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MT 21_CAD/CAM 3(1-2) Components of CAD/CAM/CAE Systems Lecture: Week 2

Than Lin,

Instructor,

Undergraduate Program Asian Institute of Technology

CAD/CAM 3(1-2),

AIT-UG (January’ 2013)

Reading Assignment

CAD/CAM 3(1-2),

AIT-UG (January’ 2013)

Outlines

CAD/CAM 3(1-2),

AIT-UG (January’ 2013)

Introduction Graphics Devices and their peripherals for input and output operations CAD/CAM/CAE System

Hardware

Computing machine

Software

Graphics device

Display processing unit Display device Input device Output device CAD/CAM 3(1-2),

AIT-UG (January’ 2013)

Hardware Components •

Examples p of input p devices:

- mouse

CAD/CAM/CAE System

Hardware

Example of output devices:

Computing machine

Software

Graphics device

Display processing unit Display device Input device Output device

CAD/CAM 3(1-2),

AIT-UG (January’ 2013)

I Input D'Devices i ƒ ƒ ƒ

physical h i l'devices d'i logical devices input modes − request mode − sample mode − event mode

Keyboards

Touch Panels

Li h Pens Light P

Graphics p Tablets

3D Tablets

Joysticks / Mice / Trackballs

Buttons

Voice Systems

Logical g Devices ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ

locator stroke stringg valuator choice pick

Locator Devices / Stroke Devices

String Devices y+

Valuator Devices 1

Choice Devices ‰buttons ‰menu selection

Pick Devices bounding rectangle

d1 (x,y)

Graphics Displays ƒ CRT (Cathode ray tube)

ƒ LCD (Liquid Crystal Display)

Vector Refresh (Stroke-Refresh) Graphics Devices

Display buffer memoryy and a cathode rayy tube

CAD/CAM 3(1-2),

AIT-UG (January’ 2013)

Components of a vector-refresh graphics device computer display commandss

… … MOVE 10 0 15 LINE 100 25 CHAR LU CY LINE … … JMP

Display buffer

Display Processing Unit

CRT stylus

The display list is stored in the portion of memory called a display buffer

CAD/CAM 3(1-2),

AIT-UG (January’ 2013)

Cross-sectional view of a cathode ray tube (CRT)

horizontal d'fl i deflection plate

CAD/CAM 3(1-2),

AIT-UG (January’ 2013)

Redrawing process is called refresh

User will U ill nott notice ti th the di disappearance off th the iimage if it iis re drawn within 1/30 second

CAD/CAM 3(1-2),

AIT-UG (January’ 2013)

Raster Graphics Devices

Components of a raster graphics device CAD/CAM 3(1-2),

AIT-UG (January’ 2013)

Components of a raster graphics device

interface to host computer ((display p y commands))

CAD/CAM 3(1-2),

AIT-UG (January’ 2013)

Raster Graphics Devices

CAD/CAM 3(1-2),

AIT-UG (January’ 2013)

A raster-scan system displays an object as a set of points across each screen scan line

Th picture The i t iis approximation i ti off an iimage as a group off d'dots t or pixels

AIT-UG (January’ 2013)

Interlacing accelerating technique of refreshing

even scan-line field odd scan-line field 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

vertical retrace horizontal retrace

Vector-refresh device,

light emission of the phosphors lasts only brief time,

Frame buffer for B/W display

CAD/CAM 3(1-2),

AIT-UG (January’ 2013)

Example of 3-bit planes Red Black Red Green Blue Yellow Cyan Magenta White

Green 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1

Blue 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1

Consider the use of three bits for each pixel

AIT-UG (January’ 2013)

Color definition,

CAD/CAM 3(1-2),

AIT-UG (January’ 2013)

Color CRT (Shadow Mask)

Each of these pattern corresponds to one dot in the frame buffer buffer

CAD/CAM 3(1-2),

AIT-UG (January’ 2013)

Shadow mask

delta-delta delta delta shadow-mask shadow mask CRT

precision in-line in line delta CRT

For example,

the gun associated with the red phosphor may shoot at green phosphor,

To prevent shadow mask is positioned and ensures that each electron beam will hit only the associated phosphor

ƒ When Wh hit b by an electron l't b beam,

phosphor h h emits it lilight ht −

Persistence How llong a phosphor H h h continues ti tto emit it lilight ht after the electron beam is removed The persistence of a phosphor is defined as the time for emitted light to decay to 1/10 of its original intensity

Refreshing

Refresh rate

‰ # of times/sec a picture is redrawn ‰ 60 Hz for raster scan displays

Plasma Panel Display ƒ CRT Di Display l'– Not N t suitable it bl particularly ti l'l ffor portable t bl applications li ti because b of the depth that is necessary to the Cathode Ray Tube

Plasma uses a neon gas in a glass envelope with electrodes fore and aft to display images

ƒ Though small and flat,

they consume a large amount of power and also the resolution is not very good

Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) ƒ Liquid crystals exist in a state between liquid & solid

ƒ Molecules of liquid crystals free to move around ƒ Actually closer to a liquid state than solid state (sensitive to temperature) ƒ The arrays of liquid crystals become opaque when field is applied for displaying image

ƒ Low power consumption has made them suitable for portability

ƒ Very small destop space while reducing the power consumption

ƒ The price falling rapidly,

rapidly thus becoming more popular

popular ƒ Large scale of LCD monitors

Hardware Configuration C fi i

CAD/CAM 3(1-2),

AIT-UG (January’ 2013)

Hardware configuration,

Mainframe

Graphics device

Interactive input device

Graphics device

Interactive input device

Graphics device Plotter Graphics device

AIT-UG (January’ 2013)

Hardware configuration,

using engineering workstations

-The user can choose the computing power of any work station

-The third configuration is the same as the second

Software Components

CAD/CAM 3(1-2),

AIT-UG (January’ 2013)

Some Typical CAD/CAM/CAE Software

Application Area

Software

Integrated System

CAD-2D drafting

AutoCAD

CAD-Solid CAD Solid modeling

Solid Edge,

Edge SolidWorks Mechanical Desktop

VERICUT,

MasterCAM PowerMILL

Pro/Engineer Unigraphics CATIA I-DEAS I/EMS EUCLID

MSC/NASTRAN,

ANSYS PATRAN,ADAMS,C MOLD PATRAN,ADAMS,C-MOLD MOLDFLOW

Figure: Fig re Prod Product ct Cycle C cle Ref: Principles of CAD/CAM/CAE Systems

Example 1 An eight-plane g p raster display p y has a resolution of 1280 horizontal x 1024 vertical and refresh rate of 60 Hz non-interlaced

? (a)The RAM size of the bit map (refresh buffer) (b)The time required to display a scan line and pixel (c)The active display area of the screen if the resolution is 78 pixels (dots) per inch Solution: (a)The RAM size of the bit map = 8x 1280x 1024= 1