PDF- -FERTIGUNGSTECHNIK - CADCAM2005_APT.pdf

005_APT

Description

APT Language (Automatically Programmed Tools) Prototype APT MIT 1956 AIA & MIT APT II (Aerospace Industries Association) & (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) APT III 1961 Present APT has approximately 300 words Today still used extensively Here in AIT we use PCAPT (3D APT processor – Freeware) InterCIM APT (Full Commercial APT – 5-axis)

APT Point Definitions (10 ways) 1

Intersection of two lines PT2 = POINT/INT of LIN 1,

APT Line Definition (13 ways) 1

Through two points LT 1 = LINE / PT 1,

CIR 1 3

Through a point and an angle with another line

By a parallel plane and the perpen dicular distance between the two planes XLARGE XSMALL PLANE/PARLLEL,

- symbol for a plane,

- offset YSMALL ZLARGE ZSMALL

By three points through which the circle is passing

(POINT / 5

C2 = CIRCLE / CENTER,

By the center and the radius

C3 = CIRCLE / CENTER,

RADIUS 3

Motion Expressions The tool motion is specified using motion statements groups of motion statements are available: Point

- - point & contouring operations

- - indicates the initial position of the cutter center GOTO / symbol for a defined point
- - positions the tool center at a specified point GODLTA / ∆X,
- - positions the cutter center in the specified increment from its current location

APT Contouring Motion Statements In APT it is assumed that the part remains stationary and the tool moves

Three surfaces control the tool motion in contouring: •The tool end moves on the PART SURFACE •The tool slides along the DRIVE SURFACE •Until the tool encounters the CHECK SURFACE

this is done by the initial motion statements : GO / cutter specifier,

- drive surface,
- cutter specifier,
- partsurface,
- cutter specifier,

check surface Four variations of cutter specifiers: TO

the part surface is established for all the subsequent motion statements

The initial motion statement appears only once in a part program (from set point to work piece)

The most useful has following format: Motion word/drive surface,

- cutter specifier,
- check surface ex

Each motion statement is dependent upon the preceding statement for the direction of motion 3

drive surf part surf check surf Ò Ò Ò GO / TO,

LL GORGT / L1,

C1 GOFWD / C1,

L4 GOLFT / L4,

L1 GOTO / SP

Additional APT Statements 2/3 of an average program are Geometric & motion statements others are :

- - Postprocessor statements defines post processor to be used MACHIN / postprocessor name some postprocessor control statements are: COOLNT / ON → ref
- m08 SPINDL / ON → ref
- m03 FEDRAT / 25 → ref
- 25 mm/min SPINDL / 1250,

- 1250 RPM / min ToolNO / 3572,
- 6 → Tool number 3572,
- 6 units length END → ref

Tolerance and cutter specifications all contouring motion commands are reduced to sequences of straight-line motions required to approximate a given curve,

the precission is specified by a tolerance word

- 0005 INTOL / 0
- 0001 TOLER / 0
- 005 CUTTER / 10

The last statement in the APT Program is FINI

TLAXIS/NORMPS TLAXIS/NORMDS 3

stays in effect upto another TLAXIS statement 4

TLAXIS/PARLEL,1 (or 2) 1 for tool axis parallel to ruling of PS 2 for tool axis parallel to ruling of DS

1 vector 5

-) angle

This can be useful to force the Tool axis orientation in a fixed plane (used for 4-axis machining with 3 linear and 1 rotary axis

CUTTER/d,r,e,f,A,B,h When CUTTER/d or CUTTER/d,r are used the other parameters take the following default values: A=0

- e=d/2-r

h = 5 units or r if r > 5 units

RLDSRF Definitions A ruled surface is the surface generated by a space line moving in contact with two space curves

Each space curve is defined as the intersection of a surface and a plane

The second curve can degenerate to a point

- curve point,
- curve point,
- direction point or vector,
- $ subsurface,
- curve point,
- curve point,
- direction point or vector 2

RLDSRF/ subsurface,

- curve point,
- curve point,
- direction point or vector,
- $ vertex point In format 1,

the RLDSRF is defined by two space curves,

each of which is defined by a subsurface,

- two curve points,

and a direction point or vector

the second curve has degenerated to a point which is a vertex of the surface

The subsurfaces can be any type of APT surface except another RLDSRF

- the three points P1A,

and P1C define a plane whose intersection with the cylinder CY1 defines a circle

The arc of the circle from P1A to P1B is used as one of the two curves that define the ruled surface

Similarly,

and P2C define a plane whose intersection with the cylinder CY2 defines a circle

Complex Surfaces The following illustrates a ruled surface defined by a curve and a vertex point

the first curve is defined in the same manner as in the previous example

The point P2 is specified instead of a second curve

This point acts as a vertex of the ruled surface

- - all rulings pass through it

the two points and the third point or vector define a plane whose intersection with a surface defines a space curve

The first two points in a curve definition also act as end points in order to define the part of the curve actually used to define the ruled surface

The straight line segment between the two end points of a curve is called the base line of the curve

Its length is considered to be 100% with the first specified point being at 0% and the second at 100%

It is important that the points in the two curve definitions be specified in the same relative order since the 0 % ruling of the surface is generated by connecting the first point of the first curve to the first point of the second curve and,

- similarly,

the 100% ruling connects the second points of the two curves

If a direction vector was specified in the curve definition,

- it is used directly

If a direction point was specified,

the direction vector is generated perpendicular to the base line and pointing to the side of the base line on which the direction point lies

A point on the base line of the first curve at a particular percentage can be projected along the first direction vector onto the first curve and,

- onto the ruled surface itself

a point on the second base line at the same percentage can be projected along the second direction vector onto the second curve and onto the surface

The line between these two points is a ruling of the surface

connect curve points corresponding to equal base line percentages

Note that the RLDSRF processor looks from the base line in the direction of the specified or generated vector only,

not in the opposite direction as well,

- so it is essential for the

direction vector to point in the proper direction

For example,

consider the following curve defined by two points and a vector:

the intersection of the surface with the plane defined by P1,

- and V1 is a closed curve,

but only the part of the curve below the base line is used since this is the part pointed to by the direction vector V1

If a vector pointing in the opposite direction,

- were specified,

the part of the curve above the base line would be used

This point is projected along V1 onto the curve to produce the point CP

The line passing through CP and a point generated in a similar manner on the second curve is the desired 25 % ruling

The following example is similar to the previous one except that a direction point is specified instead of a vector

In this case,

the direction vector is generated perpendicular to the base line and pointing toward the direction point P3

the direction point must lie on the proper side of the base line

If P4 were specified instead of P3,

the curve above the base line would be used instead of the curve below

the three points must not lie in a straight line since this would not define a unique plane

The first two points specified in a curve definition ordinarily lie on the curve and can,

- therefore,

be used directly as the end points of the curve

it is not essential that the specified points lie on the curve

it is projected onto the curve in a direction parallel to the direction vector

- -The RLDSRF processor does not generate a fixed number of rulings and store them as the canonical form for the ruled surface

Instead,

the canonical form is composed of the canonical forms of the two subsurfaces,

the two curve points used to define each curve,

and the given or generated direction vector

Rulings are-generated dynamically as close together as necessary as the cutter is positioned relative to the ruled surface

you are assured that a direction vector normal to the base line will be generated

you have the option of specifying a vector not normal to the base line

- however,

the type of surface that is desired is the type generated by vectors normal to the base lines

When the angle between the direction vectors becomes large,

the resulting surface can have undesirable curvature properties

in which the angle between VI and V2 is relatively large

RSI=RLDSRF/SI,

Complex Surfaces A RLDSRF is limited laterally

it does not extend beyond the 0% and 100% rulings

the rulings of the surface extend infinitely in both directions

the mathematical techniques used by the RLDSRF processor become less reliable as the distance from the defining curves increases

you should not try to position the cutter relative to a

- -GO/RI GORGT/RI,

LI The GORGT statement cannot be executed because the RLDSRF does not exist beyond the 100% ruling at P2

RI=RLDSRF/SI,

- -GO/RI GORGT/RI,

LI This illustrates the cutter being positioned relative to the RLDSRF RI at a position not between the two curves but within a distance d'of the top curve

One of the most common applications of the RLDSRF feature is for defining a ruled surface in terms of two T ABCYLs

A typical method of defining a curve for such a surface is to specify two of the points used to define the T ABCYL as end points of the curve and to specify a third point on the T ABCYL between the other two as the direction point

Complex Surfaces Example:

TCI=TABCYL/NOZ,

P6 TC2=TABCYL/NOZ,

Restrictions The methods used by the RLDSRF processor impose certain restrictions that you should observe when defming ruled surfaces

It is not permissible for the line tangent to a RLDSRF space curve at any point to be perpendicular to the base line for the curve

- for example,

when the surface forming the curve is a cylinder and the base line is a diameter of the cylinder

Example:

Rl = RLDSRF /CY1,

In this example,

if it was not necessary that the curve be an entire semi-circle,

the problem could be eliminated by moving the base line so it is no longer a diameter:

Another solution is to define the surface as two or more ruled surfaces:

A curve should not intersect its base line nor should the direction vector intersect the curve more than once on the curve side of the base line

--Here,

a curve generated by a TABCYL intersects the base line

APT could drive the cutter along this surface until it encountered the area between the intersection points I1 and I2

A failure would then occur since the surface does not exist in this area

Multi-axis Programming The APT System can determine not only the tool center locations for controlling the linear axes of machine tools but also the orientation of the tool axis for controlling the rotary axes of multi-axis machine tools

The orientation of the tool axis is defined by the unit tool axis vector,which originates at the tool end point and points toward the top of the tool

Unless otherwise specified,

the tool axis is assumed to be parallel to the z-axis

- that is,

it is defined by the vector (0,

MULTAX Tool axis vectors are passed on to postprocessors via the cutter location (CL) fIle

The postprocessor uses the components of the tool axis vectors to determine the positions of the rotary axes

The output of tool axis vectors to the CL fIle is controlled by the MULTAX (multiple axis) statement,

which can have the following formats: MULTAX MULTAX/ON MULTAX/OFF

Either causes the components of the tool axis vector to be output with each succeeding cutter location point that is output to the CL file

MULTAX/OFF overrides a previous MULTAX or MULTAX/ON statement with the result that tool axis vectors are no longer output to the CL file

You should not program MULTAX if you are using a postprocessor not designed to accept tool axis vectors,

as is the case with many postprocessors for non-multiple axis machine tools

Note that MULTAX merely controls the output of tool axis vectors but has no effect on the values of the vectors that are output

- - with the tool axis fixed at a constant orientation or with it varying according to a specified set of conditions

Fixed Tool Axis Control The following formats of the TLAXIS statement establish the fixed axis mode: 1

- k (vector components) 2

TLAXIS/l (switch from variable to fixed) Formats 1 and 2 establish the specified vector as the constant tool axis

It is not essential that the specified vector be a unit vector since it is converted to a unit vector by APT

The specified vector remains in effect until overridden by another TLAXIS statement

Tool axis vectors are not output to the CL file by themselves but only with cutter location points

Therefore,

a TLAXIS statement has no effect on postprocessing until a following motion statement causes a cutter location point to be output

- 1 axis assumed) FROM/Pl TLAXIS/l,
- 0 (axis parallel to x-axis) GOTO/P2 GOTO/P3

- 1 axis assumed) TLAXIS/l,
- 1 (45 degrees to x and z axes) GO/Sl,

which also establishes the fixed axis mode

The formats are as follows: FROM/x,

- k (point coordinates,
- vector components)

- vector GOTO/x,
- k GOTO/point,
- (point,

vector symbols) (point coordinates,

- vector components) (point,
- vector symbols)

Specifying a vector in a FROM or GOTO statement is equivalent to specifying the vector in a TLAXIS statement preceding the FROM or GOTO statement

For example,

GOTO/l,

- 5,1,0,0 is equivalent to TLAXIS/l,

0 GOTO/l,

- 5 The following format of the GODLTA statement is very useful for multiaxis programming: GODLTA/d A positive d'causes a withdrawal move of length d'along the tool axis

a negative d'causes a plunge move in the direction opposite the tool axis

This statement allows you to program a move along the tool axis even when you don't know what the tool axis orientation is

The statement TLAXIS/l causes APT to switch from the variable axis mode to the fIxed axis mode with the last tool axis vector computed in the variable axis mode being retained as the constant tool axis for the fIxed axis mode

The Variable TLAXIS Statement The variable TLAXIS statement establishes a mode of operation in which the tool axis is varied as necessary in order to conform to specified conditions

Its general format is: TLAXIS/surf,

beta surf= 2 part surface control surf= 3 drive surface control type= 0 4-axis control type = 1 5-axis control type = 2 RLDSRF control ra = radius of disk cutter hi = height of disk cutter alpha = angle between tool axis and control surface normal i,

k = 4-axis control vector beta = lead,

lag angle This is the general format but all entries are not always required

- no entries beyond hi are used

k is used only when type equals 0

if beta is specified when type equals 1,

values must be included (zeros will suffice) for i,

- k since beta,
- when specified,

must be the ninth entry to the right of the slash

The variable tool axis statement applies to those statements that involve a part surface and a drive surface

- - the part surface if surf equals 2,

the drive surface if surf equals 3

- - is used to control the orientation of the tool axis

The other surface is treated in the normal manner and does not directly influence the tool axis orientation

Ra is the radial dimension,

measured from the tool end perpendicular to the tool axis

Hi is the height dimension,

measured from the tool end along the tool axis

Following are examples of ra and hi:

in which case the disk degenerates to the tool end point

The purpose of the disk is to define the point of contact between the cutter and the control surface

The normal cutter defined by the cutter statement is not used to compute offset positions from the control surface but the disk is used instead

alpha is measured in the plane normal to the direction of forward motion

- that is,

in the plane containing the normals to the part surface and the drive surface

Alpha is positive when measured from the normal to the control surface toward the normal to the non-

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