PDF- -Control4 4K Ultra HD LU Series HDMI Matrix Switches Data Sheet - c4

# Description

Chapter 4: Angle Modulation TRUE/FALSE 1

# PM is another term for FM

#### ANS: F 2

the frequency of the modulated signal varies with the instantaneous amplitude of the modulating signal

### ANS: T 3

Unlike AM,

the amplitude of an FM signal does not change with modulation

## ANS: T 4

Similar to AM,

the power of an FM signal changes with modulation

### ANS: F 5

Class C amplifier stages can be used throughout an FM transmitter

ANS: T 6

PM is often used to send digital data

## ANS: T 7

ANS: F 8

### Mathematically,

an FM signal has an infinite number of sidebands

ANS: T 9

## At certain modulation frequencies,

the power in the carrier frequency of an FM signal can go to zero

ANS: T 10

the modulation index depends on the frequency deviation

# ANS: T 11

the modulation index depends on the frequency of the modulating signal

ANS: T 12

• as in AM,

the modulation index cannot exceed one

### ANS: F 13

the phase shift is proportional to the instantaneous amplitude of the modulating signal

## Unlike AM,

a single modulating tone can produce many sidebands

#### ANS: T 16

more sidebands means more power

ANS: F 17

FM is sometimes called a constant-bandwidth communications mode

ANS: T 18

An FM signal is best looked at with a spectrum analyzer

ANS: T 19

### ANS: F 20

There is no such thing as narrowband FM

#### ANS: F 21

the signal-to-noise ratio of a receiver's output can be better than that at the receiver's input

ANS: T 22

## In the presence of noise,

an FM system exhibits an abrupt transition called "threshold effect"

## ANS: F MULTIPLE CHOICE 1

#### The FM modulation index: a

increases with both deviation and modulation frequency b

increases with deviation and decreases with modulation frequency

decreases with deviation and increases with modulation frequency d

is equal to twice the deviation ANS: B 2

# One way to derive FM from PM is: a

integrate the modulating signal before applying to the PM oscillator b

integrate the signal out of the PM oscillator c

differentiate the modulating signal before applying to the PM oscillator d

differentiate the signal out of the PM oscillator ANS: A 3

The bandwidth of an FM signal is considered to be limited because: a

there can only be a finite number of sidebands b

it is equal to the frequency deviation c

it is band-limited at the receiver d

the power in the outer sidebands is negligible ANS: D'4

## Mathematically,

the calculation of FM bandwidth requires the use of: a

ordinary trigonometry and algebra c

## Taylor series b

### Bessel functions d

• fractals ANS: B 5

#### FM bandwidth can be approximated by: a

Armstrong's Rule b

Bessel's Rule

# Carson's Rule d

• none of the above

ANS: C 6

# Near Band FM d

Narrowband FM

### ANS: D'7

When FM reception deteriorates abruptly due to noise,

• it is called: a
• the capture effect c
• the noise effect b
• the threshold effect d
• the limit effect ANS: B 8

### An FM receiver switching suddenly between two stations on nearby frequencies is called: a

• the capture effect c
• the "two-station" effect b
• the threshold effect d
• none of the above ANS: A 9

Pre-emphasis is used to: a

increase the signal to noise ratio for higher audio frequencies b

increase the signal to noise ratio for lower audio frequencies c

increase the signal to noise ratio for all audio frequencies d

allow stereo audio to be carried by FM stations

ANS: A 10

A pre-emphasis of 75 µ s'refers to: a

the time it takes for the circuit to work b

the "dead time" before de-emphasis occurs c

the time delay between the L'and R channels d

the time-constant of the filter circuits used ANS: D'11

FM stereo: a

• uses DSBSC AM modulation b

is implemented using an SCA signal

has a higher S/N than mono FM d

is not compatible with mono FM

ANS: A 12

### An SCA signal: a

can use amplitude modulation b

• can use FM modulation
• is monaural d
• all of the above

#### ANS: D'13

The modulation index of an FM signal can be determined readily: a

using measurements at points where J0 equals one b

using measurements at points where J0 equals zero c

using measurements at points where the deviation equals zero d

only by using Bessel functions ANS: B COMPLETION 1

FM and PM are two forms of ____________________ modulation

ANS: angle 2

## ANS: data 3

Compared to AM,

the signal-to-noise ratio of FM is usually ____________________

ANS: better 4

### Compared to AM,

the bandwidth of FM is usually ____________________

ANS: wider greater 5

FM transmitters can use Class ____________________ amplifiers since amplitude linearity is not important

### Both the power and amplitude of an FM signal ____________________ as modulation is applied

ANS: stay constant 7

the frequency deviation is proportional to the instantaneous ____________________ of the modulating signal

## ANS: amplitude 8

The frequency deviation of an FM signal occurs at a rate equal to the ____________________ of the modulating signal

#### ANS: frequency 9

Mathematically,

the number of sidebands in an FM signal is ____________________

ANS: infinite 10

# As FM sidebands get farther from the center frequency,

their power ____________________

# Mathematically,

the value of an FM modulation index can be as high as ____________________

ANS: any number 12

as the modulating frequency decreases,

the modulation index ____________________

## ANS: increases 13

as the frequency deviation decreases,

the modulation index ____________________

ANS: decreases 14

#### As the FM modulation index increases,

the number of significant sidebands ____________________

### ANS: increases 15

For certain values of mf,

• such as 2

the amplitude of the carrier frequency ____________________

# FM bandwidth can be calculated precisely using ____________________ functions

## The ____________________ effect is characteristic of FM reception in a noisy environment

ANS: threshold 19

The ____________________ effect is seen when an FM receiver is exposed to two FM signals that are close to each other in frequency

ANS: capture 20

# Rest frequency is another name for an FM ____________________ frequency

If a 2-volt instantaneous value of modulating signal amplitude causes a 10-kHz deviation in carrier frequency,

what is the deviation sensitivity of the modulator

• ? ANS: 5 kHz / volt 2

#### If a 2-kHz audio tone causes a frequency deviation of 4 kHz,

• what is the modulation index
• ? ANS: 2 3

What will be the deviation caused by a 3-kHz tone if the modulation index is 3

• ? ANS: 9 kHz 4

#### If the deviation sensitivity of an FM modulator is 2 kHz /V,

what will be the modulation index caused by a 1-volt,

• 1-kHz audio signal
• ? ANS: 2 5

### At a modulation index of 2,

how much power is in the carrier of a 1000-watt FM transmitter

• ? ANS: 48

4 watts 6

## At a modulation index of 2,

how much power is in the first pair of sidebands of a 1000-watt FM transmitter

• ? ANS: 673 watts 7

### At a modulation index of 2,

how much power is in the fifth pair of sidebands of a 1000-watt FM transmitter

2 watt) 8

# Using Carson's rule,

what is the approximate bandwidth of an FM signal with a modulation index of 2 being modulated by a 5-kHz signal

• ? ANS: 30 kHz 9

### Using the Bessel chart of Figure 4

what is the bandwidth of an FM signal with a modulation index of 2 being modulated by a 5-kHz signal if we ignore sidebands containing less than 1% of the total power

• ? ANS: 30 kHz 10

### How would you use the fact that J0 is zero for certain known values of mf (2

etc) to measure the frequency deviation of an FM modulator

? ANS: Use an audio frequency generator to modulate the FM carrier

### Using a spectrum analyzer,

adjust the audio frequency until the carrier amplitude vanishes

#### Record the audio frequency

Then do the calculation: δ = fm × mf where mf will have one of the known values

## For example,

if fm is measured to be 2 kHz when mf is 5

• then δ is 11 kHz
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