PDF- -Suggestions and Tips for Success in Calculus A - Calculus Success in 20 Minutes a Day2ndEdition

s Success in 20 Minutes a Day2ndEdition

Description

STUDY GUIDES/Mathematics

### MASTER CALCULUS IN JUST 20 MINUTES A DAY

• ! SKILL BUILDERS

### SKILL BUILDERS

CALCULUS ESSENTIALS INSIDE:

CALCULUS SUCCESS PRACTICE

A good knowledge of calculus is essential for success on many tests and applicable for a wide range of careers

Calculus Success in 20 Minutes a Day helps students refresh and acquire important calculus skills

This guide provides a thorough review that fits into any busy schedule

### Each step takes just 20 minutes a day

! Pretest—Pinpoint your strengths and weaknesses Lessons—Master calculus essentials with hundreds of exercises

CALCULUS Success in 20 Minutes a Day

• Functions • Trigonometry • Graphs • Limits • Rates of change • Derivatives • Basic rules • Derivatives of sin(x) and cos(x) • Product and quotient rules • Chain rule • Implicit differentiation • Related rates • Graph sketching • Optimization • Antidifferentiation • Areas between curves • The fundamental theorem of calculus • Techniques of integration • and more

❏ Packed with key calculus concepts including rates of change,

• optimization,
• antidifferentiation,
• techniques of integration,
• and much more

! Additional resources for preparing for important standardized tests

# Visit LearningExpress’s Online Practice Center to:

### Access additional calculus practice exercises

and boost your overall score to guarantee success

## LearnATest

### FREE Calculus Practice

❏ Includes hundreds of practice questions with detailed answer explanations

❏ Measure your progress with pre– and posttests

❏ Build essential calculus skills for success on the AP exams

2ND EDITION Completely Revised and Updated

### McKibben

L EARNINGE XPRESS

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CALCULUS SUCCESS in 20 Minutes a Day

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CALCULUS SUCCESS in 20 Minutes a Day Second Edition Mark A

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# Published in the United States by LearningExpress,

New York

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: McKibben,

# Calculus success in 20 minutes a day / Mark A

• —2nd ed

#### Previous ed

: Calculus success in 20 minutes a day / Thomas,

### ISBN 978-1-57685-889-9 1

Calculus—Problems,

• exercises,

Thomas,

#### Christopher,

• 1973– Calculus success in 20 minutes a day

Title: Calculus success in twenty minutes a day

T47 2012 515—dc23 2011030506 Printed in the United States of America 987654321 ISBN 978-1-57685-889-9 For information or to place an order,

contact LearningExpress at: 2 Rector Street 26th Floor New York,

• learnatest

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## Maryland

#### During his 12 years at this institution,

he has taught more than 30 different courses spanning the mathematics curriculum,

and has published two graduate-level books with CRC Press,

more than two dozen journal articles on differential equations,

and more than 20 supplements for undergraduate texts on algebra,

• trigonometry,
• statistics,
• and calculus

# He has taught at Tufts University as a graduate student,

Texas A&M University as a postdoctorate professor,

and the Senior Secondary School of Mozano,

• as a Peace Corps volunteer

His classroom assistant is a small teddy bear named ex

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CONTENTS

PRETEST

## LESSON 2

LESSON 4

### LESSON 5

Limits and Continuity

LESSON 6

Derivatives

## LESSON 7

LESSON 8

### Rates of Change

LESSON 9

The Product and Quotient Rules

Chain Rule

LESSON 11

Related Rates

## LESSON 13

Limits at Infinity

### LESSON 14

Using Calculus to Graph

115 vii

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• – CONTENTS –

# LESSON 16

## LESSON 17

#### The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

LESSON 18

Antidifferentiation

LESSON 19

# LESSON 20

Integration by Parts

POSTTEST

# GLOSSARY

### Calc2e_00_i-x_FM

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#### Page ix

INTRODUCTION

f you have never taken a calculus course,

and now find that you need to know calculus—this is the book for you

If you have already taken a calculus course,

but felt like you never understood what the teacher was trying to tell you—this book can teach you what you need to know

### If it has been a while since you have taken a calculus course,

and you need to refresh your skills—this book will review the basics and reteach you the skills you may have forgotten

#### Whatever your reason for needing to know calculus,

Calculus Success in 20 Minutes a Day will teach you what you need to know

#### Overcoming Math Anxiety Do you like math or do you find math an unpleasant experience

? It is human nature for people to like what they are good at

# Generally,

people who dislike math have not had much success with math

## If you have struggles with math,

Was it because the class went too fast

? Did you have a chance to fully understand a concept before you went on to a new one

? One of the comments students frequently make is,

“I was just starting to understand,

and then the teacher went on to something new

” That is why Calculus Success is self-paced

You work at your own pace

You go on to a new concept only when you are ready

### When you study the lessons in this book,

the only person you have to answer to is you

You don’t have to pretend you know something when you don’t truly understand

You get to take the time you need to understand everything before you go on to the next lesson

You have truly learned something only when you thoroughly understand it

### Take as much time as you need to understand examples

Check your work with the answers and if you don’t feel confident that you fully understand the lesson,

• do it again

You might think you don’t want to take the time to go back over something again

• however,

making sure you understand a lesson

### Calc2e_00_i-x_FM

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• – INTRODUCTION –

completely may save you time in the future lessons

### How to Use This Book Calculus Success teaches basic calculus concepts in 20 self-paced lessons

The book includes a pretest,

• a posttest,
• 20 lessons,
• each covering a new topic,
• and a glossary

# Before you begin Lesson 1,

• take the pretest

# The pretest will assess your current calculus abilities

You’ll find the answer key at the end of the pretest

# After taking the pretest,

• move on to Lesson 1,

Functions

## Each lesson offers detailed explanations of a new concept

### There are numerous examples with step-by-step solutions

#### As you proceed through a lesson,

you will find tips and shortcuts that will help

• you learn a concept

### Each new concept is followed by a practice set of problems

The answers to the practice problems are in an answer key located at the end of the book

# When you have completed all 20 lessons,

• take the posttest

The posttest has the same format as the pretest,

but the questions are different

Compare the results of the posttest with the results of the pretest you took before you began Lesson 1

? Do you still have weak areas

? Do you need to spend more time on some concepts,

or are you ready to go to the next level

# If you truly want to be successful,

make a commitment to spend the time you need to improve your calculus skills

### Calc2e_00_1-14_Pre

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PRETEST

• efore you begin Lesson 1,

you may want to get an idea of what you know and what you need to learn

The pretest will answer some of these questions for you

### While 50 questions can’t cover every concept or skill taught in this book,

your performance on the pretest will give you a good indication of your strengths and weaknesses

If you score high on the pretest,

you have a good foundation and should be able to work through the book quickly

# If you score low on the pretest,

• don’t despair

## This book will explain the key calculus concepts,

• step by step

If you get a low score,

you may need to take more than 20 minutes a day to work through a lesson

## However,

• this is a self-paced program,

so you can spend as much time on a lesson as you need

You decide when you fully comprehend the lesson and are ready to go on to the next one

Take as much time as you need to complete the pretest

## When you are finished,

Along with each answer is a number that tells you which lesson of this book teaches you about the calculus skills needed to answer that question

You will find the level of difficulty increases as you work your way through the pretest

## Calc2e_00_1-14_Pre

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### Calc2e_00_1-14_Pre

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Calc2e_00_1-14_Pre

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#### Calc2e_00_1-14_Pre

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• – PRETEST –

What is the value of f(4) when f(x) = 3x2 – a

Use the following figure for questions 5 and 6

• y 6 5 y = f(x)

### Simplify g(x + 3) when g(x) = x2 – 2x + 1

• x2 + 2x + 4 b
• x2 – 2x + 4 c
• x2 + 4x + 16 d
• x2 + 4x + 13 3

# What is (f ° g)(x) when f(x) = x – x + 3

• 2 and g(x) = x

2 3 x 2 b

• 2x   3 x a
• x2  2  3x  d
• x  3 

? x2  1 all real numbers except x = 1 all real numbers except x = 0 all real numbers except x = –1 and x = 1 all real numbers except x = –1,

• and x=1

## What is the domain of h1x2  a

• 3 2 1 –3 –2 –1 –1

### On what interval(s) is f(x) increasing

• (∞,1) and (5,∞) b
• (1,5) c
• (1,6) d
• (5,∞) 6

#### Which of the following is a point of inflection for f(x)

• 5) (1,6) (3,3) (5,1)

What is the equation of the straight line passing through (2,5) and (1,1)

• y  2x  5 b
• y  2x  1 c
• y  2x  9 d
• y  2x  3

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• – PRETEST –

Simplify 642

4,096 9

Simplify 23

• ln152 c
• xS4 x2  1

• ln1152 ln132
•  π 11

•  3 1 a
•  2 1 b
•  3π  12

•  4
• xS1 x2  1

• undefined

• ∞ 1 c
•  4 −3 d

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• – PRETEST –

# What is the slope of f 1x2  3x  2 at x  5

What is the slope of g1x2  x2  2x  1 at x  3

## What is the derivative of y  x2  3cos1x2

• ? dy dx dy b
• dx dy c
• dx dy d

 2x  3sin1x2  2x  3sin1x2  2x  3cos112  2x  3tan1x2

## Differentiate f 1x2  ln1x2  ex  2

• f ¿1x2  ln1x2  ex

## Differentiate h1x2  4x3  5x  1

• 1  ex x 1 d
• f ¿1x2   ex x
• h ′(x) = 12x2
• f ¿1x2 
• h ′(x) = 12x2  5 c
• h ′(x) = 12x2  5x d
• h ′(x) = 12x2  5x 
• f ¿1x2  ln1x2  ex

#### The height of a certain plant is H(t) = 41  t inches after t  1 week

How fast is it growing after two weeks

• 5 inches per week b
• 10 inches per week c
• 21 inches per week d
• 31 inches per week

Differentiate g1x2  x2sin1x2

g ′(x) = g ′(x) = g ′(x) = g ′(x) =

• 2xcos1x2 2x  cos1x2 2xsin1x2  x2cos1x2 2xsin1x2cos1x2

Calc2e_00_1-14_Pre

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• – PRETEST –

Differentiate j(x) = a

• j ′(x) = 0

### Differentiate m(x) = 1x2  12 5

• m ′(x) = 10x b
• m ′(x) = 12x2 5
• j ′(x) = x 1  ln1x2 c
• j ′(x) = x2 ln1x2  1 d
• j ′(x) = x2
• m ′(x) = 51x2  12 4 d
• m ′(x) = 10x1x2  12 4 27

# Compute

## Differentiate y  tan1x2

• dy = sec2 1x2 a
• dx dy = –cot(x) b
• 2 2 dy cos 1x2  sin 1x2 = cos2 1x2 dx
• dy = sin1x2cos1x2 dx
• dy  x2 dx
• 3x2  y dy  dx 2y  x
• dy 3x2  dx 1  2y
• dy 3x 2 − x = dx 2y

# Compute 25

Differentiate f 1x2  e4x 7

• f ′(x) = e8x 2
• f ′(x) = e4x 7 2
• f ′(x) = 8xe
• f ′(x) = 14x2  72e4x 8 2
• dy if y2  xy  x3  5
• dy dx dy b
• dx dy c
• dx dy d
• dy if sin1y2  4x2

 8x  cos1y2  8xcos1y2  cos1y2  8x  8xsec1y2

Calc2e_00_1-14_Pre

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• – PRETEST –
•  1 3 29

### What is the slope of x  y  1 at  ,

• ? 2 2  2

3 3 3 3

If the radius of a circle is increasing at 4 feet per second,

how fast is the area increasing when the radius is 10 feet

• 20p square feet per second b
• 80p square feet per second c
• 100p square feet per second d
• 400p square feet per second 31

The height of a triangle increases by 3 inches every minute while its base decreases by 1 inch every minute

# It is increasing at 500 square inches per minute

### It is decreasing at 1,500 square inches per minute

#### It is decreasing at 3,000 square inches per minute

• 4x 2 − 5x + 2
• x →∞ 1 − x2

Evaluate lim a

• 4 4 2 undefined 4x 5 + 6x + 4
• x →−∞ x 3 + 10 x − 1

Evaluate lim a

• ∞ ∞ 4 4 ln(x)
• x →−∞ 3x + 2

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• – PRETEST –

• ? y x2 a
• –2 –3
• –1 –1
• –3 y 3 2
• –1 –1
• 2 –2 1 –3 –2
• –1 –1 –2 –3

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• – PRETEST –

# On what interval is g1x2  x4  6x2  5 concave down

• (1,12) b
• (6,5) c
• (− 3 ,
•  f 1x2 dx

### What is

• y y = f(x) 4 (4,3) 3

### The surface area of a cube is increasing at a rate of 3 square inches per minute

How fast is an edge increasing at the instant when each side is 20 inches

• inch per minute 80 3 b
• inch per minute 20 c
• 80 inches per minute d
• 24,000 inches per minute 38

A box with a square bottom and no top must contain 108 cubic inches

× 27 in

× 8 in

× 3 in

# × 6 in

### × 3 in

× 4 in

•  g1x2 dx  4 ,
• g1x2 dx  5 and
•  g1x2 dx
• what is

20 1 3 9

2 3 10 12

If g1x2 is the area under the curve y  t3  4t between t  0 and t  x,

• what is g¿1x2
• x3  4x b
• 3x2  4 1 c
• x4  2x 4 d

Evaluate a

•  8x  52 dx
• 6x  8 6x  8  c'x3  4x2  5x x3  4x2  5x  c

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• – PRETEST –
•  2x dx

# Evaluate

Evaluate

81 2 44

### Evaluate

• ln x − 1 + c
• 1 ln(x 2 − 1) + c'2 1 ln x 2 − 1 + c'2
• 4 sin1x3 2  c'3 4 c
• x3sin1x3 2  c'3 4 d
• x2sin1x3 2  c'3 b
•  4x cos1x 2 dx
• 4sin1x3 2  c
• sin1x2  c
• 1 5x e c 5
•  sin1x2 dx
• sin1x2  c
• e5  c'1 d
• e5  c'5
• cos1x2  c
• 1 2 2x 1 3 3x 
• e5x  c
• cos1x2  c

## Evaluate

### Evaluate x(x 2 + 2) 5 dx

• 1 2 (x + 2)6 + c'6
• 5(x 2 + 2) 4 + c'6
•  x2  1 3 c
• 2  3 x + 2 x  + c'1 2 6 d
• 12 (x + 5) + c

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# Page 13

• – PRETEST –

### Evaluate

•  xln1x2 dx
• 1 2 x ln1x2  c'2 b
• xln1x2  ln1x2  c'a
• x2ln1x2  x2  c'4 1 1 d
• x2ln1x2  x2  c'2 4

Evaluate

•  xsin1x2 dx

xcos1x2  sin1x2  c'1 2 x cos1x2  c'2 1 c

•  x2cos1x2  c'2 d
• xcos(x) – cos(x) + c'b

#### Calc2e_00_1-14_Pre

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Page 14

• – PRETEST –

Lesson 1 Lesson 1 Lesson 1 Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 2 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 3 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 5 Lesson 5 Lessons 6,

• 7 Lessons 6,
• 7 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Lesson 8 Lesson 8 Lesson 9 Lessons 8,
• 9 Lesson 9 Lesson 10

### Lesson 10 Lesson 11 Lessons 4,

• 11 Lesson 11 Lesson 12 Lesson 12 Lesson 13 Lesson 13 Lesson 13 Lesson 14 Lesson 14 Lesson 12 Lesson 16 Lesson 16 Lesson 16 Lesson 17 Lesson 18 Lesson 18 Lesson 18 Lesson 19 Lesson 19 Lesson 19 Lesson 19 Lesson 20 Lesson 20

L E S S O N

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# FUNCTIONS

alculus is the study of change

It is often important to know when a quantity is increasing,

• when it is decreasing,

and when it hits a high or low point

### In science and engineering,

it is often essential to know precisely how fast quantities such as temperature,

• and speed are changing

### Calculus is the primary tool for calculating such changes

#### Numbers,

which are the focus of arithmetic,

• do not change

The number 5 will always be 5

It never goes up or down

we need to introduce a new sort of mathematical object,

• something that can change

These objects,

• the centerpiece of calculus,
• are functions

# The first set of numbers is called the domain

For each of the numbers in the domain,

the function assigns exactly one number from the other set,

• the range

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## PARENTHESES HINT It is true that in algebra,

everyone is taught “parentheses mean multiplication

” This means that 5(2 + 7) = 5(9) = 45

If x is a variable,

• then x(2 + 7) = x(9) = 9x

However,

if f is the name of a function,

then f (2 + 7) = f (9) = the number to which f takes 9

## The expression f (x) is pronounced “f of x” and not “f times x

” This can certainly be confusing

• as you gain experience,
• it will become second nature

Mathematicians use parentheses to mean several different things and expect everyone to know the difference

#### For example,

the domain of the function could be the set of numbers {1,

• and the range could be {1,

Suppose the function takes 1 to 1,

4 to 2,

9 to 3,

25 to 5,

• and 100 to 10

This could be illustrated by the following: 1S 1 4S 2 9S 3 25 S 5 100 S 10 Because we sometimes use several functions in the same discussion,

it makes sense to give them names

### Let us call the function we just mentioned by the name Eugene

• “Hey,

what does Eugene do with the number 4

?” The answer is “Eugene takes 4 to the number 2

” Mathematicians like to write as little as possible

instead of writing “Eugene takes 4 to the number 2,” we often write “Eugene(4)  2” to mean the same thing

Similarly,

we like to use names that are as short as possible,

• such as f (for function),

g (for function when f is already being used),

• and so on

### The trigonometric functions in Lesson 4 all have threeletter names like sin and cos,

but even these are abbreviations

## So let us save space and use f instead of Eugene

Because the domain is small,

it is easy to write out everything:

f 112 f 142 f 192 f 1252 f 11002

•  1  2  3  5  10

# However,

• if the domain were large,
• this would get very tedious

It is much easier to find a pattern and use that pattern to describe the function

## Therefore,

we can describe f by saying: f(a number) = the square root of that number Of course,

anyone with experience in algebra knows that writing “a number” over and over is a waste of time

Why not just pick a variable to represent the number

? Just as f is a typical name for a function,

little x is often used for a variable name

# Using both,

here is a nice way to represent our function f: f(x) =

#### This tells us that putting a number into the function f is the same as putting it into

• f(25) = 25 = 5 and f(f) =

Example Find the value of g(3) if g1x2  x2  2

### Calc2e_01_15-22

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#### Page 17

• – FUNCTIONS –

### Solution Replace each occurrence of x with 3

• g(3)  32  2 Simplify
• g(3)  9  2  11

#### Example Find the value of h(4) if h(t) = t3  2t2 + 5

Solution Replace each occurrence of t with –4

h(–4) = (–4)3 – 2(–4)2 + 5 Simplify

h(–4) = –64 – 2(16) + 5 = –64 – 32 + 5 = –91

### Suppose that after t seconds,

a rock thrown off a bridge has height s1t2  16t2  20t  100 feet off the ground

What is the height above the ground after 3 seconds

#### Suppose that the profit on making and selling x x x2 cookies is P (x) = − − 10 dollars

Plugging Variables into Functions Variables can be plugged into functions just as easily as numbers can

• though,

the result can’t be simplified as much

### Example When multiplying,

an even number of negatives results in a positive number,

whereas an odd number of negatives results in a negative number

# Simplify f(w) if f(x) =

• x + 2x 2 + 2

Solution Replace each occurrence of x with w

• f(w) = w + 2w 2 + 2

Practice

That is all we can say without knowing more about w

Find the value of f 152 when f 1x2  2x  1

### Find the value of g132 when g1x2  x3  x2  x  1

Solution

Find the value of h a b when h1t2  t2 

Find the value of f 172 when f 1x2  2

### Replace each occurrence of t with (a  5)

g1a  52  1a  52 2  31a  52  1

Multiply out 1a  52 2 and 31a  52

• g1a  52  a2  10a  25  3a  15  1
•  1 5

•  5 6

# Find the value of h1642 when 3 h1x2  2x  2 x

• (a + b)2 ≠ a2 + b2

# Remember to FOIL (first,

• outside,
• inside,

last) to get (a + b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2

## Simplify

• g1a  52  a2  7a  11 17

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# Page 18

• – FUNCTIONS –

#### Example

f 1x  a2  f 1x2 Simplify if f 1x2  x2

g (2 x) − g (x) when g (t ) = 14

f ( x + a) − f ( x ) when f (x) = −x 2 + 5 a

• h1x  a2  h1x2 when h(x) = –2x + 1 a

g (x + 2) − g (x) when g (x) = x 3 2

f 1x  a2  f 1x2 a Use f 1x2  x2 to evaluate f 1x  a2 and f 1x2

• 1x  a2 2  x2 a

8 − 6t t

Composition of Functions

Multiply out 1x  a2 2

### Now that we can plug anything into functions,

we can plug one function in as the input of another function

### This is called composition

The composition of function f with function g is written f  g

This means to plug g into f like this:

• x2  2xa  a2  x2 a

Cancel the x2 and the x2

2xa  a2 a

( f o g )(x ) = f (g (x)) It may seem that f comes first in ( f o g )(x) ,

• reading from left to right,
• but actually,
• the g is closer to the x

Factor out an a

• 12x  a2a a

#### Example Cancel an a from the top and bottom

Practice

If f(x) = x + 2x and g1x2  4x  7,

then what is the composition ( f o g )(x)

• (f ° g)(x) = f(g(x))

# Simplify the following

f 1y2 when f 1x2  x2  3x  1 10

f 1x  a2 when f 1x2  x  3x  1

#### Use g1x2  4x  7

• ( f o g )(x) = f (4 x + 7)

f (x + h) − f (x) when f (x) = 1 h 2x 12

• 8 x ) when g1t2   6t t

## Replace each occurrence of x in f with 4x  7

( f o g )(x) = 4 x + 7 + 2(4 x + 7) Simplify

( f o g )(x) = 4 x + 7 + 8 x + 14

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# Page 19

• – FUNCTIONS –

Practice

Conversely,

• to evaluate (g ° f )(x),

we compute: (g o f )(x) = g ( f (x)) Use f(x) =

## Using f 1x2 

(g o f )(x) = g ( x + 2 x) Replace each occurrence of x in g with

(g o f )(x) = 4( x + 2 x) + 7 Simplify

• (g o f )(x) = 4 x + 8 x + 7
• g1x2  x3  2x2  1 ,
• and h(x) = x x

simplify the following compositions

• (f ° g)(x) 18
• (g ° f )(x) 19
• (f ° h)(t) 20
• (f ° f )(z) 21
• (h ° h)(w)

# This shows that the order in which you compute a composition matters

• ! In general,
• ( f ° g)(x) ≠ (g ° f )(x)

#### We can form the composition of more than two functions

Just apply the functions,

• one at a time,

working your way from the one closest to x outward

• (g ° h)(16) 23
• (h ° f ° g)(x) 24
• (f ° h ° f )(2x)

### Example

If f (x) = x + 1 ,

• g(x) = 2 – x,
• and h(x) = 4x,

then 2x − 3 what is (f ° g ° h)(x)

(f ° g ° h)(x) = f (g(h(x))) Use h(x) = 4x

(f ° g ° h)(x) = f (g(4x)) Compute g(4x) by replacing each occurrence of x in g with 4x

• g(4x) = 2 – 4x Next,

substitute this into the composition

(f ° g ° h)(x) = f (g(4x)) = f (2 – 4x)

## Replace every occurrence of x in f with 2 – 4x

(f ° g ° h)(x) = f (2 – 4x) = (2 − 4 x) + 1 2(2 − 4 x) − 3 Simplify

• 3 − 4x (f ° g ° h)(x) = 1 − 8x

# When an expression is used to describe a function f (x),

it is convenient to think of the domain as the set of all numbers that can be substituted into the expression and get a meaningful output

This set is called the domain

The range of the function is the set of all possible numbers produced by evaluating f at the numbers in its domain

### In the beginning of the lesson,

we considered the function: f(x) =

### However,

we left out a crucial piece of information: the domain

The domain of this function consisted of only the numbers 1,

• and 100
• we should have written f(x) =
• x if x  1,

#### Usually,

the domain of a function is not given explicitly like this

In such situations,

it is assumed that the domain is as large as it possibly can be,

• meaning that 19

### Calc2e_01_15-22

11/18/11

12:35 AM

#### Page 20

• – FUNCTIONS –

it contains all real numbers that,

when plugged into the function,

• produce another real number

Specifically,

including a number in the domain cannot violate one of the following two fundamental prohibitions: ■ Never divide by zero

■ Never take an even root of a negative number

Example

### Solution We must never let the denominator x  2 be zero,

• so x cannot be 2

## Therefore,

the domain of this function consists of all real numbers except 2

## The prohibition against even roots (like square roots) of negative numbers is less severe

An even root of a negative number is an imaginary number

# Useful mathematics can be done with imaginary numbers

### However,

• for the sake of simplicity,

we will avoid them in this book

Example What is the domain of g(x) = 3x + 2

### Solution The numbers in the square root must not be negative,

• 2 so 3x  2  0 ,
• thus x  

The domain consists 3 2 of all numbers greater than or equal to 

• 3 Do note that it is perfectly okay to take the square root of zero,
• since 0 = 0

### Example

• 4 − x Find the domain of k(x) = 2
• x + 5x + 6

Solution To avoid dividing by zero,

• we need x2  5x  6  0,
• so 1x  321x  22  0,
• thus x  3 and x  2

#### To avoid an even root of a negative number,

4  x  0,

• so x  4
• the domain of k is x  4 ,
• x  3 ,

#### A nice way of representing certain collections of real numbers is interval notation,

as follows: COLLECTION OF REAL NUMBERS

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