PDF- earthwork calculation spreadsheet,how to -02 Earthworks - Calculating Earthworks

Description

EARTHWORK REPRESENTATION: GRADING SUMMARIES & MASS HAUL DIAGRAMS

Mass Haul Diagram

Mass Ordinate

Station

October 21,

Revision Date: October 21,

Introduction Earthwork operations represent an area of substantial risk to contractors

In CFLHD contracts,

the risk is typically associated with one to four pay items,

Roadway excavation,

generally being the primary payment item

Under this pay item,

the contractor must anticipate and price the work associated with excavation,

adding or subtracting moisture from soils,

finishing and other associated operations

Estimating costs is further complicated by the type and variation in the materials to be excavated (rock,

if blasting is required and how much

the type of equipment to be used in excavating and hauling material

if the haul is primarily uphill or downhill

coordination of earthwork operations with other installations (culverts,

weather considerations and impacts of materials testing

Currently,

information provided in CFLHD Grading Summaries can vary greatly from project to project

Some terminology used in the summaries is confusing and can be interpreted to mean different things depending on perspective

Definitions are not always provided,

and the expectation that contractors can read and interpret a GEOPAK earthwork run is optimistic

This guidance is being written in order to standardize Grading Summaries and proper earthwork representation between CFLHD Design Areas and A/E contractors

It will also assist to ensure everyone views earthwork representation in the same light and serve as a training tool for new employees

Perspective Lacking the distribution of complete earthwork runs and representation with contract packages,

the Grading Summary and Mass Haul Diagram are the contractor’s primary tools for bidding earthwork

This is especially true since CFLHD uses GEOPAK,

which has limited capabilities to handle added and subtracted quantities

When representing earthwork,

the focus is on prism excavation and embankment,

added excavation and embankment quantities,

removal of materials from quantities available for embankment construction,

waste and other details related to the earthwork associated with the construction of a project to design subgrade elevation

Elements of Earthwork Representation This section discusses Selection of Primary Pay Item,

Grading Summary,

Mass Haul Diagram and Cross Sections

Most of these items play a role in representing earthwork in a contract

At the foundation of some of these items,

A detailed discussion of the Materials Report is not included in this guidance,

but it should be recognized that an adequate materials investigation and proper inclusion of the findings in the Grading Summary and the Mass Haul Diagram should be completed

The contract representations of the work to be performed can only be as good as the information upon which the design assumptions are based

Revision Date: October 21,

Selection of Primary Pay Item For projects that are balanced from an earthwork standpoint and waste jobs,

the primary pay item should be Pay Item 20401-0000,

Roadway excavation

For balanced jobs,

it is not necessary to include a pay item for construction of embankments

On waste jobs,

it is recommended to always include Pay Item 20441-0000,

in addition to the primary roadway excavation pay item

Selection of a primary pay item for borrow projects,

Borrow projects have several inherent drawbacks,

During the design phase,

roadway excavation and borrow pit shrink/swell factors are sometimes estimated without the benefit of a materials investigation

This leads to uncertainty in the final amount of borrow (based on pit measurements) that will be needed to complete the project

When a borrow pay item is used,

borrow is generally measured by determining the volume of material removed from the borrow source (this would be a bank cubic meter measurement,

not a compacted cubic meter measurement)

Payment of the borrow based on pit cross sections places the risk of shrink/swell changes from those estimated above on the Government

This is true whether the source is a Governmentdesignated source or a contractor-selected source

By using Pay Item 20420-0000,

Embankment construction,

(instead of a combination of Pay Item 20401-0000,

Roadway excavation,

Unclassified borrow) the contractor is paid on a slope stake basis (embankment in its final position)

This places the risk of shrink/swell factor changes at the chosen borrow source on the contractor

When borrow constitutes a significant amount of the earthwork to be performed,

and particularly when the selection of the borrow source is up to the contractor,

it is recommended that an embankment construction pay item be used

Generally,

Pay Item 20401-0000,

Roadway excavation and Pay Item 20420-0000,

Embankment construction,

should not be used together in the same contract

For projects involving excavation below subgrade elevation in cut sections or below the original ground line in embankment sections,

the use of a subexcavation pay item is strongly encouraged

In the past,

subexcavation has sometimes been paid for as roadway excavation,

but this is contradictory to the definitions provided in the FP

The use of a subexcavation pay item assists in eliminating many potential controversies related to selective excavation,

haul and problems pertaining to the suitability of identified backfill materials to serve their intended purpose

When subexcavation is subsidiary to the roadway excavation pay item,

the implication (by virtue of the earthwork balancing routine) is that unsuitable material removed from the excavation can be disposed of within the balance,

and that suitable replacement material can be acquired from the nearest available cut

If these assumptions are not valid,

the contractor may incur additional costs due to selective excavation and haul

Revision Date: October 21,

Grading Summary Grading Summaries are structured to be read in a logical left to right format,

and when combined with the corresponding Mass Haul Diagrams and project Cross Sections,

provide sufficient information to allow contractors to understand the information being conveyed

Explanations of each column of a Grading Summary are given below

Nearly all projects will contain some unique features and must be dealt with on a case-by-case basis

However,

and layout of the columns) should remain the same

If a specific column does not apply to a specific project,

hide the column within the Excel spreadsheet so as not to cause confusion

Retention of the general format will aid everyone in comprehension and uniformity

It is important to note that the base Excel File in use within CFLHD performs many of the calculations for the Grading Summary once the necessary data is input into the Cross Section Data (XS Data) sheet

Roadway Excavation Pay Item

Station

Roadway Prism

Approach Roads

Column A

Column B

Column C

blank if not) Roadway Excavation Column D

Pay Item Row A row has been provided directly above the individual column headings to delineate pay items

This aids in communicating how different types of work are paid

For items that are derived by adding quantities (i

Roadway Excavation),

the pay item number is placed over the summed quantity only and not over the individual quantities

Do not place pay item numbers in the same block as the column headings as it de-emphasizes the pay item identification

Pay items,

need to be identified as clearly as possible

Definition Row A row has been provided directly below the individual column headings to identify the material state (this row is not shown in the table above)

The two descriptors that should generally be used on metric projects are bank cubic meter (BCM) and compacted cubic meter (CCM)

For english projects,

use bank cubic yard (BCY) and compacted cubic yard (CCY)

On rare occasions,

such as when an existing stockpile is being used as a materials source,

the term loose cubic meter (LCM) or loose cubic yard (LCY) may also be used

The use of these descriptors are beneficial in that they describe the material state relevant to each quantity using terminology that is recognized by the heavy construction industry

Revision Date: October 21,

Column A: Station This column identifies the station range for each calculation row

The number of station breaks to be shown within the Grading Summary will vary with the project

On large projects,

a good rule of thumb is to show each Plan and Profile Sheet on a separate row

On simple projects,

the station ranges can be broken out for each cross section,

or every 50 to 100 meters (feet)

Primary Heading: Roadway Excavation The primary heading,

Roadway Excavation,

provides a location to tabulate the excavation associated with the mainline and approach roads

If the project will not use Roadway excavation as the primary pay item,

do not include a pay item number above the Roadway Excavation column

Column B: Roadway Prism This quantity represents the volume of roadway excavation for the station range specified in Column A

These values are the unadjusted (the numbers do not account for shrink or swell) volumes calculated directly by GEOPAK and summed for the appropriate interval identified in Column A

Column C: Approach Roads Values in this column are the excavation required to construct the approach roads in the station range identified

Although the approach roads have different stationing than the mainline,

tabulate the associated excavation volumes under the mainline stationing interval that best represents the approach road location

By doing so,

the Mass Haul Diagram will better reflect the anticipated haul of material

In the circumstance where the approach road length is excessive,

the volumes can be tabulated in a separate Grading Summary or at the bottom of the mainline summary

If values are tabulated at the bottom of the mainline summary,

be sure NOT to include the quantities in the Mass Haul Diagram

Revision Date: October 21,

Column D: Roadway Excavation This value is the summation of the mainline roadway excavation and the approach road excavation

The formula for the spreadsheet is Column B + Column C

The number represents the total unadjusted excavation for the specified station range

Primary Heading: Adjustments to Excavation The primary heading,

Adjustments to Excavation provides a location to remove (deduct) excavated material such as topsoil and existing pavement from the material quantity that is available for embankment construction operations

Adjustments to Excavation can also be used to add material that is available for embankment construction but is not included in the Roadway Excavation portion of the table

Pay Item

Adjustments to Excavation 204020000 (if paid) (+) (-) (-) (+) (+) Structure Pavement Topsoil Excavation SubexExcavation Removal Stripping From cavation (Walls) in Cuts in Cuts Roadway Obliteration Column E Column F Column Column H Column I G

Revision Date: October 21,

Column E: (+) Structure Excavation (Walls) This is the volume of material displaced by the retaining wall and associated backfill below original ground of the existing roadway

Often times,

special backfill is required for retaining wall construction,

thus the excavated material becomes available for use in construction of embankments

Column F: (-) Pavement Removal in Cuts If the existing pavement will be recycled as a base course or hauled away from the project,

this value will represent the amount of material lost from excavation

If the project will simply incorporate the existing pavement as fill material,

this column is not used within the Grading Summary

Revision Date: October 21,

Column G: (-) Topsoil Stripping in Cuts This quantity represents the amount of topsoil salvaged from excavated areas

Since the material will be salvaged and not available for embankment construction,

it is shown with a negative sign

The values used within the Grading Summary are calculated on a station-to-station basis by GEOPAK and input directly into the Cross Section Data (XS Data) worksheet

Column H: (+) Excavation From Roadway Obliteration This is the volume of excavation from an obliterated area located outside the project slope stake limits

If the obliterated area is near a specific station range identified in Column A,

this volume would be added into the appropriate row

However,

in situations of realignment where the new alignment is a significant distance from the old roadway,

these volumes should be added on a separate row at the bottom of the Grading Summary and NOT included in the Mass Haul Diagram

Including volumes in the Mass Haul Diagram that do not accurately reflect the true project haul conditions can lead to a misrepresentation of earthwork and claims during construction (Note: excavation for roadway obliteration is not paid for under Section 204

Roadway obliteration is paid under Section 211 and is measured as an area

The obliteration area should be calculated separately and shown in the Tabulation of Quantities)

Column I: (+) Subexcavation This column reflects the quantity of subexcavation along the station ranges identified in Column A

See Selection of Primary Pay Item above for guidance in the use of a subexcavation pay item

Column J: (-) Disposal of Subexcavation Material If subexcavation material is unsuitable for embankment construction,

use this column to deduct the appropriate volumes from the excavation available for fills

Material 8

Revision Date: October 21,

may be unsuitable if it is excessively wet,

organic or contains a large volume of deleterious substances

If subexcavated material can be used for embankment construction,

do not place a value in this column

Column K: Average Shrink/Swell Factor Shrink/swell factors are used to adjust quantities from the BCM (BCY) state to the CCM (CCY) state

These factors are typically estimated in the materials report and are subject to a significant degree of variation

Swell factors (values greater than one) are typically associated with rocky materials and mean that the CCM volume will be greater than the BCM volume

Shrink factors (values less than one) are typically associated with clayey or granular materials and mean that the CCM volume will be less than the BCM volume

Column L: Total Excavation Available for Fills The value in this column represents the total amount of material that is available for embankment construction

The formula for the column is: (Column D'+ Column E – Column F – Column G + Column H + Column I – Column J) * Column K

The number represents the total adjusted excavation for the specified station range

Primary Heading: Roadway Embankment The primary heading,

Roadway Embankment is similar in nature to Adjustments to Excavation

The quantities used in these columns allow you to add and subtract the quantities of embankment needed to construct a project to subgrade elevations

Roadway Embankment Pay Item Roadway Prism

Approach Roads

Column M

Column N

(+) Select Wall Backfill Column P

(+) Backfill Material Column Q

(+) Structural Backfill Column R

Roadway Embankment Pay Item (+) Backfill for Pavement Removal Under Fill Column S

(+) Topsoil Replacement Under Fill

(+) Embankment for Roadway Obliteration

Column T

Column U

(+) Total Subexcavation Embankment

Column V

Column W

Revision Date: October 21,

Column M: Roadway Prism This quantity represents the volume of roadway embankment for the station range specified in Column A

These values are the unadjusted volumes calculated directly by GEOPAK and summed for the appropriate interval

Column N: Approach Roads Values in this column represent the embankment required to construct the approach roads in the station range identified

Although the approach roads have different stationing than the mainline,

tabulate the associated embankment volumes under the mainline stationing interval that best represents the approach road location

By doing so,

the Mass Haul Diagram will better reflect the anticipated haul of material

In the circumstance where the approach road length is excessive,

the volumes can be tabulated in a separate Grading Summary or at the bottom of the mainline summary

If they are tabulated at the bottom of the mainline summary,

be sure NOT to include the tabulations in the Mass Haul Diagram

Revision Date: October 21,

Column O: (+) Wall Backfill This column represents the amount of material necessary to backfill portions of MSE wall excavations (see cross section above)

This column should be used if wall backfill material can be made from on-site excavation

Do not use this column when using reinforced concrete retaining walls

Column P: (+) Select Wall Backfill This volume represents the amount of select wall backfill for MSE retaining walls (see cross section)

Select wall backfill is typically special processed material that meets a certain gradation (select granular backfill)

Use this column only if the select wall backfill will be processed from on-site material

By showing numbers in this column,

the designer is representing that material excavated or found on-site WILL meet the gradations and material quality requirements for use as select wall backfill

Make sure that materials tests are performed to verify this requirement

Do not assume the material will meet the specifications

Typically,

this material will come from a few isolated excavation areas and will not be spread over the entire project

If select wall backfill will be imported from off-site,

do not use this column to show the quantities

Do not use this column when using reinforced concrete retaining walls

Column Q: (+) Backfill Material This column represents the amount of material necessary to fill in front of reinforced concrete retaining walls (see cross section above)

This material typically comes from on-site excavation,

but is subject to gradation requirements (see FP-03 Subsection 704

This portion of reinforced concrete retaining wall fill is not required to meet structural backfill requirements

If on-site material cannot meet the gradation requirements in Subsection 704

this material must be imported from off-site,

so this column is not needed within the Grading Summary

Do not use this column if using MSE walls

Revision Date: October 21,

Column R: (+) Structural Backfill This column represents the amount of material necessary to backfill behind reinforced concrete retaining walls (see cross section on previous page)

This material must meet the requirements of Subsection 704

Because this material is specially processed to meet the gradation requirements and is subject to other material requirements,

it may not come from on-site excavation

If structural backfill material is imported from off-site,

do not use this column within the Grading Summary

Do not use this column when using MSE retaining walls

Column S: (+) Backfill for Pavement Removal Under Fill If the existing pavement will be recycled as a base course or hauled away from the project,

this value will represent the amount of material needed to backfill the existing pavement area

If the project will simply incorporate the existing pavement as fill material,

this column is not used within the Grading Summary

Column T: (+) Topsoil Replacement Under Fill These quantities represent the amount of fill material needed to replace topsoil salvaged underneath new fills of the roadway

Column U: (+) Embankment For Roadway Obliteration This column accounts for circumstances where additional embankment quantities will be needed to obliterate roadway sections

If the sections of obliterated roadway are directly adjacent to the proposed construction,

the quantities should be placed in the row with the appropriate station range to accurately depict the haul that is expected

In cases of realignment,

where the obliterated sections are not adjacent to the proposed construction,

the quantities should be added as a separate row at the bottom

Revision Date: October 21,

Quantities shown at the bottom of the Grading Summary should not be used when making the Mass Haul Diagram,

as they will not accurately portray the hauling needs of the project

Column V: (+) Subexcavation This column should have the same quantities identified in Column I for Subexcavation under the Adjustments to Excavation primary heading

In cases where material will be subexcavated and recompacted in place,

Columns I and V still need to have the same value because subexcavated material will typically experience volume changes once it is excavated and recompacted (note the difference in the definition of material,

Column I is BCM,

Column W: Total Embankment The values in this column result from the addition of the values in preceding columns under Roadway Embankment

The formula is Column M + Column N + Column O + Column P + Column Q + Column R + Column S + Column T + Column U + Column V

These values should be added across each individual row

The result of this addition is the total volume of material required to construct the embankments in the identified station range

Primary Heading: Mass Haul The primary heading,

Mass Haul,

tracks the variations between available excavation and needed embankment

These columns are exceptions to the logical left to right flow of the summary

Mass Haul Pay Item Excavation – Embankment Column X

Mass Ordinate Column Y

Column X: Excavation – Embankment This column is simply the Total Excavation Available For Fills (Column L) minus Total Embankment (Column W)

This operation (Column L'– Column W) should occur on each row

The value represents the surplus or shortage of material over the specified station range

Column Y: Mass Ordinate This column represents the cumulative mass differential as the project moves from the start through the end

The values in this column are best shown through the use of an example table:

Revision Date: October 21,

Excavation – Embankment

Mass Ordinate

The mass ordinate for the first row of the Grading Summary is always identical to the Excavation – Embankment value

To obtain subsequent mass ordinate values,

simply add the mass ordinate in the row above to the Excavation – Embankment value in the row you are working in

Miscellaneous Columns These columns are used to total the conserved topsoil available for placement on the constructed slopes and other items

The number of columns needed varies from one to three depending on the project earthwork balance and pay items

See scenarios under Column AA below for descriptions of each case

Pay Item

See Scenarios below Conserved Topsoil Waste,

Embankment construction or Unclassified Borrow Required,

See Scenarios below Column Z Column AA

See Scenarios below Unclassified borrow,

See Scenarios below

Column AB

Column Z: Conserved Topsoil The value in this column results from the addition of the values in Column G (Topsoil Stripping in Cuts) and Column T (Topsoil Replacement Under Fill) and represents the volume of topsoil conserved in the specified station range

Add the values from the specific row you are working on

The summation of all the values in Column Z yields the volume of topsoil conserved along the project

Column AA: Variable The values obtained in this column vary with the type of project you have

Each scenario is discussed below and is also depicted in an example

Revision Date: October 21,

Scenario 1: Balanced Project Under this scenario,

there would be no need for this column since the project is balanced (no waste or borrow)

Scenario 2: Waste Project Under this case,

the pay item number would typically be 20441-0000,

Waste (unless paid for in another manner) and the Column Heading would be “Waste”

The value in the column would be the same as the value in Column X (Excavation – Embankment) for each row

When all the values in this column are added together in the “Totals” row at the bottom of the summary,

this value represents the volume of waste,

Scenario 3: Embankment project using Pay Item 20420-0000,

Embankment construction as the primary payment item With this scenario,

the pay item would be 20420-0000,

Embankment construction,

The value in the column would be the same as the value in Column W (Total Embankment) for each row

When all the values in this column are added together in the “Totals” column at the bottom of the summary,

it represents the total volume of embankment needed to construct the project

Scenario 4: Embankment project using Pay Item 20403-0000,

Unclassified borrow as the primary payment item In this case,

this column will actually need to become two columns (Columns AA and AB)

The first column would not have a pay item number and would be entitled “Unclassified Borrow Required”

The values in this column would be the same as those in Column X (Excavation – Embankment)

The second column would have pay item number 20403-0000,

Unclassified borrow with a similar column heading

To obtain the values in the second column,

you must divide the numbers in the first column with the appropriate shrink/swell factor of the borrow material that will result in taking the material from the CCM stage to BCM (unclassified borrow is measured in its original position)

An appropriate note that describes the shrink/swell factor used should be added to the Notes section of the Grading Summary

When the values in the “Unclassified Borrow” column are totaled in the “Totals” row at the bottom of the summary,

the resulting value is the total volume of unclassified borrow needed to build the embankments for the entire project

See Selection of Primary Pay Item

Revision Date: October 21,

General Notes To facilitate communication regarding Grading Summaries,

the following notes should be used at the bottom of the table: 1

The quantities shown herein are approximations

Payment will be made for the actual quantities of work performed and accepted

BCM = Bank Cubic Meter – One cubic meter of material as it lies in the natural state

CCM = Compacted Cubic Meter – One cubic meter of material after it has been compacted to specification density

The addition of other notes that reference geotechnical investigations,

materials studies or other assumptions made,

should also be used as appropriate

Other Column Headings The column descriptions provided above are not intended to be all-inclusive

There may be other circumstances on a project that require additional columns for conserved or added materials

While this decision needs to be made on a project-byproject basis,

some examples of other added columns are: • • • •

Mass Haul Diagram Haul can significantly influence the cost of performing contract-related earthwork

Contractors must estimate the total amount of haul to be performed,

the equipment to perform the haul and the estimated rate of haul (productivity) as part of the bid price

In the event the work changes as a result of Government error or a differing site condition,

equitable adjustments in the price are determined (in part) by comparing the total haul anticipated from the design earthwork with the total haul required as a result of the change

Productivity (rate of haul) is of critical importance in estimating haul costs

In order to estimate the required haul,

the contractor must know where the gross material movements occur

A relatively well-detailed Mass Haul Diagram will provide sufficient information for the contractor to estimate total haul

The Mass Haul Diagram should depict a visual representation of the cut and fill material on the project,

as well as indicate the cumulative balance (excess or deficit) of material available to construct the project to subgrade at given locations on the project

The diagram should be detailed enough to show all the peaks and valleys associated with the movement of the material

a simple line diagram showing only a few points along the project is not acceptable

Revision Date: October 21,

Much like quantities shown for roadway obliteration in realigned sections of roadway,

quantities of material obtained from borrow sources should not be included in the Mass Haul Diagram

By not showing borrow,

the contractor can evaluate the on-site material and consider the most cost effective manner of constructing the project by considering existing material placement,

The contractor may,

choose to move the existing material in a manner inconsistent with normal movements so as to reduce borrow haul,

provide for culvert pipe or wall placement,

to work wet materials in the order and at the time most conducive to deal with them,

If borrow materials or roadway obliteration quantities associated with realignments are shown in the Mass Haul Diagram,

the shape of the diagram is altered,

thus obscuring the evaluation of what the on-site project dirt can do

Cross Sections The inclusion of cross sections in the plans adds a significant amount of information

The cross sections provide a graphical representation of the character of the earthwork to be performed

For example,

cross sections identify the various construction prisms such as sliver fills requiring major benching and difficult-to-access cuts

Cross sections permit the contractor to more accurately estimate the cost of the earthwork and anticipate operations that will severely impact productivity requiring unusual time or coordination

Final Thoughts There are a multitude of situations that can occur when trying to accurately represent projectspecific earthwork

Care must be taken to ensure that earthwork is estimated correctly

The general layout of the Grading Summary (major headings,

column location within the summary and column headings) and notes are important

When specific conditions result in deviations from the general format,

an attempt should be made to preserve as much of the standard template as possible

There are several questions designers must consider each time to prepare a Grading Summary and Mass Haul Diagram in order to make sure all items of earthwork are accounted for: 1

Does the Grading Summary approximate,

the generic Grading Summary format

Does the Grading Summary and Mass Haul Diagram accurately identify the factors that are important to successfully bid the earthwork

? For example: • Are materials that will not be available for embankment operations appropriately subtracted

? • Would the project be best served by including appropriate pay items for waste,

? • Is the Grading Summary and Mass Haul Diagram accurately derived from the earthwork run and hand calculations necessary for retaining walls

Revision Date: October 21,

Do the shrink/swell factors match those presented in the materials report

? Was sufficient investigation performed to estimate the shrink/swell factors,

especially in borrow sites if they are Government-identified

? • Are design assumptions identified and the proper notes used at the bottom of the Grading Summary

Are the Grading Summary and Mass Haul Diagram complete and easily understood

? • Do calculations run from left to right

? • Are column headings clear and labeled correctly

? • Are all pay items clearly identified

Are representative cross sections included in the plans

Do the SCR’s adequately describe expectations that are not clear in the Grading Summary and Mass Haul Diagram (such as disposal of unsuitable material,

Revision Date: October 21,

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