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Table of Contents

History of Calligraphy

Basic Strokes

Vertical Roman

Italic Cursive

Gothic or Black Letter

Practice Paper

Works Cited/ About the Authors 17

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History of Calligraphy 11

History of Calligraphy

formal correspondence and invitations

As the arts flourish during Europe’s Renaissance,

so too did the art of calligraphy

Italians during this he art of calligraphy as we know it today time invented the italic script,

which became popular actually finds its origins in cave paintings

But calligraphers were Back in the days when communication was threatened once again with the advent of engraved a series of grunts,

the written word was a copperplates in the 17th century,

which permitted the mere pictorial representation of significant events in a printing of finer lines more attuned to italic script

One caveman’s life

As humans developed,

the art of drawhundred years later,

artistic penmaning pictures became quite highly ship was in a steep decline

developed and reached great heights To further complicate matters for under the direction of the Egyptians

the Egyptians cretury the steel pen and fountain pen ated the highly stylized hieroglyphreplaced the flat-edged pen

The ics for which they are so well known

rounded tip of these new pens made These symbols were incised inside the special curves of calligraphy tombs or painted with brushes more difficult to achieve

The art across papyrus paper

A few thouitself might have seen its extinction sand years later,

the if it weren’t for the British poet and Phoenicians went a step further and artist William Morris

In the mid-19th developed what is believed to be century William Morris spearheaded one of the first alphabets and writing a calligraphic revival,

Luckily the Phoenicians the flat edged pen and elevating the were sea faring types and they readact of writing to the art form of its ily passed along their new talents past

to every seaport through which they It might appear that the art of calpassed

They most likely influenced ligraphy couldn’t possibly withstand the Greeks who later developed their own form of writing,

which by 850 BC An example of Egyptian calligraphy,

the competition from the 20th cenknown as Hieroglyphics tury’s most important invention – the the Romans had adapted to suit the computer

With a click of the mouse,

Latin language

a list of various scripts are generated electronically and It just so happens that Latin was the lingua franca lasered onto bleached paper in an instant – the art of of the churches of Europe in the Middle Ages and the script preserved in an electronic pulse

But calligraphy monks (and a smattering of nobility) constituted the is flourishing more than ever with calligraphic societies only literate members of society

Since nothing could throughout the United States and Europe

According be more glorious than the word of God,

the monks to noted calligrapher,

Julian Waters during a lecture at began to carefully scribe ancient texts into decoraWashington’s Sidwell Friends School in 1997,

true caltive books used by high-ranking church members and ligraphy is the art of producing letters that capture the royalty

Paper was expensive during the Middle Ages,

spirit of the text they represent

For many artists,

much so scribing monks developed a writing style that was mental pre-planning is necessary to fully understand narrower allowing more words to fit on a single line

the text before deciding how to display it in its full This style came to be known as Gothic and lasted as beauty

This type of emotion can not always be genera popular scribing technique throughout much of the ated from a computer,

which for Julian Waters is ‘simply Middle Ages

another tool’ to be manipulated by the artist

By the mid 15th century,

Johannes Calligraphy is a popular art form whose boundarGutenberg had invented the printing press based upon ies are not restricted to Europe and the United States

the Gothic lettering of the monks

This new technique Around 1500 BC the Chinese developed a complicated allowed for faster printing of Bibles and threatened the writing technique using more than 1500 characters

Although the use of the printing Today the Chinese consider calligraphy to be one press spread worldwide,

handwriting skills were still in of their most respected art forms

Master Chinese high demand

The bulky printing press was too coarse

calligraphers may appear to be spontaneously stroking half-uncial (from the Latin “uncia,” or “inch”) devela brush over the paper,

but many meditate extensively oped from a variety of Roman book hands

The 7th-9th before designing

The Arabs are also noted for their centuries in northern Europe were the heyday of Celtic history of calligraphy

Their cursive is written from right illuminated manuscripts,

to left and formed by eighteen distinct shapes,

the Lindisfarne Gospels and the Book of Kells

various combinations of which produce twenty-eight Charlemagne’s devotion to improved scholarship letters

Arabic script appears highly distinctive from the resulted in the recruiting of “a crowd of scribes”,

aclettering used throughout most of cording to Alcuin,

Europe,

but Arabic calligraphy has Alcuin developed the style known had many of the same Greek and as the Caroline or Carolingian Phoenician influences

In Arabic minuscule

The first manuscript calligraphy there are six major in this hand was the Godescalc scripts (Farsi,

Deewani,

Evangelistary (finished 783) — a Req’aa,

and Thuluth) representing Gospel book written by the scribe various artistic styles

Godescalc

Carolingian remains For true calligraphers,

the art of the one progenitor hand from penmanship will always be alive as which modern book type descends

long as there is at least one artist Blackletter (also known as Gothic) willing to carry on the tradition

graduDespite super fast computers that ally developed from the Carolingian can produce a myriad of different The Phoenician alphabet

This alphabet hand during the 12th century

real calligraphy comes from was spread throughout the Mediterranean Over the next three centuries,

the deep within the artist who strives to scribes in northern Europe used evoke the true emotion of the script through the words an ever more compressed and spiky form of Gothic

Calligraphy has survived throughout history Those in Italy and Spain preferred the rounder but despite printing presses and copperplate engravings,

During the 15th century,

and dedicated followers of the art expect it to outlast Italian scribes returned to the Roman and Carolingian the next big invention of the 21st century

models of writing and designed the Italic hand,

These This passage was taken from: http://www

com/all/ three hands — Gothic,

Italic,

and Roman book hand calligraphyhist_reyt

htm — became the models for printed letters

Johannes Gutenberg used Gothic to print his famous Bible,

but Western calligraphy is the calligraphy of the Latin the lighter-weight Italic and Roman book hand have writing system,

and to a lesser degree the Greek and since become the standard

Cyrillic writing systems

[ Early alphabets had evolved During the Middle Ages,

hundreds of thousands of by about 3000 BC

From the Etruscan alphabet evolved manuscripts were produced: some illuminated with the Latin alphabet

Capital letters (majuscules) gold and fine painting,

some illustrated with line drawemerged first,

followed by the invention of lower case ings,

letters (minuscules) in the Carolingian period

The history of lettering records many excursions into historical Western calligraphy is the calligraphy of the Latin obscurity and disuse as well as elaborating the story of writing system,

and to a lesser degree the Greek and what gave rise to contemporary print

Cyrillic writing systems

Early alphabets had evolved by Long,

heavy rolls of papyrus were replaced by the about 3000 BC

From the Etruscan alphabet evolved the Romans with the first books,

initially simply folded Latin alphabet

Capital letters (majuscules) emerged pages of parchment made from animal skins

Reed first,

followed by the invention of lower case letters pens were replaced by quill pens

(minuscules) in the Carolingian period

The history of Christian churches promoted the development lettering records many excursions into historical obscuof writing through the prolific copying of the Bible,

rity and disuse as well as elaborating the story of what particularly the New Testament and other sacred texts

gave rise to contemporary print

[11] Two distinct styles of writing known as uncial and

Development of Western Style Calligraphy

Development of Western Style Calligraphy

History of Calligraphy 33

heavy rolls of papyrus were replaced by the of Copperplate hands have represented such writing Romans with the first books,

initially simply folded to have been with a sharp pointed nib instead of the pages of parchment made from animal skins

Reed broad-edged one used in most calligraphic writing

This pens were replaced by quill pens

so called “Copperplate Myth” represents the name to Christian churches promoted the development of come from the sharp lines of the writing style resemwriting through the prolific copying of the Bible,

parbling the etches of engraved copper printing plates

It ticularly the New Testament and other sacred texts

Two is unlikely that this picture represents the historical oridistinct styles of writing known as uncial and half-ungins of the term accurately,

but is rather more reflective cial (from the Latin “uncia,” or “inch”) developed from a of later 19th and 20th century antipecuniary comfort of variety of Roman book hands

The 7th-9th centuries in the Arts and Crafts movement participants

It is most northern Europe were the heyday of Celtic illuminated likely that what is today written with pointed steel nibs manuscripts,

Lindisfarne began stylistic life before the 1820s with a broad edged Gospels and the Book of Kells

quill and a number of period pen hold,

posture and arm Charlemagne’s devotion to improved scholarship position variations to facilitate the fine lines

Hence resulted in the recruiting of there was likely a gradual “a crowd of scribes”,

accordchange in historic writing ing to Alcuin,

the Abbot of practices and a reorientation York

Alcuin developed the of the vocation and place of style known as the Caroline writing rather than the elimior Carolingian minuscule

The first manuscript in this At the end of the 19th hand was the Godescalc century,

the aesthetics and Evangelistary (finished 783) philosophy of William Morris An example of traditional western style — a Gospel book written and the Arts and Crafts calligraphy with hint of Gothic style

movement appealed to many Carolingian remains the calligraphers,

including one progenitor hand from which modern book type Englishmen Edward Johnston and Eric Gill

Johnston descends

Blackletter(also known as Gothic) and its was introduced to 10th-century manuscripts,

gradually developed from the Fitzherbert Museum by Sir Sidney Cockerell and based Carolingian hand during the 12th century

Over the next his own calligraphy on them

Johnston and his students three centuries,

the scribes in northern Europe used were to redefine,

revive and popularize English broadan ever more compressed and spiky form of Gothic

Those in Italy and Spain preferred the rounder but The legacy of the Arts and Crafts movement includes still heavy-looking Rotunda

During the 15th century,

Published in 1906,

Johnston’s best Italian scribes returned to the Roman and Carolingian known work Writing,

Illuminating & Lettering never models of writing and designed the Italic hand,

also used the terms “Foundational” or “Foundational Hand” called Chancery cursive,

These for which he is most remembered

Johnston initially three hands — Gothic,

Italic,

and Roman book hand taught his students an uncial hand using a flat pen — became the models for printed letters

Johannes angle,

but later taught his “foundational hand” using Gutenberg used Gothic to print his famous Bible,

He first referred to this hand as the lighter-weight Italic and Roman book hand have “Foundational Hand” in Plate 6 of his 1909 publicasince become the standard

Manuscript & Inscription Letters for Schools and During the Middle Ages,

hundreds of thousands of Classes and for the Use of Craftsmen

The Johnston manuscripts were produced: some illuminated with Typeface (commissioned in 1916) became the basis for gold and fine painting,

some illustrated with line drawthe London Underground signage and continues today ings,

At about the same time as Johnston,

Austrian Rudolf Larisch was teaching lettering at the Vienna School The rise of printing from movable type in the midof Art and published six lettering books that greatly 15th century did not mean the end of calligraphy

influenced German-speaking calligraphers

Because Illuminated manuscripts declined,

after printGerman-speaking countries had not abandoned the ing became ubiquitous

Conventionally the histories

Resurgence of Western Calligraphy

Gothic hand in printing,

Gothic also had a powerful to this nothing can be added

all Rules must give way effect on their styles

Rudolf Koch was a friend and to Truth and Freedom

” younger contemporary of Larisch

Koch’s books,

type The multi-million dollar Saint John’s Bible project designs,

and teaching made him one of the most infor the 21st century has engaged Donald Jackson with fluential calligraphers of the 20th century in northern an international scriptorium and is nearing compleEurope and later in the U

Larisch and Koch taught tion

It is designed as a 21st century illuminated Bible,

and inspired many European executed with both ancient and calligraphers,

notably Friedrich modern tools and techniques

Neugebauer,

Karlgeorg Hoefer,

The earlier 20th-century “Bulley and Hermann Zapf

Bible” was executed by a student Graily Hewitt was most reof Edward Johnston’s,

Edward sponsible for the revival of the Bulley

both by contributThe digital era has facilitated ing to Writing,

Illuminating and the creation and dissemination Lettering (Chapter 9 Appendix) of thousands of new and historiand through his own publicacally styled fonts

Calligraphy tions,

most notably Lettering for gives unique expression to every Students & Craftsmen (1930)

individual letter form within a Hewitt is not without both Calligraphy in a Latin Bible of AD 1407 on design layout which is not the critics and supporters in his strength of typeface technolodisplay in Malmesbury Abbey,

rendering of Cennino Cennini’s gies no matter their sophisticaWiltshire,

England

Donald tion

The usefulness of the digiJackson,

tal medium to the calligrapher has sourced his gesso recipes from earlier centuries a is not limited to the computer layout of the new Saint number of which are not presently in English translaJohn’s Bible prior to working by hand

Writing directly tion

Graily Hewitt created the patent announcing the in the digital medium is facilitated via graphics tablets award to Prince Philip of the title of Duke of Edinburgh (e

Wacom and Toshiba) and is expected to grow in on November 19 1947,

the day before his marriage to use with the introduction of Microsoft Windows Vista Queen Elizabeth

operating system (“Vista Pen Flicks”) in 2007

Apple Inc

Many typefaces are based on historical hands,

such introduced a similar “shorthand” facility in their Tiger as Blackletter (including Fraktur),

Lombardic,

Uncial,

Graphics tablets facilitate Italic,

calligraphic design work more than large size art pieces

The internet supports a number of online communities of calligraphers and hand lettering artists

Calligraphy today finds diverse applications

These include graphic design,

paint[Excerpt taken from http://en

invitaWestern_calligraphy] tions,

props and moving images for film and television,

Many calligraphers make their livelihood in the addressing of envelopes and invitations for public and private events including wedding stationery

Entry points exist for both children and adults via classes and instruction books

The scope of the calligraphic art is more than pure antiquarian interest

Johnston’s legacy remains pivotal to the ambitions of perhaps most Western Calligraphy of the German word “Urkunde” which transcalligraphers: lates to “deed

” “It is possible even now to go back to the child’s something like the early calligrapher’s

and this is the only healthy one for any fine beginning:

Calligraphy Today

History of Calligraphy 55

Basic Strokes

Probably the first thing you would do as a beginner calligrapher is practice the basic elements of letters — vertical and horizontal stems,

Here are some letter elements for the Roman hand:

More Tips 1

Intentionally make time to practice

I've found that if you actually schedule practice time,

it becomes a part of your routine

It is the routine that will help make you a better calligrapher

Consistently practice your craft

Setting a schedule to practice once per month will not help you learn how to write calligraphy

Consistent,

scheduled practice makes for beautiful works of this amazing art

Let's say at least once per week

Share your practice works with others

Sharing what you create is a powerful way to gain momentum in the learning process

Praise and constructive criticism is always helpful for the mind and the spirit

Now try your hand at performing basic strokes using the lins below (Note that none of these basic strokes will be used as ascenders or descenders yet)

Vertical Roman Vertical is the most common type of calligraphy

It’s shape is created from a rectangle with serifs on the ends of the letters

A serif is a small line on the beginning of a stroke and the end of a stroke

Practice: trace the letters with a paint brush or pen

History of Calligraphy 77

Italic or Cursive This font is slanted rather then straight,

Be sure to ease up on your grip when using this font

Practice:

Gothic or Black Letter A more formal font but it is difficult to read

It is one of the first fonts of calligraphy ever used

It is also the most recognized of all fonts

Practice:

History of Calligraphy 99

Uncial Uncial is a combination of upper case letters and lower case letters

It shows stregnth and intensity with elegnce

Practice:

History of Calligraphy 1111

History of Calligraphy 13 13

History of Calligraphy 15 15

Works Cited History of Calligraphy- http://www

html Phoenician Alphabet- http://www

GIF Western Calligraphy- http://en

org/wiki/Western_calligraphy How to Write Calligraphy- http://www

com/howtowritecalligraphy Inkscape Tutorial: Calligraphy- http://www

org/doc/calligraphy/tutorial-calligraphy

About the Authors Ben Clarke

Ben Clarke is a student at Hamilton High School in Chandler,

Arizona

He enjoys spending his time hanging out with his friends,

For this book,

did research on the history of calligraphy,

Moriah Sanford

Moriah Sanford is a junior at Hamilton High School in Chandler,

Arizona

She enjoys her spare time playing video games,

For this book she did all the calligraphy and created the background and covers

History of Calligraphy 17 17

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