PDF- calibration handbook of measuring instruments -CALIBRATION AND TRACEABILITY IN MEASURING TECHNOLOGY - Calibration and Measurement Process

Description

NASA Reference Publication 1342 1994

Metrology — Calibration and Measurement Processes Guidelines

NASA Metrology and Calibration Working Group

NASA Reference Publication 1342 June 1994

Metrology — Calibration and Measurement Processes Guidelines H

Castrup W

Eicke J

Hayes A

Martin J

Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology Pasadena,

California National Aeronautics and Space Administration Office of Management Scientific and Technical Information Program

Foreword This Publication is intended to assist in meeting the metrology requirements of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Quality Assurance (QA) handbooks by system contractors

The Publication is oriented to mission-imposed requirements generated by long-term space operations

However,

it is equally valid for use in all NASA program

Foreword

Foreword

Acknowledgements The principal authors of this Publication are: HOWARD T

CASTRUP — is the principal of Integrated Sciences Group (ISG),

a company involved in designing and developing computer-hosted scientific analysis and advanced decision support systems

Castrup is a leader in calibration interval analysis and his pioneering research in test/calibration decision analysis

He is the author of a statistical process control methodology which permits the determination of in-tolerance probabilities for precision measuring and test equipment without the use of higher-level intercomparison standards

He earned his BS and PhD in Engineering from UCLA with concentration in solid state electronics

WOODWARD G

EICKE — is a consulting metrologist in the field of electrical measurements,

His experience includes over thirty-five years with the National Bureau of Standards (now NIST) in the areas of precise electrical measurements,

Eicke is author of more than twenty published papers for scientific and technical journals,

and has served on numerous professional society and NBS committees and participated in standards writing

He attended George Washington University where he earned his BS and MS in Engineering

JERRY L

HAYES — is the principal of Hayes Technology,

an engineering consultant firm

He has provided metrology and calibration program consulting services for several aerospace companies and the Department of Defense

He served as Technical Director of the Navy Metrology Engineering Center and established policies and objectives for Navy-wide programs

He has authored numerous papers regarding calibration and measurement controls for quality in calibration programs and tests

Hayes has been the recipient of many awards and honors from peer groups

He earned a BS in Mechanical Engineering from the University of California at Berkeley

JAMES L

TAYLOR — has over twenty years experience in design,

and management of computer-based data acquisition system projects

He has been responsible for conducting studies and developing conceptual designs,

as well as systems design for industry and the Department of Defense

Taylor has published texts on design techniques for computer-based data acquisition systems,

and fundamentals of measurement error,

and has taught measurement techniques and system design courses for numerous aerospace and industrial firms

He earned a BS in Applied Math and Physics and a MS in Applied Math and Engineering

We especially thank Dr

Robert B

Abernethy for the use of personal reference material and gratefully appreciate the constructive contributions and critical review from the following: NASA Metrology and Calibration Working Group Robert Burdine—NASA HQ (Code Q)/MSFC Fred Kern—LaRC Troy J

Estes—WSTF Kristen Riley—KSC Mark A

Hutchinson—LaRC Herman Watts(Tom Weiss)—Stennis(Sverdrup) Other Organizations Norman B

Belecki—NIST Randy Humphries Jr

Ralph T

Johnson—Sandia National Laboratories C

Ted Lynch—NASA HQ (Vitro Corporation) Acknowledgements

Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Gordon Dillinger Daniel C

Griffin Frank T

Hartley Daniel LoGiurato Lothar Kirk

Radbill James A

Roberts Robert H

Steinbacher James H

Robert E

Martin,

Manager of JPL’s Instrumentation Section,

is the conceptual creator and prime motivator of this document

Without his vision,

active support and energetic participation,

this document would not have been started and completed

Alexander Mark,

a Member of Technical Staff in JPL’s Instrumentation Section,

was responsible for technical editing and production

Without the excellent input and critical review from all those who participated,

the task could not have been accomplished

As editor,

I humbly apologize to the expert authors and reviewers whose opinions may have differed somewhat from the outcome

In particular,

one only has to look at the diversity of the principal authors to understand that we were not always in agreement on the presentation of the entire subject material

This publication contains a wide-range view of the world of metrology and goes well beyond calibration into the entire end-to-end measurement process

It is not perfect and we recognize that it may contain flaws both in quality and content

it is our feeling that it is better to accept some error than not to disseminate the material at all

Most important,

this Publication would not exist without the recognition of a priority need by the NASA Metrology and Calibration Working Group and provision for funding support through various Code Q organizations at NASA Headquarters

The original document was produced entirely on an Apple Macintosh IIci using the following software: Microsoft Word,

Microsoft PowerPoint,

Claris MacDraw Pro,

Aldus SuperPaint,

In early 2008,

the original document file was converted to a PC-based Microsoft Word document using Design Science MathType as the equation editor

This converted document contains a few typographical corrections and minor modifications to Appendix F for technical clarification

Acknowledgements

Contents ACRONYMS 1

INTRODUCTION 1 1

1 Purpose

3 Scope

Relevant Quality Provisions

MEASUREMENT REQUIREMENTS 9 3

SPACE-BASED MEASUREMENT SYSTEM IMPLICATIONS

Software Considerations

MEASUREMENT REQUIREMENTS DEFINITION SEQUENCE

Calibration Considerations

REQUIREMENT DEFINITION

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS

Considerations for Waiver of Requirements

MEASUREMENT SYSTEM DESIGN 35 4

PROCESS CHARACTERISTICS

Contents

Selecting Candidate Equipment and Interpreting Specifications

ERROR CLASSIFICATIONS

Constructing Error Models

SENSING ERRORS

Combining Errors

SPECIFICATION COMPLETENESS

Evaluating Measurement System Errors

MEASUREMENT BANDWIDTH

MEASUREMENT UNCERTAINTY

Example—Developing a Temperature Measurement System

TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT SYSTEM EQUIPMENT SELECTION AND SPECIFICATION INTERPRETATION

FALSE ACCEPTS

MEASUREMENT TRACEABILITY 71 5

1 General

Measurement Standards

INTRINSIC STANDARDS

United States Standards

COMPONENTS OF A MEASUREMENT

UNCERTAINTY,

AND ACCURACY RATIO

NIST PHYSICAL MEASUREMENT SERVICES PROGRAM

International Compatibility

RECIPROCAL RECOGNITION OF NATIONAL STANDARDS

Contents

Calibration Transfer Techniques

REFERENCE STANDARDS

Software Issues

EVALUATION OF THE PROCESS UNCERTAINTY

Calibration Adjustment Strategies

CALIBRATION OF REFERENCE STANDARDS

86 SCALING

Calibration Traceability vs

Error Propagation

TRADITIONAL CALIBRATION

Calibration Methods and Techniques

NIST CALIBRATIONS

SOFTWARE DOCUMENTATION

CALIBRATION INTERVALS 95 6

1 General

Management Considerations

THE CALIBRATION INTERVAL PROBLEM

Statistical Measurement Process Control (SMPC) Methods

ESTABLISHING THE NEED FOR CALIBRATION INTERVAL ANALYSIS SYSTEMS

Technical Considerations

PURPOSE

95 SCOPE

BASIC CONCEPTS

Analyzing Measurement Decision Risk

MEASUREMENT DECISION RISK ANALYSIS—GENERAL CONCEPTS

Contents

Managing Measurement Decision Risk

MANAGEMENT OF TECHNICAL PARAMETERS

Optimizing the Hierarchy—Cost Modeling

OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS 157 7

ESTABLISHING MEASUREMENT QUALITY

Maintenance and Repair

MEASUREMENT DECISION RISK ANALYSIS—A SIMPLE EXAMPLE

GENERAL

160 REPAIR

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR WAIVER/DEVIATION REQUESTS 163 8

1 General

APPENDIX A DEFINITIONS

APPENDIX B MATHEMATICAL METHODS FOR OPTIMAL RECALL SYSTEMS 177 B

THE LIKELIHOOD FUNCTION

Reliability Model Selection

RELIABILITY MODEL CONFIDENCE TESTING

INTERVAL COMPUTATION

DOG/GEM IDENTIFICATION—METHOD 1

Contents

Data Continuity Evaluation

APPENDIX C TEST AND CALIBRATION HIERARCHY MODELING 207 C

Measurement Decision Risk

INTERVAL ADJUSTMENT TO RELIABILITY TARGET CHANGES

Average-Over-Period Reliability

THE GENERAL MULTIPLE TESTING MODEL

UUT IN-TOLERANCE PROBABILITY

Computation of Variances

VARIANCE IN INSTRUMENT BIAS

4 Example

SERIES SYSTEMS

Small Error Theory

Contents

APPENDIX F PRACTICAL METHOD FOR ANALYSIS OF UNCERTAINTY PROPAGATION 261 F

Estimating Uncertainty — Conventional Methods

THE PROCESS ERROR MODEL

Applications

THE ERROR MODEL

Construction of Component pdfs

METHODOLOGICAL DRAWBACKS

Estimating Uncertainty — The Practical Method

WHY MAKE MEASUREMENTS

ESTIMATING MEASUREMENT CONFIDENCE LIMITS

Nomenclature

APPENDIX G DETERMINING UNCERTAINTY OF AN EXAMPLE DIGITAL TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT SYSTEM 293 G

Identifying the Measurement Process Errors

PRECISION ERROR

Methodology for Developing a Measurement System Error Model

SENSING (THERMOCOUPLE)

STATISTICAL VARIANCE

Evaluating the Measurement Uncertainty

THERMOCOUPLE

Establishing the Standard Deviations for Uncertainty Components

THERMOCOUPLE

1 The SI

2 SI Units

BASE UNITS

Units in Temporary Use

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Contents

Contents

Figures Figure 3

Contents

Figure E

Contents

Tables TABLE 3

17 TABLE 3

19 TABLE 4

51 TABLE 6

Contents

Contents

Acronyms ACE ANSI AOP AR ATE A/D BIPM

Automated Calibration Equipment American National Standards Institute Average-Over-Period Accuracy Ratio Automated Test Equipment Analog to Digital International Bureau of Weights and Measures (Bureau International des Poids et Mesures) BOP Beginning-Of-Period CGPM General Conference on Weights and Measures (Conference General des Poids et Mesures) CIPM International Conference of Weights and Measures (Conference Internationale des Poids et Mesures) CMRR Common Mode Rejection Ratio CMV Common Mode Voltage CRM Certified Reference Material DID Data Item Description DVM Digital Voltmeter EOP End-of-Period ESS Pure Error Sum of Squares FS Full Scale ISO International Organization for Standardization (Organisation Internationale de Normalisation) IT In-Tolerance IV Indicated Value LCL Lower Confidence Limit LSS Lack of Fit Sum of Squares MAP Measurement Assurance Program MLE Maximum-Likelihood-Estimate MSA Manufacturer’s Specified Accuracy MTBF Mean-Time-Between-Failure MTBOOT Mean-Time-Between-Out-of-Tolerance NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NBS National Bureau of Standards (now NIST) NHB NASA Handbook NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology (was NBS) NSRDP National Standard Reference Data Program Acronyms

OOTR pdf PRT QA RM RMAP RMS RSS RTI RTO SI SMPC SPC SRM S/N TAR TME UCL UUT VIM

Out-Of-Tolerance-Rate Probability Density Function Platinum Resistance Thermometer Quality Assurance Reference Material Regional Measurement Assurance Program Root-Mean-Square Root-Sum-Square Relative To Input Relative To Output International System of Units (Système International d’Unités) Statistical Measurement Process Control Statistical Process Control Standard Reference Materials Signal to Noise Test Accuracy Ratio Test and Measurement Equipment Upper Confidence Limit Unit under test International Vocabulary of Basic and General Terms in Metrology (Vocabulaire International des Termes Fondamentaux et Généraux de Métrologie)

Acronyms

INTRODUCTION

Purpose

Methodologies and techniques acceptable in fulfilling metrology,

and measurement process quality requirements for NASA programs are outlined in this publication

The intention of this publication is to aid NASA engineers and systems contractors in the design,

It is also intended as a resource to guide NASA personnel in the uniform evaluation of such systems supplied or operated by contractors

Applicability

This publication references NASA Handbooks,

The measurement quality recommendations are at a high level and technical information is generic

It is recommended that each project determine functional requirements,

and related requirements for the measurement activity

Suppliers may use this document as a resource to prepare d

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