōiɴ ni hakobare mashita

[ɸɯ̥ tɑɾi bʲo̞ːin ni hɑko̞bɑɾe̞ mɑɕi ̥tɑ ||]

I was born in Colombia in nineteen eighty-nine (1989)


Was anybody injured in the accident


私 は 1989年 に コロンビア で 生まれました。 わたし は せんきゅうひゃくはちじゅうきゅうねん に コロ ンビア で うまれました。 watashi wa seɴkyūhyakuhachijūkyūneɴ ni koroɴbia de umaremashita

[ɰɑtɑɕi ̥ ɰɑ se̞ŋkʲɯːçʲɑkɯ̥ hɑʨiʥɯːkʲɯːne̞n ni ko̞ɾo̞mbiɑ de̞ ɯmɑɾe̞mɑɕi ̥tɑ ||] Where were you born

あなた は どこ で 生まれました か?― 台北 です。 あなた は どこ で うまれました か?― たいぺい です。 anata wa doko de umaremashita ka

[ɑnɑtɑ ɰɑ do̞ko̞ de̞ ɯmɑɾe̞mɑɕi ̥tɑ kɑ || ― tɑipe̞ː de̞sɯ̥ ||]





The telephone was invented by Bell in eighteen seventy-six (1876)

電話 は ベル が 1876年 に 発明 しました。 でんわ は ベル が せんはっぴゃくななじゅうろくねん に はつめい しました。 deɴwa wa beru ga seɴhappyakunanajūrokuneɴ ni hatsumei shimashita

[de̞ɴɰɑ ɰɑ be̞ɾɯ ɡɑ se̞ɰ̃hɑpˀpʲɑkɯnɑnɑʥɯːɾo̞kɯne̞n ni hɑʦɯme̞ː ɕimɑɕi ̥tɑ ||] I was bitten by dog a few days ago

私 は 何日 か 前 に、犬 に 噛まれました。 わたし は なんにち か まえ に、いぬ に かまれました。 watashi wa naɴnichi ka mae ni,

[ɰɑtɑɕi ̥ ɰɑ nɑnniʨi ̥ kɑ mɑe̞ ni | inɯ ni kɑmɑɾe̞mɑɕi ̥tɑ ||] Do you like these paintings

? They were painted by a friend of mine

あなた は これら の 絵 が 好き です か?私 の 友達 が 書い たん です よ。 あなた は これら の え が すき です か?わたし の ともだ ち が かいたん です よ。 anata wa korera no e ga suki desu ka

? watashi no tomodachi ga kaitaɴ desu yo

[ɑnɑtɑ ɰɑ ko̞ɾe̞ɾɑ no̞ e̞ ɡɑ sɯ̥ kʲi ̥ de̞sɯ̥ kɑ || ɰɑtɑɕi ̥ no̞ to̞mo̞dɑʨi ̥ ɡɑ kɑitɑn de̞sɯ̥ jo̞ ||] Are these rooms cleaned every day

? 毎日 誰 か が 部屋 を 掃除 します か? まいにち だれ か が へや を そうじ します か? mainichi dare ka ga heya o sōji shimasu ka

? [mɑiniʨi ̥ dɑɾe̞ kɑ ɡɑ he̞jɑ o̞ so̞ːʥi ɕimɑsɯ̥ kɑ ||]

ENJA 1028

ガラス は 砂 から 作られて います。 ガラス は すな から つくられて います。 garasu wa suna kara tsukurarete imasu

[ɡɑɾɑsɯ̥ ɰɑ sɯnɑ kɑɾɑ ʦɯ̥ kɯɾɑɾe̞te̞ imɑsɯ̥ ||]

Stamps are sold at the post office

切手 は 郵便局 で 買えます。 きって は ゆうびんきょく で かえます。 kitte wa yūbiɴkyoku de kaemasu

[kʲi ̥tˀte̞ ɰɑ jɯːbiŋkʲo̞kɯ̥ de̞ kɑe̞mɑsɯ̥ ||]

This word is not used very often

この 字 は あまり 使いません。 この じ は あまり つかいません。 kono ji wa amari tsukaimaseɴ

[ko̞no̞ ʥi ɰɑ ɑmɑɾi ʦɯ̥ kɑimɑse̞ɴ ||]

Are we allowed to park here

ここ に 車 を 停めても いい です か? ここ に くるま を とめても いい です か? koko ni kuruma o tometemo ī desu ka

? [ko̞ko̞ ni kɯɾɯmɑ o̞ to̞me̞te̞mo̞ iː de̞sɯ̥ kɑ ||]

How is this word pronounced

Glass is made from sand

この 字 は どう 読みます か? この じ は どう よみます か? kono ji wa dō yomimasu ka

? [ko̞no̞ ʥi ɰɑ do̞ː jo̞mimɑsɯ̥ kɑ ||]

My phone was stolen a few days ago


私 の 携帯電話 は 何日 か 前 に 盗まれて しまいました。 わたし の けいたいでんわ は なんにち か まえ に ぬすまれ て しまいました。 watashi no keitaideɴwa wa naɴnichi ka mae ni nusumarete shimaimashita

[ɰɑtɑɕi ̥ no̞ ke̞ːtɑide̞ɴɰɑ ɰɑ nɑnniʨi ̥ kɑ mɑe̞ ni nɯsɯmɑɾe̞te̞ ɕimɑimɑɕi ̥tɑ ||] Three people were injured in the accident

三人 が 車 の 事故 で 怪我 しました。 さんにん が くるま の じこ で けが しました。 saɴniɴ ga kuruma no jiko de kega shimashita

[sɑnniŋ ɡɑ kɯɾɯmɑ no̞ ʥiko̞ de̞ ke̞ɡɑ ɕimɑɕi ̥tɑ ||]

When was this bridge built

The house was painted last month

この 家 は 先月 ペンキ を 塗り直しました。 この いえ は せんげつ ペンキ を ぬりなおしました。 kono ie wa seɴgetsu peɴki o nurinaoshimashita

[ko̞no̞ ie̞ ɰɑ se̞ŋɡe̞ʦɯ̥ pe̞ŋkʲi ̥ o̞ nɯɾinɑo̞ɕimɑɕi ̥tɑ ||]

この 橋 は いつ ごろ 造られました か。 この はし は いつ ごろ つくられました か。 kono hashi wa itsu goro tsukuraremashita ka

[ko̞no̞ hɑɕi ̥ ɰɑ iʦɯ̥ ɡo̞ɾo̞ ʦɯ̥ kɯɾɑɾe̞mɑɕi ̥tɑ kɑ ||]

ENJA 1037

私 は 騒音 に 起こされません でした。 わたし は そうおん に おこされません でした。 watashi wa sōoɴ ni okosaremaseɴ deshita

[ɰɑtɑɕi ̥ ɰɑ so̞ːo̞n ni o̞ko̞sɑɾe̞mɑse̞n de̞ɕi ̥tɑ ||]

How were these windows broken

これら の 窓 は どうやって 割れました か? これら の まど は どうやって われました か? korera no mado wa dōyatte waremashita ka

? [ko̞ɾe̞ɾɑ no̞ mɑdo̞ ɰɑ do̞ːjɑtˀte̞ ɰɑɾe̞mɑɕi ̥tɑ kɑ ||]

Were you invited to Adrian's party last week


I wasn't woken up by the noise


あなた は 先週 アドリアン さん の パーティー に 誘われま した か? あなた は せんしゅう アドリアン さん の パーティー に さ そわれました か? anata wa seɴshū adoriaɴ saɴ no pātī ni sasowaremashita ka

? [ɑnɑtɑ ɰɑ se̞ɰ̃ɕɯː ɑdo̞ɾiɑɰ̃ sɑn no̞ pɑːtiː ni sɑso̞ɰɑɾe̞mɑɕi ̥tɑ kɑ ||] Football is played in most countries of the world

サッカー は 世界中 の ほとんど の 国 で 人気 が ありま す。 サッカー は せかいじゅう の ほとんど の くに で にんき が あります。 sakkā wa sekaijū no hotoɴdo no kuni de niɴki ga arimasu

[sɑkˀkɑː ɰɑ se̞kɑiʥɯː no̞ ho̞to̞ndo̞ no̞ kɯni de̞ niŋkʲi ̥ ɡɑ ɑɾimɑsɯ̥ ||]


どうして この メール は 間違った アドレス に 送られまし た か? どうして この メール は まちがった アドレス に おくられ ました か? dōshite kono mēru wa machigatta adoresu ni okuraremashita ka

? [do̞ːɕi ̥te̞ ko̞no̞ me̞ːɾɯ ɰɑ mɑʨiɡɑtˀtɑ ɑdo̞ɾe̞sɯ̥ ni o̞kɯɾɑɾe̞mɑɕi ̥tɑ kɑ ||] A garage is a place where cars are repaired

Where were you born

あなた は どこ で 生まれました か? あなた は どこ で うまれました か? anata wa doko de umaremashita ka

? [ɑnɑtɑ ɰɑ do̞ko̞ de̞ ɯmɑɾe̞mɑɕi ̥tɑ kɑ ||]

How many languages are spoken in Switzerland

Why did the email get sent to the wrong address

修理工場 は 車 を 修理 する 所 です。 しゅうりこうじょう は くるま を しゅうり する ところ で す。 shūrikōjō wa kuruma o shūri suru tokoro desu

[ɕɯːɾiko̞ːʥo̞ː ɰɑ kɯɾɯmɑ o̞ ɕɯːɾi sɯɾɯ to̞ko̞ɾo̞ de̞sɯ̥ ||]

スイス は 言語 が いくつ あります か? スイス は げんご が いくつ あります か? suisu wa geɴgo ga ikutsu arimasu ka

? [sɯisɯ̥ ɰɑ ɡe̞ŋɡo̞ ɡɑ ikɯ̥ ʦɯ̥ ɑɾimɑsɯ̥ kɑ ||]

ENJA 1045





Somebody broke into our house,

誰 か が 私達 の 家 に 侵入 しました が、何 も 盗まれませ ん でした。 だれ か が わたしたち の いえ に しんにゅう しました が、 なに も ぬすまれません でした。 dare ka ga watashitachi no ie ni shiɴnyū shimashita ga,

nani mo nusumaremaseɴ deshita

[dɑɾe̞ kɑ ɡɑ ɰɑtɑɕi ̥tɑʨi ̥ no̞ ie̞ ni ɕinnʲɯː ɕimɑɕi ̥tɑ ɡɑ | nɑni mo̞ nɯsɯmɑɾe̞mɑse̞n de̞ɕi ̥tɑ ||] When was the bicycle invented

? 自転車 は いつ 発明 されました か? じてんしゃ は いつ はつめい されました か? jiteɴsha wa itsu hatsumei saremashita ka

? [ʥite̞ɰ̃ɕɑ ɰɑ iʦɯ̥ hɑʦɯme̞ː sɑɾe̞mɑɕi ̥tɑ kɑ ||] I saw an accident yesterday

Two people were taken to the hospital

私 は 昨日 事故 を 見ました。二人 が 病院 に 運ばれまし た。 わたし は きのう じこ を みました。ふたり が びょういん に はこばれました。 watashi wa kinō jiko o mimashita

futari ga byōiɴ ni hakobaremashita

[ɰɑtɑɕi ̥ ɰɑ kʲino̞ː ʥiko̞ o̞ mimɑɕi ̥tɑ || ɸɯ̥ tɑɾi ɡɑ bʲo̞ːin ni hɑko̞bɑɾe̞mɑɕi ̥tɑ ||] Paper is made from wood

紙 は 木 から 造られています。 かみ は き から つくられています。 kami wa ki kara tsukurareteimasu

[kɑmi ɰɑ kʲi ̥ kɑɾɑ ʦɯ̥ kɯɾɑɾe̞te̞ːmɑsɯ̥ ||]




There was a fire at the hotel last week

Two of the rooms were damaged

先週、ホテル で 火事 が 起こりました。部屋 が 二つ 燃え て しまいました。 せんしゅう、ホテル で かじ が おこりました。へや が ふ たつ もえて しまいました。 seɴshū,

hoteru de kaji ga okorimashita

heya ga futatsu moete shimaimashita

[se̞ɰ̃ɕɯː | ho̞te̞ɾɯ de̞ kɑʥi ɡɑ o̞ko̞ɾimɑɕi ̥tɑ || he̞jɑ ɡɑ ɸɯ̥ tɑʦɯ̥ mo̞et̞ e̞ ɕimɑimɑɕi ̥tɑ ||] Where did you get this picture

? — It was given to me by a friend of mine

あなた は どうやって この 写真 を 手に入れました か?あ る 友達 に もらいました。 あなた は どうやって この しゃしん を てにいれました か?ある ともだち に もらいました。 anata wa dōyatte kono shashiɴ o tenīremashita ka

? aru tomodachi ni moraimashita

[ɑnɑtɑ ɰɑ do̞ːjɑtˀte̞ ko̞no̞ ɕɑɕiɰ̃ o̞ te̞niːɾe̞mɑɕi ̥tɑ kɑ || ɑɾɯ to̞mo̞dɑʨi ̥ ni mo̞ɾɑimɑɕi ̥tɑ ||] Many British programs are shown on American television

アメリカ の テレビ局 は イギリス の 番組 を たくさん 放送 しています。 アメリカ の てれびきょく は イギリス の ばんぐみ を たく さん ほうそう しています。 amerika no terebikyoku wa igirisu no baɴgumi o takusaɴ hōsō shiteimasu

[ɑme̞ɾikɑ no̞ te̞ɾe̞bikʲo̞kɯ̥ ɰɑ iɡʲiɾisɯ̥ no̞ bɑŋɡɯmi o̞ tɑkɯ̥ sɑɰ̃ ho̞ːso̞ː ɕi ̥te̞ːmɑsɯ̥ ||]

ENJA 1052



Did Aleksey and Anastasia go to the wedding

アレックシーさん と アナスタシアさん は 結婚式 に 行き ました か?― いいえ、彼ら は 招待 されません でした。 アレックシーさん と アナスタシアさん は けっこんしき に いきました か?― いいえ、かれら は しょうたい されませ ん でした。 arekkushīsaɴ to anasutashiasaɴ wa kekkoɴshiki ni ikimashita ka

karera wa shōtai saremaseɴ deshita

[ɑɾe̞kˀkɯ̥ ɕiːsɑn to̞ ɑnɑsɯ̥ tɑɕiɑsɑɰ̃ ɰɑ ke̞kˀko̞ɰ̃ɕi ̥kʲi ̥ ni ikʲimɑɕi ̥tɑ kɑ || ― iːe̞ | kɑɾe̞ɾɑ ɰɑ ɕo̞ːtɑi sɑɾe̞mɑse̞n de̞ɕi ̥tɑ ||] How old is this movie

? — It was made in nineteen sixty-five (1965)

この 映画 は どの ぐらい 古い 映画 です か?― これ は 1965年 に 撮影 されました。 この えいが は どの ぐらい ふるい えいが です か?― これ は せんきゅうひゃくろくじゅうごねん に さつえい されま した。 kono eiga wa dono gurai furui eiga desu ka

? — kore wa seɴkyūhyakurokujūgoneɴ ni satsuei saremashita

[ko̞no̞ e̞ːɡɑ ɰɑ do̞no̞ ɡɯɾɑi ɸɯɾɯi e̞ːɡɑ de̞sɯ̥ kɑ || ― ko̞ɾe̞ ɰɑ se̞ŋkʲɯːçʲɑkɯɾo̞kɯʥɯːɡo̞ne̞n ni sɑʦɯe̞ː sɑɾe̞mɑɕi ̥tɑ ||]


Arturo was born in Havana

Anna was born in Rome

アンナさん は ローマ で 生まれました。 アンナさん は ローマ で うまれました。 aɴnasaɴ wa rōma de umaremashita

[ɑnnɑsɑɰ̃ ɰɑ ɾo̞ːmɑ de̞ ɯmɑɾe̞mɑɕi ̥tɑ ||]

Her parents were born in Rio de Janeiro

私 の 車 は 先週 盗まれました が、次 の 日 警察 が 見つけ ました。 わたし の くるま は せんしゅう ぬすまれました が、つぎ の ひ けいさつ が みつけました。 watashi no kuruma wa seɴshū nusumaremashita ga,

tsugi no hi keisatsu ga mitsukemashita

[ɰɑtɑɕi ̥ no̞ kɯɾɯmɑ ɰɑ se̞ɰ̃ɕɯː nɯsɯmɑɾe̞mɑɕi ̥tɑ ɡɑ | ʦɯɡʲi no̞ çi ̥ ke̞ːsɑʦɯ̥ ɡɑ miʦɯ̥ ke̞mɑɕi ̥tɑ ||]

My car was stolen last week,

but the next day it was found by the police

アトゥロさん は ハバナ で 生まれました。 アトゥロさん は ハバナ で うまれました。 aturosaɴ wa habana de umaremashita

[ɑtɯɾo̞sɑɰ̃ ɰɑ hɑbɑnɑ de̞ ɯmɑɾe̞mɑɕi ̥tɑ ||]

彼女 の 親 は リオデジャネイロ で 生まれました。 かのじょ の おや は リオデジャネイロ で うまれました。 kanojo no oya wa riodejaneiro de umaremashita

[kɑno̞ʥo̞ no̞ o̞jɑ ɰɑ ɾio̞de̞ʥɑne̞ːɾo̞ de̞

Campbell Robert Metcalf Rob Global Intermediate Workbook

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